Sanapaná/Dialect Angaité

Family
Mascoyan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
sap
Location
-22.11°, -58.91°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Unruh, Ernesto & Hannes Kalisch. 2007. Sanapaná Dialect Enlhet. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location nitin; nitiŋ See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tahap See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body apkapok See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality neŋmasom See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body ayikhik See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location koniŋ See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality awanhi; akyawaia See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour #NAME? See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body ima See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body paskapma See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body aɬkapok; apiɬkapok See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body nimi See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human apkitka See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment yiphopaia nitiŋ See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality eekey; key; akmaɬkeemoo See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality akpeywomoo; akpayheemoo See Language page PLE
day día dia time aknim See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality haɬ; akpaasyaamˀ See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality anyima-awoi See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality mitki ahantik See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment ɬipop ampaia See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body ahaikok See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment ɬipop See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna (tapii) apok See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body aktik See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality tiyipi; mokhoi See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body akpiɬmok See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship apyapoŋ; anyapoŋ See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna awa See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment taɬa See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment panaktima aɬnimok See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment timitiŋ See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora panaktima akyiɬna See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality sas; aktaʔmalma; aktaʔmela See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body awa See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body ap-mik; a-mik See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar [zero] See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body apkatik See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality amopi See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar koho; ko ɬaʔa; ɬaʔ akteema; ɬaʔa mˀaa ye See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar koo See Language page PLE
if si se grammar temeʔ; kataʔmela; katnekɬeheʔ See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location koni; awaɬwok See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body milaok See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment awa See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body asankalwi See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body apiɬkapok; aɬkapok See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment apkilyimoma taɬa See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body aphikhik; aihikhik See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality ahaoɬi; akwinaktima See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna pitim See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human inɬit; apkinawo See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna aphapitik; apitik See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment piɬtin See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ankin See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body atoŋ See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human neŋweseyˀ See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality ankitoi See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body aniŋyitik See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality alipanki See Language page PLE
night noche noite time piɬasip See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body awahik See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality akwaniyam See Language page PLE
one uno um number ɬima See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ap-masoli; ak-masoli See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human inɬit; ininɬit See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment akmamaia See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour akyiswasima See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body akyinakha See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture amai See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora apkapminaok See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality antahapki See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment ɬipop anik See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ahantoho See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality anyakwatawoi See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body apitik / [apittik] (?) See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental neŋmaŋkaktama See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body inyimpihik See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment nitiŋ See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality apkitsoi; apkitkitsoi See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment itiŋ See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment apyaoa See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yamit aisiksik See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment mitaimoŋ See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body aipakyik See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar [zero] See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality anyintiɬit See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality anyimhoi See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ɬiyap; ɬiya See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body ayaspok See Language page PLE
three tres tres number mitki amiɬma mook See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment takha See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body aptakɬima; aktakɬima See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body akwatipnapki; anwatipnapki See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body ni-amnimama See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment anmitki See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body aptaoki [aptoma]; antaoki [aktoma] See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion apkanantiyi See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion apkiɬyakmi; ankiɬyakmi See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact anhanki See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental apkilyitsitki See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental akwiniyi See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact apiɬyikhaayi; ampiɬyikhaayi See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state atkitsipki; ankitsipki See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact apmitmiyi See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental akwanmonkoma See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body apyinki; anyinki See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body ap-taoki ap-toma See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion aptiyakmi; antiyakmi See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental neŋayˀ See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion (yimin) akyiŋama See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion ankimpaayi See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state akwaninyi; anwaninyi See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental apniŋayi See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion aposki; amposki See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact aptikponki; antikponki See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other apmanki; amanki See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact apkakhayi See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental apyasinkoi See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental ankaktimiyi See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion apyitniyi See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body apmokhamanki; amokhamanki See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other ilik See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact aptikponki apmik See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental aptahak; antahak See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental akwitayi See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact apmoktayi See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state apniyi See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body aptiyanma See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body antikhanki See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body apkiɬpaisiyi; ankiɬpaisiyi See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ankiɬpiɬyankakmi See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact apkiɬyipɬaayi See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state apkitnimki nitiŋ See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other neŋmenyeɬma See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body ankatakponki yimin See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body anyiphiyi See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion akmama yimin See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental akyetnaykamˀ eŋaʔtek See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact apyiyaoki; anyiyaoki See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact antitki See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other #NAME? See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body apyikɬima; akyikɬima See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion apɬinki; anɬinki See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other nintaikamaha See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body antipkiski amnimama See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body aɬkok See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body amaok See Language page PLE
