Yokuts Palewyami

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
yok
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tullaw “up” unique Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other k'umuy' inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
and y e grammar missing Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body keyu inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kit-te/-ne-se-kil inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hapac inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body pet-te/-kin unique Berman 2002 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality tiT'ipis, inheritance Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body To\ot inheritance K1963, Berman 2002 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location huplew “down” unique JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality nema7 unique JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body missing Jane Hill
black negro preto colour moTka inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body hi:pa7 inheritance K1963, W&G Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body missing Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body che/-yA /chiya7/ ch'iy A is a breve inheritance W&G Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mI/\nits inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body missing Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment missing Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human wechHip inheritance W&G Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment k'eli inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality T'emi7 (cold weather) unknown JPH Gamble Jane Hill
come venir vir motion missing Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact his/-tah “cooked, ripe” inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental ah-an inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing Jane Hill
day día dia time missing Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state Tawatsi “he is dead” inheritance JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact missing Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna yev-lE/-che “big wolf”; E is e breve loan CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality hoT'ol' (of water) unknown Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental an-nat/-wel-ti/ “a dream” loan into protolanguage CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body okon inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality ch'apensi “se seco/” Gamble 91 unknown Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tok inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment happil inheritance JPH in Gamble 91 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body na- inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna hong/-e inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body shesha7 inheritance W&G Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body petik' inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion missing Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality wa inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body hIga inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship nopop inheritance JPH in Gamble 91 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental o-lo/-yo “afraid” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna kep/-pel inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7oSotH inheritance W&G Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna lopHaTH inheritance W&G Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment missing Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion missing Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing Jane Hill
foot pie body cayAtel unique K 1963 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7inishtHa7 inheritance Gamble 91 JPH Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state missing Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body Tuk unique K1963 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body 7axaT unique K1963 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar missing Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body -to:k unique Berman 2002 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental missing Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar na7 (genitive is ken) inheritance Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact missing Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental hututwi inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment p'a7aSi, p'a7ashew loan into protolanguage Gamble 91 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental hayau inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment t'apt'ap inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body tsi-ah/-tel/-kin “whole leg” (caya/\tel “foot” K63) CHM tsi- is /tsay/ unique CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment we-we/-ah unique CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body dI/\p inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality so-loo/-ko unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tHiheTH (head) inheritance W&G Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body co\mat inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human lo:tep unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ke/-kel-e: inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7opHos inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nexet JPH; unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body shema7 inheritance W&G Jane Hill
name nombre nome human wa7shet inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality missing Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body xingits inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality missing Jane Hill
