Huambisa

Family
Jivaroan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
hub
Location
-3.99°, -77.98°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Jakway, Martha (recop.). 1987 (2nd.ed.). Vocabulario huambisa. Serie Lingüística peruana no. 24 Lima, ILV.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location paatatek pa:tatɨk See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pushurin puʃurin See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body tuntup, sunturi tuntup, sunturi See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality pegkerchau peŋkertʃau See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body tantan tantan See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location nugkan nuŋkan See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality uun u:n See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour mukusa mukusa See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body numpa numpa See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kuaktasa kuaktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body ukunch ukuntʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body netsep nɨtsɨp See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human uchi/nuwach utʃi/nuwatʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment yuragkim juraŋgkim See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality tsetsek tsɨtsɨk See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality nekas nɨkas See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time tsawan tsawan See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality wapik wapik See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna wagkanim waŋgkanim See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality jujuktin xuxuktin See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality wapushmamu wapuʃmamu See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment juyuimri xujumri See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body kuish kuiʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment nugka nuŋgka See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna nujin nuxin See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body ji xi See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality ika ika See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body kuntut kuntut See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship apa apa See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna ure urɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment jii xi: See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment yagkur jaŋkur See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora nere nɨrɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality pegker, shir pɨŋgkɨr, ʃir See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body wiich (men´s), intash (women´s) wi:tʃ, intaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body ujej uxɨx See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nii ni: See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body muuke mu:kɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality kijin kixin See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar itursampa itursampa See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar wi wi See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar ee ɨ: See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location init init See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body amuj amux See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment kucha (Quechua loan?) kutʃa See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment nuka nuka See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body menam mɨnam See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body maku maku See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment peem pɨ:m See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body akap akap See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality asaram asaram See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tema tɨma See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human ashmag aʃmaŋg See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna namag namaŋg See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment nantu nantu See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nuku nuku See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body wene wɨnɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human naari na:ri See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality ijus ixus See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body yasuch jasutʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body yasuch jasutʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality yamaram jamaram See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time suwe suwɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar atsa atsa See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body nuji nuxi See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality arut arut See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number chikichik tʃikitʃik See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar chikich tʃikitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body jatasa xatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human shuar ʃuar See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment yumi jumi See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour kapantin kapantin See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body chuuram tʃu:ram See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture jinta xinta See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora kagkap kaŋgkap See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality kauru kauru See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment yaikim jaikim See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tsakatskatu tsakatskatu See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality sutar sutar See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body ashmag aʃmaŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental natsamin natsamin See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body nuap nuap See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment nayaim najaim See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality shitapach ʃitapatʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment mukuintu mukuintu See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment yaa ja: See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora numi numi See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment kaya kaja See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body ujuke uxukɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar nu nu See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nita nita See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kanteku kantɨku See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality tseser tsɨrɨr See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar ju xu See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar ame amɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body sue suɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number menain mɨnain See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment ipamat ipamat See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body esaittsa ɨsaittsa See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body umpuartasa umuartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body mayatasa majatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment apeatasa apɨatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body nawatsa nawatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion wakatasa wakatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion winitsa (Spanish loan?) winitsa See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact inarkatsa inarkatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental nekapnatsa nɨkapnatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental uutasa u:tasa See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tsupiktasa tsupiktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state jatasa xatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact taumratsa taumratsa See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental karamratsa karamratsa See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body umartasa umartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body yuatsa juatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion iyartasa ijartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental sapij sapix See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion nanaktasa nanaktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state uunmartasa u:nmartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental antuktasa antuktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion umkatsa umkatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact awatasa awatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other emetnatsa ɨmɨtnatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact maatsa ma:tsa See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yachamartasa jatʃamartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental wishirtasa wiʃirtasa See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion tepestasa tɨpɨstasa See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body pujustasa puxustasa See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other uraitsa uraitsa See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact chanuatsa, namuktasa tʃanuatsa, namuktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental titasa, tamu, tuta titasa, tamu, tuta See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact naunchikiatsa nauntʃikiatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental iistasa i:stasa See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ipatasa ipatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state ekemsatasa ɨkɨmsatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body kanartasa kanartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body nekapratsa nɨkapratsa See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body usuikmatsa usuikmatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact akankatsa akankatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ijurtasa ixurtasa See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wajaktasa waxaktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other kasamkatsa kasamkatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body mukunatsa mukunatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion yukuktasa jukuktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental enetaimatsa ɨnɨtaimatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact eketkatasa ɨkɨtkatasa See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact jigkatsa xiŋkatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other ayantratsa ajantratsa See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body imaktasa imaktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion wetasa wɨtasa See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other takastasa takastasa See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body mayairuktasa majairuktasa See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body inai inai See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body nai nai See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number jimar ximar See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment entsa ɨntsa See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ii i: See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality chupitin tʃupitin See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar wari wari See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar urutia urutia See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar tui tui See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour puju puxu See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar ya ja See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship nuwe nuwɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment nase nasɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body nanap nanap See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human nuwa nuwa See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour yagku jaŋgku See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar atum atum See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body nawe nawɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar atak atak See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other ashi aʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tsukap tsukap See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ija ixa See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body suwach suwatʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body seartasa sɨartasa See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body teremurkatsa tɨrɨmurkatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment saepe saɨpɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body nanchik nantʃik See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body enentai ɨnɨntai See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time etsa ɨtsa See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ikam ikam See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality wigka wiŋgka See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality nimpaaru nimpa:ru See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. jeencham