two dos dois number apkanit; akanit See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment yimin See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality anyinsimoi; alyinsimama See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar inkai aktaha; sik...ki; siktoi See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar inkai akwaam See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar inkai See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour #NAME? See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar sik inɬit ki See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship ap-tawa See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment apyayaam See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body apɬimpinik See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ankilwana See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour akyitiktima See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ɬinkap; ɬinka See Language page PLE
foot pie body ap-minik; amnik See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar anhan ~ nahan See Language page PLE
all todo todos other akyokhoho; akwankakhoho See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body alyoma apankok See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body konami See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body apyakniyi; anyakniyi See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body akwaha apankok See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body apyimis; aimis See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body antaokiski See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment yamit ayimpihik See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body iyip-hihik See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body apyiphima; akyiphima See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time aknim See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment mitaimoŋ See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality akhanaktima See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality atihi; miɬniyi See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. mipop See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna nata See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes tiwowok; towowok See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica piɬpo See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae kalimaktik See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae kilyipit sanaki See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae mitki ikhik See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family mitiktiŋ See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris atsimhin See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kilasma See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata piyim See Language page Refers to a jungle lizard. A house l. is pihi. Also pomoo. PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. pinyit See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna akyiwa See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria yata-nata See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yama-yitipipa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens yama natikhit atkok See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. yankamo See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. koliki See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) paat See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays latsihi; latsaktik See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains The latter is white corn. PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum akhina (anik) See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yamit aohak See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta sipo See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas piya; pihiya See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) kaɣa See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. yaktipa See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. panaktima See Language page secondary forest, floodplain Also aliklaoki nosiyaniŋ, means 'is following wire'. PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tipoli See Language page Refers to ants that bite. Also paskonkon, a red ant. PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis piyam See Language page Other varieties are yita-yihinoi; popoŋ; naimoŋ. PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae tinikamok See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera si-lik-lik See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora kona-ɬipop See Language page ɬipop is 'earth' 01.212. PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda alimpopma See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones itaha See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera maliŋ askok See Language page Lit. 'fox insect' 03.740 + 03.810. PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera yapa See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. paɣa See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita maha See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda mamatik; akpoŋ See Language page Respectively: land snail; water snail. PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae kilyawaika See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae piɬwamin See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yata-pomahap apkinao See Language page Domestic variety. PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wapa See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus popyit; yita-popyit See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material [kanasto] See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material ninyitnima nitiŋ; nintahanma See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material nintahanma See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport yantakmomiyok See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology wayka; [wompo] See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology apyohoɬmaʔ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material akmakhima See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology aktaɬnima See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other nosiyaniŋ may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other yintapa See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology mowheem See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology [Tyos]; eŋyaapam In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology yaamaamok multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material pilitao See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool poti especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool yaʔaŋka; sooyaʔaŋka hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool heewa; sowheewa See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool peɬpaaʔaɬ arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material paihima See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool anwainka See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material nahaikok This container has a handle on it. See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool yama-maɬik agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kaapketkok See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other ayimpihik See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food piyam apyiminik only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tama See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ao-aok Also apkilanaia paat apɬankok. See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology [Tyos] apkaokɬaʔ See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation waetkaʔhak See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology akwanmonkoma Also alaɬkima; akwanmiskama. See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation tapii See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology takhaɬpop See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other ɬipop See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation yama-paat See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material apyapmoma See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress atkiska amnik Also, optional variant: apnaktitma apmankok. See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation seŋelpeɬteetamoo; seese-pyettek See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation kamis; tinok See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation yenmoŋaam See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress apinkanma See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology apweskeʔ; apkemha-pmamyeʔ See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool yohoŋ; yaʔyeem-waahek See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool yamtaamaʔ See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food yamayasik See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology neŋmenaekmaskama Also neŋaapenyawaam; nempaʔaywaam. See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool natɬimpin esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food neŋnempaʔweyaamˀ Also nenteyaanyamˀ. See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food antaa Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kaɣa See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool yintikɬima See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool yamit ankok See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture anmin prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food sipomapankok agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other apɬankok See Language page PLE