Tatuyo

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
tay
Location
0.56°, -70.53°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
and y e grammar See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment õ'wã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
at en, a em, a location -pɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
back espalda costas body hõ'kɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bad mal mal quality jũu-'kẽẽ ró- jũu-'kẽẽ ró- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
belly barriga barriga body páro páro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
big grande grande quality ká-pa'í ká-pa'í See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
black negro preto colour jɨ̃ɨ̃- jɨ̃ɨ̃- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
blood sangre sangue body ri'í ri'í See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bone hueso osso body õ'wã-'rõ õ'wã-'rõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
breast pecho, seno peito body ũpẽ-ã ũpẽ-ã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
child niño, niña criança human ka-'wĩbã-ɨ̃ ka-'wĩbã-ɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cloud nube nuvem environment oko bu'hé-ri oko bu'hé-ri See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cold frío frio quality hóo hóo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ríape ríape See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
day día dia time ɨ̃bɨ̃-re'ko, -'rɨ̃bɨ̃ ɨ̃bɨ̃-re'ko, -'rɨ̃bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dirty sucio sujo quality ɨ'gérí ɨ'gérí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dry seco seco quality kára- kára- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality oó-kẽ-tõ oó-kẽ-tõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dust polvo poeira environment hita bu'hérí hita bu'hérí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
ear oreja orelha body ã'bõõ-rõ ã'bõõ-rõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
earth/soil tierra terra environment je'pa, 'hi'ta je'pa, 'hi'ta See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
egg huevo ovo fauna ri'á ri'á See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
eye ojo olho body káape-a káape-a See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
far lejos longe quality jo'á-ro jo'á-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fat/grease grasa gordura body ɨ'he ɨ'he See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
father padre, papá pai kinship pa-'kɨ, 'ká-a-kɨ pa-'kɨ, 'ká-a-kɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
feather pluma pena fauna po'a po'a See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fire fuego fogo environment pee-'ro pee-'ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
flower flor flor environment o'ó-ro o'ó-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment óko a 'hɛɾi óko a 'hɛɾi See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fruit fruta fruta flora ka-rika ka-rika See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
good bueno bom quality jũũ jũũ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body po'a po'a See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hand mano mão body wã'bõ wã'bõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kɨ̃ɨ̃, kɨ̃ (he); kõ, 'kõõ (she); tó (it) kɨ̃ɨ̃, kɨ̃ (he); kõ, 'kõõ (she); tó (it) See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
head cabeza cabeça body rɨ'póa rɨ'póa See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
heavy pesado pesado quality dĩ'kɨ dĩ'kɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
how? como como grammar dópe baí-ro dópe baí-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
1sg yo eu grammar jɨɨ jɨɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
if si se grammar -áta See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location pupe'á-pɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
intestines intestinos intestinos body ɨ'ta 'bĩ'hĩ ɨ'ta 'bĩ'hĩ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
lake lago lago environment ita-bɨki-'rá ita-bɨki-'rá See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
leaf hoja folha environment pũũ pũũ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body káa'kũ dɨgõa káa'kũ dɨgõa See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
leg/foot pierna perna body jĩ'kãã jĩ'kãã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he bɨ'pó ja'bé-rí-he See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
liver hígado figado body jẽbẽ-'rí'tí jẽbẽ-'rí'tí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
long largo comprido, longo quality ká-'jo'á- ká-'jo'á- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ía-bɨ̃ ía-bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
man/male hombre homem human kã-bã'hõ'kɨ̃ kã-bã'hõ'kɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
meat/flesh carne carne fauna rii-ro, 'rii rii-ro, 'rii See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
moon luna lua environment bũ'ĩ̃pɨ̃ jã'bĩ bã'kã-kɨ̃, bũ'ĩ̃pɨ̃ 'jãbĩ bã'kãã-kɨ̃ ("sun of the night") bũ'ĩ̃pɨ̃ jã'bĩ bã'kã-kɨ̃, bũ'ĩ̃pɨ̃ 'jãbĩ bã'kãã-kɨ̃ ("sun of the night") See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mouth boca boca body ri'hé-ro ri'hé-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
name nombre nome human wã'bẽ wã'bẽ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
near/close cerca de perto quality ka-tɨ-ãkã ka-tɨ-ãkã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
neck cuello pescoço body wã'bɨã wã'bɨã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
new nuevo novo quality ká-wa'bã- ká-wa'bã- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
night noche noite time jã'bĩ jã'bĩ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
no/not no não grammar -bẽẽ -bẽẽ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
nose nariz nariz body ĩ'kẽã ĩ'kẽã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
old viejo velho quality ká-bɨ'kɨ́-ro ká-bɨ'kɨ́-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
one uno um number hɨ̃'kã hɨ̃'kã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
other otro outro grammar apĩ, ape- apĩ, ape- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
person/human being persona pessoa human kã-bãhã 'people' kã-bãhã 'people' See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
rain lluvia chuva environment o'kó o'kó See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
red rojo vermelho colour hũ'ã- hũ'ã- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ká-ɾíape 'dɨgõa ká-ɾíape 'dɨgõa See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
road/path camino caminho manufacture bãã bãã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
root raíz raiz flora dɨ̃'kõ dɨ̃'kõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