xɨ:ntʃam See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tuash tuaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. mashu maʃu See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. shaartik ʃa:rtik See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans chiwa tʃiwa See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. aunts aunts See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae waa wa: See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ukuchkit ukutʃkit See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae charakat tʃarakat See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes kau kau See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. yampuna, chaak, yusa jampuna, tʃa:k, jusa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica awarmas awarmas See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wampau, yampits wampau, jampits See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ukukui ukukui See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae chuag tʃuag See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family patu (Spanish loan) patu See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba taanta ta:nta See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sawake sawakɨ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yawa jawa See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis tuweg tuweg See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) wishiishi wiʃi:ʃi See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri shushui ʃuʃui See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. naki naki See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. uun yantana (yantana=lagarto) u:n jantana See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus tsugkirum tsuŋgkirum See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna namak namak See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. paumit (loan?) paumit See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae paani pa:ni See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. kugkui kuŋgkui See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. kunchi, kumar, yutuí (all 'catfish') kuntʃi, kumar, jutuí (all 'catfish') See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura takash (not edible; see also other sp.) takaʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. suuntai su:ntai See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata shampi ʃampi See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. kaashap ka:ʃap See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura urik urik See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes wichi pagki (wichi=submerged piece of wood; pagki=snake witʃi paŋgki See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae shukuim ʃukuim See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna napi napi See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox muash napi (napi=snake; muash?), kakanch muaʃ napi, kakanch See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kugkuim kuŋgkuim See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis apuup apu:p See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) mugkura muŋgkura See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. sakee sakee See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa achu atʃu See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea shigki ʃiŋgki See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes uwii uwi: See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua kugkuk kuŋgkuk See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) uruch urutʃ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra meente mɨ:ntɨ See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens jima (Spanish loan?) xima See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea nuse nusɨ See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus chiu tʃiu See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum wachi watʃi See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paantam pa:ntam See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. miik mi:k See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) nupa, nupan nupa, nupan See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays shaa ʃa: See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tsaag tsa:ŋg See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna numi numi See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ipak ipak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. wampa wampa See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana parta (Spanish loan) parta See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala yugkua yugkua See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum maranu (loan) maranu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana suwa suwa See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. shirig (Sp. loan) ʃiriŋg See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia shuina ʃuina See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta mama mama See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas inchi intʃi See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. kegke kɨŋgkɨ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. tuka tuka See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) punu punu See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. namuk, yuwi namuk, juwi See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. kaap ka:p See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. timu timu See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi natem natɨm See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae (no generic) (no generic) See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata yutui jutui See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. week wɨ:k See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis napa napa See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria chirap tʃirap See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae yantsa jantsa See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera wampishuk wampiʃuk See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora nampich nampitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kagkanch kaŋkantʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones titig titiŋg See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea chiachia tʃiatʃia See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera sugku suŋku See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera yantsakaap, kaap jantsaka:p, ka:p See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae manchi mantʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. mukin mukin See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. manchu (zancudo), tete (mosquito) tatakar, tɨtɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kama kama See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea piitai pi:tai See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ete ɨtɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda churu, pukuang, tʃuru, pukuaŋg See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tsere tsɨrɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca uun yawa (yawa=dog; uun=?) u:n jawa See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha chuu tʃu: See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] yakum jakum See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella yukapkia jukapkia See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons jaanch haantʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus washi waʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae kujancham kuxantʃam See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis uuyu u:ju See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu yagkipik jaŋkipik See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari uun paki u:n paki See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kuru kuru See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua kushi kuʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. kayuk kajuk See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ugkumia uŋgkumia See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti yagkits jaŋgkits See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) kashai kaʃai See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus tagkajak taŋgkaxak See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae kunam kunam See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris pama pama See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus japa xapa See Language page Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material chagkin, pitak 'waterproof basket' tʃaŋgkin, pitak 'waterproof basket' See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material pitak 'waterproof basket' pitak 'waterproof basket' See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material peak pɨak See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material tampu tampu See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kutag kutaŋg See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport kanu kanu See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture tuntui tuntui Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tampur tampur See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology iwishin iwiʃin In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology iwishin iwiʃin Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material japimuk xapimuk See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology jaanch xa:ntʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other chigkim tʃiŋgkim See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology pasun ('evil spirit'), wakan ('spirit') pasun ('evil spirit'), wakan ('spirit') See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology yuus (Spanish loan) ju:s In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology pigkui piŋgkui multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics \ See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuchii (Spanish loan) kutʃi: See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material machit (Spanish loan) matʃit See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool jaacha (Spanish loan) xa:ntʃa especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool nagki naŋgki See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool tumag tumag arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport anuntai anuntai See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material paratu paratu See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool wagka waŋgka See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material pinig piniŋg See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool shiripik, sekat ʃiripink, sɨkat See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other napa nujiri (beeswax) napa nuhiri See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food napa yumiri napa jumiri only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture naek naɨk See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology shiripik ʃiripik See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material shikiri ʃikiri See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology tawas tawas See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation papi aujtai papi auhtai See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation mutii mutii See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation papi papi See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kaara kaara See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation shiam, atash ʃiam, ataʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation paat 'sugar cane' paat 'sugar cane' See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation suntar suntar See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation mishu miʃu See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation akaru, iskupit akaru, iskupit See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress etsegkrutai etsegkrutai See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology uuntri uuntri See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress itip itip See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food wee wee See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology eresemau, kantamrutai, anen (trad. love song) eresemau, kantamrutai, anen (trad. love song) See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool uum u:m currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool tsentsak tsɨntsak hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool awajik awaxik esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food nagkit nagkit See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food nijat nihat See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food kuntinan eakatsa (kuntinan=game; eakatsa=look for) kuntinan ɨakatsa See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kuntinan kuntinan Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool punu punu See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool piik pi:k See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture nijamanch nixamantʃ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food pang (Sp.) paŋg usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food mama puari (mama=manioc) mama puari See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool tikun tikun hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture kaya kaja if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other jea xɨa See Language page Daniel Valle