night noche noite time toyon inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar k'ami “No” loan direction unknown JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body Thengik' inheritance W&G Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality mo-kal-ta inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
one uno um number yit' inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body tE-hit/-nah “I am sick” inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human tah-aht “Indian person”; inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment xot'o inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour holo/tsgai unique K1963 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture pHi7el' loan into protolanguage JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora missing Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality pawt/-kan/-nah inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment hicha7 unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental xai-si “talk” K 1963 inheritance K1963 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental telew' unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Jane Hill
short corto curto quality ken-ne/-che unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body gepcil inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ho/7 inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body p'a:lai unique K1963 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment dulau unique K1963 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body k'enew Gamble 91 unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality muchuchu7 (cns. symbolism) unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment muTka inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state wi:wel inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment c'oyo:tas loan direction unknown W&G (JPH) Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other missing Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora wechit unknown JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment xelul' inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body missing Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body miinga unique K 1963 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion missing Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body k'otosh inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ta7 inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7aman unknown JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality missing Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental missing Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar xi inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ma7 inheritance JP Gamble 91 Jane Hill
three tres tres number So:pHin inheritance W&G Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body o-ken/-ken, oo-gen-git inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact witi Gamble unknown JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment longlo unique K1963 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body talApis inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body ti/\lei inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number pongoy' JPH; pongoy W&G inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion tiutiu unique K1963 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7elik' inheritance JPH &W&G Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar na7an inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality yo/-kan/-te unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar how-wahl/-te: inheritance CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar helliw inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour Teunga(n) unique K 1963 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar wat inheritance K 1963 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship haht-nE/-kin “my wife” see “woman” unique CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment Timya7 “windy” JPH; unknown JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body missing Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human ketepHal JPH; H is aspiration unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ma7an (2Pl; there is a dual) inheritance JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pahng'-ī ant unique same underived Merriam 58:531 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana mo'-ket' antelope loan into protolanguage Yokutsan unknown cog. w/ muxotani (Tulamni, Hometwoli) (Kroeber 1961:200); note Proto-Yuman *?-mu and Comcaac forms! Salinan moi “bighorn” (Mason). This may be a very old California word. Hah! The wanderwort antelope word; Salinan A mui; Widespread Hokan antelope/bighor WW %mo: same underived Merriam 58:517 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus ten-neu' badger inheritance Yokutsan widespread form, not universal same underived Merriam 58:517 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus o-wik' Kroeber owik 1961;202 bald eagle, fish hawk inheritance Yokutsan nearly universal in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:521 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata trok'-in-wah tr = T for Merriam band-tail pigeon unique Note Yawdanchi acongin?? (Yowl word and Nim-Yokuts is *s/howin, not the same) same underived Merriam 58:521 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp chim'-chim bat inheritance *c'im'c'im' Yokutsan only in Homet, Pal, Yawe in Kroeber; Callaghan 1997:30, possibly Yok-Utian given PU *şim ... same reduplicated Merriam 58:517 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor dibek beaver inheritance *t'/t''ɨpɨkʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:354 WW %t'ypyk same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus kolòlis round tule unique unique in Kroeber; Callaghan 2001:341 compares to Pyv *k'oji$ “tule sp.” and Mil ko:l “round tule”; Note Miss hoho:loj; same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tsox skunk inheritance *cʰox Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:356 same underived