rotten podrido podre quality bo'á- bo'á- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sand arena areia environment páá páá See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality oó- oó- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
short corto curto quality jo'pá-ro jo'pá-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
shoulder hombro ombro body ri'ká-pɨto ri'ká-pɨto See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
skin piel pele body a'héro a'héro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sky cielo céu environment ɨbɨ-re'kóo ɨbɨ-re'kóo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
small pequeño pequeno quality õ 'kã-ɨ̃-'ãkã õ 'kã-ɨ̃-'ãkã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
smoke humo fumaça environment bu'hé'-rí bu'hé'-rí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
star estrella estrela environment jõkõ jõkõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 'júkɨ 'júkɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
stone piedra pedra environment ɨ̃'tãã ɨ̃'tãã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tail cola, rabo rabo body pĩ'kõ-rõ pĩ'kõ-rõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
that ese/esa esse grammar hɨ̃- hɨ̃- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar dã, dã dã, dã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ká'-tɨbɨ-ro ká'-tɨbɨ-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
thin delgado fino quality ká'põrẽ-rõ ká'põrẽ-rõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
this este/esta este grammar áti- áti- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
2sg xx xx grammar bɨ̃ɨ̃ bɨ̃ɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
three tres tres number í'tía í'tía See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
thunder truenos trovão environment bɨ'pó bɨ'pó See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bite morder morder body báke- báke- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
blow soplar soprar body púti- púti- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
burn quemar queimar environment ɨ'ɨ- ɨ'ɨ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
climb subir subir motion See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
come venir vir motion a'tí- a'tí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
count contar contar mental See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cut/hack cortar cortar impact jihe jihe See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
die/be dead morir morrer state ri'á- ri'á- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dig cavar cavar impact jé'héa- jé'héa- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
drink beber, tomar beber body éti- éti- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
eat comer comer body ɨ'gá- ɨ'gá- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fall caer cair motion jã'ã́ jã'ã́ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fear miedo medo mental u'wí- u'wí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fly volar voar motion wɨ́ɨ- wɨ́ɨ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hear oír ouvir mental a'pí- a'pí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hit golpear, pegar bater impact 'pá- 'pá- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kɨ'gó kɨ'gó See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
kill matar matar impact hɨ̃ã- hɨ̃ã- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental bã'hɨ̃- bã'hɨ̃- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion johá- johá- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
say decir dizer mental iĩ- iĩ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
see ver ver mental tɨ'hɨ- tɨ'hɨ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sit sentar(se) sentar state ru'í- ru'í- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sleep dormir dormir body kãdĩ- kãdĩ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body 'wĩdĩ- 'wĩdĩ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact bo'pé bo'pé See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact bi'járo bi'járo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact 'túa-puá- 'túa-puá- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wã'bɨ-dɨkã wã'bɨ-dɨkã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
steal robar roubar other See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
suck chupar chupar body 'ũpũ- 'ũpũ- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
swell hincharse inchar body 'bípí 'bípí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
swim nadar nadar motion báa- báa- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
think pensar pensar mental 'tɨ'gó-jã 'tɨ'gó-jã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 'róka-'hó- 'róka-'hó- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact 'hía- 'hía- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
vomit vomitar vomitar body bɨ'jõ bɨ'jõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tongue lengua lingua body jẽ'bẽ-'rõ jẽ'bẽ-'rõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tooth diente dente body o'pí-a o'pí-a See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
two dos dois number pɨ̋ga pɨ̋ga See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
water agua agua environment óko óko See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar bã'rĩ bã'rĩ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar hãã hãã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
wet mojado molhado quality we'já-ro we'já-ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
what? que, qué que grammar dópe, 'jẽẽ dópe, 'jẽẽ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
when? cuando quando grammar 'dõo-'kõo 'dõo-'kõo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
where? donde onde grammar 'dõõ-pɨ 'dõõ-pɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
white blanco branco colour bo'tí- bo'tí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
who? quien, quién quem grammar dõã dõã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
wife esposa esposa kinship dɨ̃'bṍ dɨ̃'bṍ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
wind viento vento environment wĩ'dõ wĩ'dõ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
wing ala asa body 'ké-rɨpɨ 'ké-rɨpɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
woman/female mujer mulher human kã-bã'hõ-ko ('kã-rõbĩ-õ) kã-bã'hõ-ko ('kã-rõbĩ-õ) See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
yellow amarillo amarelo colour hɨ'rí- hɨ'rí- See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
2pl ustedes vocês grammar bɨ̃-'hã bɨ̃-'hã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
foot pie body rɨ'pó rɨ'pó See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
all todo todos other dĩ-peti-rã dĩ-peti-rã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
