Wayana

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
way
Location
2.78°, -54.44°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Camargo, Eliane. 2010. Hakëne omijau eitop Wajana-Palasisi - Dictionnaire bilingue Wayana-Français. CELIA/DRAC-Guyane/TEKUREMAI.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location kawë kawǝ inheritance shared Makiritare See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment missing See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body missing See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality etumhakë etumhakǝ unique See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body wetepu wetepu inheritance See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location lomok lomok unique See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality pepta pepta unique See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour alilinme (vb) alilinme (vb) See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body mïwu mɨwu inheritance See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body jetpï jetpɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body susu susu doutbful loan Onomatopoeic, but possibly a loan since the same form is found in a number of areal languages; Makú /tʃütʃü/; Quechua del Pastaza /tʃutʃu/; Yucuna (Arawak) tʃuʔutʃú; Proto-Chibchan See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human mule mule inheritance See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment eklotï eklotɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality ahalamatse, tïme ahalamatse, tɨme doubtful loan, direction unknown mac̷i: Panoan, Wayampi, prob. Wayana, Enlhet See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mïhen mɨhen unknown See Language page PLE
day día dia time nawaina nawaina inheritance Pemongan See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality sikulome sikulome unique See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality ahalap (vb) ahalap (vb) doubtful loan, direction unknown Wapishana arada-ʔu See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment missing See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body pana pana inheritance See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment lo lo inheritance See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna pumo pumo inheritance See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body ewu ewu inheritance See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality mëja mǝja inheritance See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ikat ikat inheritance See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship ïjum ɨjum inheritance See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna masilitpë masilitpǝ unique See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment wapot wapot inheritance See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment eku eku inheritance See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment mutom mutom See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora epelï epelɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality ipok ipok unique See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body uhmet uhmet unique See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body amo amo inheritance See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar inëlë inǝlǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body uputpë uputpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality hëwëimela hǝwǝimela unknown See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar ta ta unique See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar ïwu ɨwu inheritance See Language page PLE
if si se grammar See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body waksililin, watë enï waksililin, watǝ enɨ inheritance; inheritance See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment kutpë kutpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment ale ale inheritance See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body pëwëina pǝwǝina unknown See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body wasi wasi inheritance See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment kana nai kana nai inheritance See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body ele ele inheritance See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality kupiman kupiman unique See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human eluwa eluwa inheritance See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pun pun inheritance See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment nunuwë nunuwǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship je je doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body mïhta mɨhta inheritance See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human ehet ehet inheritance See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality akëlela (far-NEG) akǝlela (far-NEG) inheritance See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body pïmï pɨmɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality ihjan ihjan inheritance See Language page PLE
night noche noite time koko koko inheritance See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar uwa uwa inheritance See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body emna emna inheritance See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality uhpakat uhpakat inheritance See Language page PLE
one uno um number en en inheritance See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar akon akon inheritance See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body uwamela uwamela unique See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human wajana wajana inheritance See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment kopë kopǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour takpilem takpilem unique See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body apëtun apǝtun inheritance See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture ehema ehema inheritance See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora umït umɨt inheritance See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality mata mata loan Arawak See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment hamut hamut inheritance See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality kupe kupe unique See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body monta monta inheritance See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental pïïpe pɨɨpe unique See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body pitpë pitpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment kapu kapu inheritance See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality akin akin inheritance See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment elësi elǝsi inheritance See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment silikë silikǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora wewe wewe inheritance See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment tëpu tǝpu inheritance See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body aptïwi, watkï aptɨwi, watkɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar mëlë mǝlǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inamolo inamolo inheritance See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality atpë atpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality jahpine jahpine unique See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar mëhë mǝhǝ unknown See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar ëmë ǝmǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body ehena ehena inheritance See Language page PLE
three tres tres number ëhelowao ǝhelowao inheritance See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment taitatai katop taitatai katop unique See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body ë ǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body hukma hukma unique See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body woi -ka woi -ka unique See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment ewa (tr), uka (intr) ewa (tr), uka (intr) unique; inheritance See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body apo apo inheritance See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion ëhanuk ǝhanuk inheritance See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion umëk umǝk inheritance See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ëtïje ǝtɨje inheritance See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental missing See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental ëhamo ǝhamo inheritance See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact oko, akët oko, akǝt inheritance See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state lëmëp lǝmǝp inheritance? See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact alï alɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental ëhëtihe ǝhǝtihe inheritance See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body elï elɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body etuk etuk inheritance See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion anoka (tr), anota (intr) anoka (tr), anota (intr) inheritance See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental elamhak elamhak unique See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion sololo -ka sololo -ka loan Wayampi See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion ëtupap ǝtupap unknown See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state uwanta uwanta inheritance See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental panakma panakma inheritance? shared