Kroeber 1961:201 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus yev'-lĕ-che Big wolf inheritance Yokutsan looks like Choynolk and Yawe forms only; like these, probably derived from verb “to chase”s same derived from a verb yawa:l “to follow, to chase” in Yawe (Kroeber 1961:214 note 180), probably the same here, has -itch/its agentive element Merriam 58:515 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna we-we'-che Kroeber wiwitsi “bird” 1961:201 bird, junco, horned lark, small bird (see “other notes” for small bird loan Kitanemuk This form only in Yowlumne, Palewyami, Hometwoli,in 3 different branches of Y. , but geographically adjacent and adjacent to Kitanemuk. K. ˈwiʦitat, with a good UA etymology, seems a likely source. same underived Initial syllable reduplicated from Kitanemuk witsitat Merriam 58:529 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus molay' bear loan Miwok only in Choynok, Yawe Callaghan 2001:333 says “may match PM *my:de “brown bear”. I think both are from “black, dark” P-U word; calling bears “the dark one, the brown one” is a near-universal WW %mol same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus tōk'-sus tokcoc Kroeber 1961;200 black-tail jack rabbit unique unique in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:519 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus ung-yōk' ongiok (Kroeber 1961:199 Bob-cat unique unique in Kroeber same underived Merriam 58:515 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera waw'-ki'-kitch butterfly loan Yowlumne Yokuts only Yawel wo:gay'gitc is resemblant (may be the same word, see Berman notes) same other complex has -itch/-its suffix, probably agentive Merriam 58:531 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus wèts condor inheritance *wi*č' (N-Y) Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 WW %wit same underived Kroeber 1961:202 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ɂoyičaɂ blue jay unique nothing like this in Kroeber, he has all chay, Tai forms (1961:203) same underived Note that really nothing is known about Palewyami; word may have derivational elements Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? tal-lă'-kuk California woodpecker loan Yowlumne Yokuts Yawelmani has palâgak (Kroeber 1961:203), this is closest match, probably a loan; Golla 1964:66 has *phala:tath; Callaghan 1997:61 compares Pmi *palaT:a, noting “there are peculiar developments in both Miwok and Yokuts” WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) same underived Merriam 58:521 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota tan'-nah-pah'-kitch barn swallow (Hirundo) loan Yowlumne Yokuts Kroeber has Yawe danabak'yits -- same word? at 224. same other complex has -itch/-its suffix, probably agentive Merriam 58:523 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana concen mudhen unique unique in Kroeber same underived might have reduplication Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii tiu cottontail rabbit inheritance *č,hiw, *thiw Yokutsan Golla 1964:61 same underived Kroeber 1961:200 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. lep-pah cottonwood inheritance Yokutsan in Yawd, Yowl, etc., probably related to words for “leaf” WW %pat ~ %lapat same underived Merriam 58:533 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans kʰeyew' coyote inheritance *kʰay'iw Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:354 WW %kaju same underived weirdly similar to English “coyote” (from Nahuatl) Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos xotai crow, raven inheritance Yokutsan unique in Kroeber for “crow”, and NOT alwuT! But all but one of Kroeber's “raven” words (1961:202) look like this. broader (probably raven and crow) underived Kroeber 1961:203, confirmed Merriam 58:521 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii tañai/'its leader of the Jimsonweed ritual (has 'its agentive) inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber lists widespread similar forms except Chaw. momu' from Chumash WW %tanai same no info the word shown is the agentive form of verb “to be drunk/crazy” and is not glossed “Datura” but does show that Palew. had this form Gayton 1:47 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus şiţ'ihal cedillas are subdots in original deer unique unique in Kroeber same underived Gamble 1991 from Harrington 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris č'i·sas dog inheritance *c'y:sys Yokutsan Callaghan 1997:58 suspects may be borrowed, compare Pmis *chuku same underived is -as a suffix? See Newman 1944:160. Probably not. Gamble 1991 from Harrington 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus wiši·tʰaɂ elder, tree inheritance *wiše:thaɂ (NY) Yokutsan Merriam has seng'-el-tan; K 1961:219 gives Yd wicèta, Chuk ucèta; Golla 1964:61 same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus ɂoŋaţ' elk unique unique in Kroeber same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna lophʰoţ fish inheritance *lopʰiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; note Mis lapi:s-aj “fish” (Callaghan 1997:32) WW %lvp same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera b'âk'el flea inheritance *p'a:k'il Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355 same underived Kroeber 1961:206 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. te-wis'-se flicker inheritance *T'iwis(a) Yokutsan Callaghan 1937:38, compare PU *Tiw(:)a... same underived Merriam 58:521 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera b'onitskai fly inheritance *p'an'isk'aj ?? Yokutsan Callaghan 2001:326, same other complex *p'an “world” ... in Yawdanchi (Kroeber 1907:237) Kroeber 1961:205 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon ow'-chah Gray fox (Urocyon) inheritance *ɂawčhaɂ (NY) Yokutsan Golla 1964:62; Callaghan 2001:325 notes PW *ha:w “fox”, PM *haw “gray fox”, considers this YU-W-M, notes also Mim Ah-wah-ke “gray fox (Merriam) same underived Merriam 58:515 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna oo-koo'-ko frog unique this looks like a very widespread word for “frog”. Could Merriam have made a mistake? same onomatopoeic Merriam 58:529 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos pa'-sah (Merriam), bò uca (Kroeber) golden eagle unique Hometwoli in Kroeber is baâc, only resemblant form. pa- has a UA feel to it, but uncertain same underived could this be pa-witsa “big bird” in a Takic language??? Merriam 58:521; Kroeber 1961:203 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera tat'-kā grasshopper unique only resemblant in Kroeber is Nutunutu ToTutoi, Wo'lasi DoDotic; might be Golla's Nim-Y *t'a:n-, *č'a:n- same underived probably has reduplicated first syllable with syncope Merriam 58:531 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. šaxtʱil squirrel; ground squirrel in Kroeber 1961:200 loan into protolanguage *şixthil/*şixi:thal Yokutsan Yok-Utian Callaghan 1937:38, compare Pmiw *čiTe, and similar costanoan forms in sich, chich WW %sik same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. k'itiyec' tree squirrel unique unique in Kroeber same other complex probably has the -itch agentive suffix (Newman shows it with glottalization) Gamble 1991 from Harrington 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus ho'ho'-wŏ-let' great horned owl unique Yawelmani hutuluwèitc only remotely similar form in Kroeber, heleTi (1961:202). I give Merriam form because bird is securely identified. Note Miss hoh:oho-. same other complex has the -wilets element on an onomatopoeic root again Merriam 58:521 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis t'enšiɂ bear, grizzly unique unique in Kroeber: “Newman gives an alternative Yawe term, t'en, which recurs in Pal” (Kroeber 1961:214 note 178) same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae chēch-pah'-bo horned toad inheritance Yokutsan Merriam has this form everywhere same underived probably etymologically complex but elements have no obvious analysis Merriam 58:529 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawayuɂ horse loan Spanish WW %caballo same underived Merriam 58:? 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae pā'-mum-kutch hummingbird loan Yowlumne Yokuts similar forms in Yowl, Yawd. Berman 2002 notes that Merriam's consultant was bilingual in Yowl, Pal. same other complex -itch, its suffix probably an agentive Merriam 58:525 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. còg'en tobacco inheritance *suk... Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:41, Yok-Utian, or a very old loan narrower (perhaps just the tobacco itself and not the plant; see “other notes”) other complex the word appears in diverse derivations; Newman 1944:148 notes a deverbal suffix -in, -n in Yokutsan Merriam 58:541, Kroeber 1961 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp we-we'-che junco, horned lark, small bird (see other notes on small bird) loan Kitanemuk See remarks for (2) “bird” broader (apparently includes generally indefinite small birds) underived reduplication of initial syllable from Kitanemuk witsitat Merriam 58:525 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera tiheT louse (Kroeber 1961:216 Note 262/263 “really denotes the head louse”) inheritance *tʰihiTʰ Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 1986:355; Callaghan 2007:327 “matches PM *di- 'head louse'” narrower (head louse only) underived Kroeber 1961:206 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos oxuxum mallard loan Yowlumne Yokuts identical to Yawelmani form (bilingual consultant; see Berman 2002) same underived Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. opTo manzanita inheritance *ɂaphThiw Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:325 notes Maidu ?ekpy “large manzanita” same underived Kroeber 1961:199 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor wihi·šet mountain lion inheritance *wehe:sith Yokutsan Golla 1964:63; Callaghan 2001:333 “Wp wok'en 'mountain lion' matches the Proto-Yokuts form” same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus humŋol quail (this is Merriam's “mountain quail”, Lophortyx) but Kroeber's “quail” semantic shift *humn-ul Yokutsan Golla 1964:64; Gamble considers the /ng/ to be perhaps sign of UA influence WW %hum same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? hi-hi'-wil-let' crested jay loan into protolanguage *xay- Yokutsan unknown Golla 1964:63; probably a loan at some point, word is widespread WW %kaj same other complex the -wilet suffix is repeated in the Pal. data on other sound-imitative forms, may mean “says” (wi may be the -wiyi “goes.like” suffix discussed by Newman 1944 Merriam 58:521 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla wetʰak' pinyon inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber lists similar forms for Yawd, Wik, Tach, Chun, Yowl at p. 211 #163; Note Merriam's Yowl wut'-tuk broader (includes tree and nuts) underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum gîxa beads (“disk beads of clam shell” Kroeber 1961:213) loan into protolanguage Yokutsan Takic (?) nearly universal in K , either inheritance or Yowl loan but doesn't have /e/, so probably inheritance WW %kys narrower (the beads, perhaps not the animal or the whole shell) underived Kroeber 1961:194 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys to-to'-it pocket gopher unique no other eg's in Merriam's lists same reduplicated Merriam 58:519 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. Tiel rattlesnake inheritance *Thy?yl Yokutsan Callaghan 2001:326, “matches PW *ch'iwil” same underived Gayton 1:47 has Te'Ed Kroeber 1961:204; Merriam 58:529; also in Gayton I:47 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis esem red-tailed hawk unique unique in Kroeber same underived Kroeber 1961:202 (Merriam 58:521 confirms red-tailed hawk) 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus uiuiwiléits roadrunner inheritance *ɂoyɂoy (NY) Yokutsan Callaghan 1939:60, compare Pmie *?uj(:)uj:u- WW %uji same other complex has -wilets element