lung pulmón pulmão body jeri 'hórikaro jeri 'hórikaro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bark corteza casca environment jú'kɨ́ a'héri jú'kɨ́ a'héri See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fingernail uña unha body wã'bõ a'héro wã'bõ a'héro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
heart corazón coração body jé'rí'ká jé'rí'ká See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sun sol sol time bũ'ĩ̃pɨ̃ ɨ̃bɨ̃-rc'kó bã'kã-kɨ̃, bũ'ĩpɨ̃ 'ɨbɨ̃-'re'ko bã'kãã-kɨ̃ ("sun of the day") bũ'ĩ̃pɨ̃ ɨ̃bɨ̃-rc'kó bã'kã-kɨ̃, bũ'ĩpɨ̃ 'ɨbɨ̃-'re'ko bã'kãã-kɨ̃ ("sun of the day") See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨ̃'tãɨ̃ ɨ̃'tãɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
green verde verde quality hɨ̃'bẽ hɨ̃'bẽ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hot caliente quente quality áhi áhi See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ó'hó ó'hó See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ʻbĩ́dĩ ʻbĩ́dĩ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wãdõ'pĩ́ wãdõ'pĩ́ See Language page Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ra'hé ra'hé See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. káta káta See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ˈbĩ́'bĩ́ ˈbĩ́'bĩ́ See Language page Widespread Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bɨpɨ'pó'kó bɨpɨ'pó'kó See Language page Widespread Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. ʻbãã ʻbãã See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wéko wéko See Language page Widespread Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ju'ka ju'ka See Language page Widespread South America Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris wíi 'ja'i wíi 'ja'i See Language page Not native; widespread Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis 'jai 'jai See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɨ'kó bɨ'kó See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri 'pã'bõ 'pã'bõ See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨ́ho ɨ́ho See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 'wa'i 'wa'i See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bɨ́ɨ́ bɨ́ɨ́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ʻtɨ'bɨ'ro ʻtɨ'bɨ'ro See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. jú'wɨ́'hóo jú'wɨ́'hóo See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ˈpĩ'dõ ˈpĩ'dõ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ˈã'jã ˈã'jã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria uu uu See Language page Widespread Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨ̃́'dé-'jṍ ɨ̃́'dé-'jṍ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca pátu pátu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ji'ta ji'ta See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bi'a bi'a See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum jũ'ká-bẽ'dẽ jũ'ká-bẽ'dẽ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. 'o 'o See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) táa táa See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ó-'ríka ó-'ríka See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum bɨ̃'dṍ bɨ̃'dṍ See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna jú'kɨ̋ jú'kɨ̋ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kíi kíi See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jã'pĩ́ jã'pĩ́ See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. jã'bṍ jã'bṍ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wáa-ro ('gourd, H&R) wáa-ro ('gourd, H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kápi kápi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bẽ'kã́-bɨ̃ bẽ'kã́-bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bé'ró'á-bɨ̃ bé'ró'á-bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera dũkẽ-ã dũkẽ-ã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera be'kó'á-bɨ̃ be'kó'á-bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. bɨ̃́'tẽ́ã-bɨ̃ bɨ̃́'tẽ́ã-bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bu'túa-bɨ̃ bu'túa-bɨ̃ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bɨ'pɨ bɨ'pɨ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ja'i ja'i See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ú'kɨ́ ú'kɨ́ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella a'ké a'ké See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus wa'ú wa'ú See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis ria 'jóo ria 'jóo See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu je'he je'he See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari je'he je'he See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. buu buu See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ri'a-'je'he ri'a-'je'he See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) hẽ'bẽ hẽ'bẽ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus bíí bíí See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris 'wé'kɨ́ 'wé'kɨ́ See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus jã-bã jã-bã See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material jo'há-'rí-ka-ro jo'há-'rí-ka-ro See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material pṹɨ̃ pṹɨ̃ See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ru'í-'rí-'ka-pãĩ ru'í-'rí-'ka-pãĩ See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport kũ'bũ-'ã kũ'bũ-'ã See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology jú'kɨ́ɨ-'rɨ́ka jú'kɨ́ɨ-'rɨ́ka See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kũmũ kũmũ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page
firewood leña lenha other pee pee See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ji'hé-'ri-ka-'pã'ĩ ji'hé-'ri-ka-'pã'ĩ See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kõbẽ-ã kõbẽ-ã especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool jé'rú-'ɨ́ jé'rú-'ɨ́ hunting, warfare See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool behu-ɨ́ behu-ɨ́ See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool tẽ́'bɨ̃́-'bé'tó tẽ́'bɨ̃́-'bé'tó arco See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport waa-'rí-pĩ waa-'rí-pĩ See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology jã'hã jã'hã See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page
wax cera cera other See Language page
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hi'á-ríka-wẽ hi'á-ríka-wẽ See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology u'pa-i u'pa-i See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page
salt sal sal food bõ'ã bõ'ã See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool búpua búpua currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wáa-ro ('gourd, H&R) wáa-ro ('gourd, H&R) See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kaja (Chacon14) kaja (Chacon14) See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture étehe étehe prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco
house other wíi wíi See Language page Emily Buell, Paulina Franco


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
Linguistic exogamy