Yukpa? See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion ëtonam ǝtonam inheritance See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact uhmo-uhmo uhmo-uhmo inheritance See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact wë, uhmopo wǝ, uhmopo inheritance; inheritance see 'hit' See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental uwalë uwalǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental ewakta ewakta unknown See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other apuwa apuwa inheritance See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental ka ka inheritance See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact puklët puklǝt unique See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental ene ene inheritance See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state ewakam ewakam inheritance See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body ïnïk ɨnɨk inheritance See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body pok pok inheritance See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ëtakpika ǝtakpika inheritance See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact mujakma mujakma unknown See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state som -ka som -ka doubtful loan Arawak See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body sukma sukma inheritance See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body anunta anunta inheritance See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion toton-toton -ka toton-toton -ka unique See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental epohnëp epohnǝp unknown See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ïphala -ka ɨphala -ka unique See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ewaptë ewaptǝ inheritance? See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pelelep -ka pelelep -ka unique See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body wenata wenata inheritance See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion tïhtï -ka tɨhtɨ -ka unknown See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other maminum maminum unique See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body emtap emtap inheritance See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body nu nu inheritance See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body je je inheritance See Language page PLE
two dos dois number hakëne hakǝne inheritance See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment tuna tuna inheritance See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kut kut inheritance See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar emna emna inheritance See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality eukama eukama inheritance See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar ëtï ǝtɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar talaptau talaptau inheritance See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar ëitë ǝitǝ unique See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour tïkoloke tɨkoloke inheritance See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar ënik ǝnik inheritance See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship pït pɨt inheritance See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment tawun tawun unknown See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body missing See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human wëlïi wǝlɨi inheritance See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tawam man tawam man inheritance See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ëmëlam kom ǝmǝlam kom inheritance See Language page PLE
foot pie body puupu puupu inheritance See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar lopa [C: Apalai loan] lopa [C: Apalai loan] doubtful loan Apalai (acc. Camargo2009, but sound correspondences appear regular?) See Language page PLE
all todo todos other ëmelë ǝmelǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body klakun klakun unknown See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body sowo sowo inheritance? See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body tëpilonoke tǝpilonoke inheritance See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment pitpë pitpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body amo hawi amo hawi inheritance See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body wanë wanǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time sisi sisi inheritance See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ïpï ɨpɨ inheritance See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality kuli-kuli wet kuli-kuli wet loan Arawak, e.g. Wapishana kʰuʔuri-ʔu See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality tapu-tapun tapu-tapun inheritance See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. lele, lanoko lele, lanoko inheritance See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tolopït tolopɨt inheritance See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ëwok, pawïsi ǝwok, pawɨsi inheritance See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. kijapok, kïlu kijapok, kɨlu inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans mamhali mamhali inheritance See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. malasi, akawak malasi, akawak loan - WW %mare See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae hololo hololo unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tukui tukui inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes kuhku ('coruja'), pehpe kuhku ('coruja'), pehpe doubtful loan - WW? %murukutu / kurukutu See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. alala alala doubtful loan into protolg - WW %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica elekelu elekelu loan - WW %ele, %kuli See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae walami, ulukwe walami, ulukwe inheritance, loan - WW %motkuku See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae akawaktau akawaktau unique See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae hulu hulu unique See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family uluma uluma unique See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakalaimë wakalaimǝ loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae wetu wetu inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kaikui kaikui semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) walisimë walisimǝ inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kapasi, lemu kapasi, lemu inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. alokole alokole See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. aliwe aliwe inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus alimina alimina inheritance See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ka ka inheritance See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. watau, pasina watau, pasina See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae pëne pǝne inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. tawana tawana See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. panaululu panaululu See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. huluwi huluwi See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura [no generic?] [no generic?] missing See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ololi ololi unique See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata [no generic?] [no generic?] missing See Language page PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. sipali sipali doubtful loan - WW note similarity to WW spear/machete (from Span. sable?) See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura kalapu, sipalat, waimak kalapu, sipalat, waimak doubtful loan cf. Saliva kalabaʔʤa, Sikuani kalawai; maybe from Arawak See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ëkëjuimë ǝkǝjuimǝ inheritance snake-big' See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae walamali walamali loan Arawak; cf. anaconda umawali See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ëkëi ǝkǝi inheritance See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox pïlakïlïi pɨlakɨlɨi See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kuliputpë kuliputpǝ inheritance See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) jahja jahja unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba kumu kumu See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. wapu wapu inheritance See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa kuwai kuwai inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes jawi, awu jale jawi, awu jale See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua patawa patawa See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) mawu mawu inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra kumaka kumaka See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens asi asi loan Arawak See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea ahnep ahnep See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus olï, wolï, nana olɨ, wolɨ, nana unique; loan - WW Tupi-Guarani nana See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum pïlëu pɨlǝu See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. palu palu inheritance? See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. kumata (Ph. lunatus) kumata (Ph. lunatus) loan - WW %kumana See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) paja paja unique See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ehnai ehnai inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tamï tamɨ inheritance See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna wewe wewe inheritance See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana onot onot inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. makui watkï makui watkɨ unknown See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tutukë tutukǝ See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum oloi oloi inheritance - WW %eroi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana kupë kupǝ inheritance See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ulu ulu semantic shift cf. manioc food / flatbread See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta tapakula tapakula unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas napi napi inheritance See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. napëk napǝk inheritance rel. to 'potato' terms? See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. kuwa walai kuwa walai See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tutpë (Lagenaria), kalapi (Crescentia) tutpǝ (Lagenaria), kalapi (Crescentia) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. asikala asikala unknown See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. mami mami See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. tëma, hali-hali tǝma, hali-hali loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata ilak ilak inheritance See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kïjawëk kɨjawǝk inheritance See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis wan wan inheritance See Language page PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria alawe, kumapi alawe, kumapi loan - WW %arawe, via Tupi-Guarani See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kui-kui kui-kui See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pijalo pijalo unique See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera ëlukëju ǝlukǝju See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones munët munǝt inheritance See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea [no generic?] [no generic?] missing See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera sikë sikǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae tëklëi tǝklǝi unique See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. ilipe ilipe unknown See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae këipala kǝipala See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mëhak mǝhak inheritance See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera nukë nukǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kaimëk kaimǝk inheritance See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita simakani simakani loan, direction unknown Arawak: Wapishana tʃʰimikʰiʔi See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda konoto, kulewe, kuwe konoto, kulewe, kuwe loan; inheritance? Arawak; cf. Baniwa kerátto See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae akalima tom akalima tom inheritance? metathesis? See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca istaino istaino unique See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. juhmunuli juhmunuli See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] alawata alawata inheritance See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella meku meku inheritance See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus alimi alimi inheritance See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae panasisiwa panasisiwa unique See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis awawa awawa See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis jukini jukini unknown See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pakila pakila inheritance See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari pëinëkë pǝinǝkǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae alu alu inheritance See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua sijeu sijeu inheritance See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuli akuli loan into protolg, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kapiwala kapiwala loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti pasi pasi See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) kulimau kulimau inheritance See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mumpë mumpǝ inheritance See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae meli meli inheritance See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris maipuli maipuli inheritance See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kapawu, jaletë (red), kalijak (grey) kapawu, jaletǝ (red), kalijak (grey) inheritance See Language page PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pïlasi pɨlasi inheritance See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ono, hampele ono, hampele unique See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ëtat ǝtat inheritance See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kololo kololo unique See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kanawa kanawa doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pïjai, pijali pɨjai, pijali inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material pisa pisa loan Tupi-Guarani, cf. Wayampi misɔ, Nheengatu tapiʃawa See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology upo upo inheritance See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other wewe wewe inheritance See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology jolok jolok unknown See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kujuli (mythic creator hero) kujuli (mythic creator hero) loan Arawak, e.g. Achagua kawijali In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tïtïlu, tule, eu tɨtɨlu, tule, eu inheriance multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics kanawa okï enï kanawa okɨ enɨ See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material malija malija loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool potpu (stone), wïwï potpu (stone), wɨwɨ inheritance; inheritance shared Mapoyo especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pïle pɨle inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool walata walata inheritance See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool paila paila unknown cf. 'arrow' arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport akupuita akupuita loan Tupi-Guarani: Wayampi pukwita See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kalipo kalipo doubtful loan - WW? %parapi See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material kaso; palaktaime kaso; palaktaime inheritance? See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool ëlinat ǝlinat unknown agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool sipë sipǝ unknown See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other wanë molopin wanǝ molopin inheritance See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food wanë wanǝ inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mëtëhem mǝtǝhem unique See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology hëmït hǝmɨt See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology pumali pumali See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation sikolo (loan Maroon) sikolo (loan Maroon) See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation kutei {loan Fr. > Aluku?] kutei {loan Fr. > Aluku?] See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation pampila pampila loan Span/Port 'papel', via Maroon See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ëhëtihe ǝhǝtihe See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kulasi kulasi loan - WW %kara See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation asikalu asikalu See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress hapatu (loan Sp.) hapatu (loan Sp.) See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mimi mimi unknown See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation alakapuha alakapuha loan Spanish 'arcabuz' See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology umïtïn umɨtɨn unique See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress pamka, kamisa (Sp > Maroon loan) pamka, kamisa (Sp > Maroon loan) See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food pëma pǝma inheritance See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology elemi elemi inheritance See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool wëjanë wǝjanǝ hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ka apëlëtse ka apǝlǝtse See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food kaimota kaimota See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kaimo kaimo inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tutpë (Lagenaria), kalapi (Crescentia) tutpǝ (Lagenaria), kalapi (Crescentia) unknown; inheritance? See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool jalakap jalakap inheritance See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool apotop apotop unique See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool apotop apotop See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kasili kasili inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kajama kajama unknown agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food ulu ulu doubtful loan (into protolg), direction unknown Arawak usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food kutuli kutuli unknown See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tïnkïi tɨnkɨi inheritance word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ulali ulali inheritance - WW %wirari hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool manale manale inheritance agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool motoloi motoloi can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool mapë mapǝ See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other pakolo pakolo doubtful loan into protolanguage Arawak; cf. Piro-Apurinã *poko See Language page PLE