Kroeber 1961:204 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss ɂi·peş salmon (Merriam's “big steelhead salmon”) Kroeber's “lake trout” inheritance Yokutsan nearly universal in Kroeber same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington) 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? kah-tahl'-mut Scaly lizard unique nothing similar in Kroeber same phrase -mut is probably -meT "big" Merriam 58:529 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna we-we'-che “a general word for a bird or a small bird” unique unknown Berman 2002:435 interpeting CHM 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna cònteya lizard sp. inheritance *k'on- Yokutsan not identical to the Yowlumne form so probably inherited same underived *k'on seems to be a separable element but no etymology for increments Kroeber 1961:205 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco e-titch'-wāy sparrow hawk inheritance *?yt'ychH Yokutsan Callaghan 1937:59 says is only Nim, but this form suggests Yokutsan; compare Mil ?i:t'it, (loanword from Patwin?) same other complex clearly has a -we: increment, function and meaning unknown; compare word for “band-tail pigeon” with final -wah in Merriam on a possible cognate Merriam 58:521 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) we-che'-taht A tree inheritance Yokutsan unlike any other form in Kroeber 1961 but see Kroeber 1961:219 words for “stick” in Yawd, Yawel broader (probably includes stick, wood) underived I suspect some derivation but no analysis possible Merriam 58:511 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura šeŋhi buzzard unique Vaguely similar form in Tulamni, otherwise unique in Kroeber same underived Gamble 1991 (from Harrington?) 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines trŏ'-tah turtle loan Yowlumne Yokuts Yawelmani T'od/to', Yawdanchi Toto is only similar form in Kroeber; presumably a Nim-Yokuts form borrowed into Palewyami (perhaps a nonce borrowing by this late generation speaker) same underived Merriam 58:529 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia e'-sen-ne Black oak (Q. californica (= kelloggii?) inheritance Yokutsan Kroeber lists similar forms (he has Pal isen) widespread same underived Merriam 58:533 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata to'-kŏt Valley oak (Q. lobata) unique Kroeber has kimiax “plains oak”; I trust Merriam same underived Merriam 58:533 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica Tepid mountain quail inheritance *T'iphith Yokutsan Golla 1964:64 same underived Kroeber 1961:203 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis la'la goose loan into protolanguage *laɂlaɂ Yokutsan unknown Golla 1964:62; Callaghan 1997:59 compare Pcos *la'lak; nisenan la:lak' “gray goose, Maidu lylyk' “flock of geese WW %lala ~ %lak broader (any goose although others may have special names) reduplicated Kroeber 1961:204 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. hoo'-mutch'-e, hoo'-mut-che round-tail wood rat inheritance Yokutsan widespread form, not universal; note Yawd domòdumutc same reduplicated basically dumu-ch (perhaps agentive suffix); Yowl form means “gathers wood” but is not the same verb Merriam 58:519 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna pahng/-gi:/ unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wiwitsi loan direction unknown K1963 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna b'onitskai unknown K 1963 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna ch'i:sas doubtful loan into protolanguage JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna SiT'ihal' unique JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna Te7et “rattlesnake” inheritance Source? JPH Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food sop-loo'-is acorn mush unknown CHM; might be a loan, note Southern Chumash šïpïtïš simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress cux headdress inheritance Proto-Yokutsan PNY Golla simplex Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool k'el-k'al arrow (P) unique g'el-g'el Kroeber 1907:344; unique in Kroeber's dialect survey list; Gamble wahayi7 'war arrow' reduplicated Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ko'-se basket (general term), large cooking basket of split coil, about 14" in diameter unknown note wo-ne' 'close-weave burden basket' and wono words in Numic simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material taw-ton-ti', taw'-tun-kin woman's hat (taw-ton-ti worn when carrying pack basket) unknown derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material gixa beads loan into protolanguage Proto-Yokutsan Takic see Kroeber 1962 forms WW %kys simplex Kroeber 1962 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool keTngal' bow unknown also in Hometwoli, Tulamni; getsñ-il, gatsiñ-il Kroeber 1907:341 simplex Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool chem-moo'-lis-tan carrying net unknown derived instrumental -lis Berman 2002 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation choo'-chep-pē bottle, water unknown simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology te'-yah chief inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawel, Yawd forms; Kroeber diiya derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress yok'-wahs breech cloth unknown simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
cook food food his'-tah cooked (also means ripe) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawel derived Merriam 44:481 Jane Hill
corpse food taw-tan-toi' corpse, literally 'dead body' inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawdanchi entry derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology het-tim' a dance inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawelmani; Kroeber has wod-oiyits 'to dance' derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool che'-tel-kin digging stick inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawdanchi she'-tet Merriam 44:187 derived productive -kin, -ken Berman 2002 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology an-nat'-wel-ti' a dream inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other yo-wah'-ken-tan ear pendant unknown derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology el-lit'R devil or bad spirit inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58; compare Cupan 7elel7ish 'bad' and I think this is other places too, find WW %7el simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other haw-to'-nā-hi' fireplace inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7etis wood inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yd, Yw forms derived Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool chek'-ke fish line inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see 'string' simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food kah-ahs acorn cake hardened in water CHM simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology elit ghost (Kroeber) inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 WW %7el simplex Callaghan 1997:58 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology taw'-lo grave in ground, dug by women with digging stick unknown derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology 7engThew shaman inheritance Proto-Yokutsan simplex Whislter & Golla Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other Ti7 house inheritance Proto-Yokutsan simplex Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food missing missing Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material no-kuts'-so knife (any) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see 'obsidian'; Yawelmani k'ac' 'obsidian', but chah'-sip 'obsidian knife' Merriam 44:481 (from UA with sip???) derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
mat culture-material teng'-e mat of reeds or tules inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawelmani Thiniy 'spread something out'; also kaw-kaw'-lis simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
necklace other wal-leht' necklace (general term, shells, bones, beads) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawelmani walaTh 'necklace' simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool pah'-wik bone awl used in basketry inheritance Proto-Yokutsan simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pol'-woi stone pestle inheritance WW %polwa simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other bamung pipe inheritance Proto-Yokutsan probably Utian WW %pa7mo simplex Kroeber 1962 Jane Hill
pitch food to-lo'-kut resin or pitch unknown might be a cognate with Pyn *ThoxoTh (Golla 1964:65 'soaproot') derived guessing Berman 2002 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology che'-was rattle loan Southern Chumashan simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology haw'-yu, sēp'-woo-tan' red paint (used by women (only)) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawl, Yawd simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food kā'-yu salt inheritance Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material yep'-pil-tan apron (front) unknown CHM simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool pow>ng-ă trap (general term) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived Berman 2002 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7ytykh barred i to sing inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Probably Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:27; Gamble 1991 derived Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool to-koi'-tan fish spear inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawelmani t'ukuy 'to spear fish' simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture c'ekiy' č' (JPH) string inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Whistler & Golla 343 simplex Gamble 1991 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material mo-ket' bag or sack substratal see Wanderwoerter list, e.g. Comcaac mojet!; same as 'antelope', as with different word in Tubatulabal WW %mok simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
string of shell money other paw'-li wampum, money of shell inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Yawelmani pholay 'small beads' simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other moos'-sahn sweat house, council house inheritance Proto-Yokutsan moo'-sahn Merriam 44:479 WW %mosh other complex mus' 'ceremonial house' (open brush) Berman 2002 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics so'-kon tobacco inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:41 WW %sokon simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
tule boat transport o'won boat inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived vowel harmony shows derivation Kroeber 1962 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tom'-mi sandals inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawelmani tamay simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics toi-yah'CH medicine inheritance simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material wā-tes-ti' baby basket unknown other complex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation tah-what'-wel reverse a and h music stick of split elder loan Yowlumne Yokuts tah-what'-wil (Porterville) Merriam 44:451 simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture he-se/-ha: “metate, hand stone for rubbing” inheritance Berman 2002 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool che/-til-kin (ch'i ... JHH) unknown CHM Berman 2002 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture pol/-woi “pestle” loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Berman 2002 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool keTngal' unknown JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool k'elk'al' unique JPH Gamble 91 Jane Hill
house other Ti7 (house of tule mats acc. to CHM); inheritance JPH Berman 2002 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG medium seasonal no