Chumash Ventureno

Family
Chumash
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
veo
Location
34.18°, -119.03°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7alalpay “arriba” unknown JPH Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other jyla7; inheritance K1977:63 Jane Hill
and y e grammar ki; cal (w/ nouns in B67:24 an d also w/ vb clauses) unknown Harrington 1974:8 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body show inheritance JPH Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tok'olol (tok'ololi “put under arm”) inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment 7ixsha inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body myt inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality muschum unknown JPH Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body qyp unknown Harrington 1974:9 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location -ma7am unknown JPH Jane Hill
big grande grande quality xa7ax unknown JPH Jane Hill
bite morder morder body 7aqsiL inheritance JPH Jane Hill
black negro preto colour al-shoshoy unknown Harrington 1974:9 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7an unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body 7aqtyw'yw inheritance Klar 1977:70 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body 7ejus “mezquino” unknown JPH Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body se inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body kutet inheritance Klar 1977:72 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body enhes “breath” unknown JPH Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment sixut (trans), ixut (intrans) inheritance Klar 1977:73 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body aqsk'ysy “mascar bien” unknown JPH Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human qunup unknown JPH Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion apyti, aqapet unknown JPH Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment ts'ymy unknown JPH Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality toqom “feel cold” inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion jyti, qalaw inheritance Klar 1977:77, 78 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact sh-ipshyl inheritance Klar 1977:78 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality washych “good, true, right”, washe7e7ech “pura verdad” unknown JPH Jane Hill
count contar contar mental chHaljych “he counts” unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental mish inheritance JPH Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact 7ywy inheritance Klar 1977:17 Jane Hill
day día dia time si-7ishaw “sun, day” unknown Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state aqsha inheritance Klar 1977:81 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact ushpay (kuspayus “I dig for it”) unknown Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna mej unknown JPH Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality chHupuch unknown JPH Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7atyshwych unknown JPH Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7aqmil inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality axsyw unknown JPH Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality chnop (like tip of pen, but also OK for knife) unknown JPH Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment shupshu7up “tierra suelta, what blows in wind” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tu loan direction unknown Klar 1977:23 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment shup inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7uw inheritance Klar 1977:40 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna shtum (but k-tum “my egg (chicken speaking)” 3(91)0322 unknown JPH Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body tyq inheritance Klar 1977:84 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body nukHwaxa “voy a cagar”, waxanesh “feces” 69:0296 unknown JPH Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion woloji “fall over (as tree)”, woloqoji “fall (by tripping)” unknown JPH Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality my7yk; myky7y “go far away” inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body ts7aLxilinich hesikHpu “my hands are greasy” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship k'oko “my fa” unknown JPH Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental oxonishpi, oxonyshpi unknown JPH Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna sqap loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ny inheritance Klar 1977:86 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna chochony7ysh “any kind of fish” unknown JPH Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion nalmu unique JPH Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment (c,s)pe7ey inheritance Klar 1977:25 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion no7an kxojojo “I fly” unknown JPH Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment 7ulkum, 7ushku'm, 7usku'm loan JPH Jane Hill
foot pie body tem' inheritance Klar 1977:88 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora s-7amy inheritance JPH Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality washych unknown JPH Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state lunla7al (human), luny7yp (plant) unknown JPH Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7oqwo “hair of head” unknown Turner 1983:240 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body pu inheritance Klar 1977:15 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar c- unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body jywysh unknown Harrington 1974:5 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental pitac “entiendes” inheritance B67:18 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality walamys unknown JPH Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion utikaj (vi) unknown JPH Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wyp “hit with stick” loan JPH Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other takHuj inheritance JPH Jane Hill
how? como como grammar nelka7a7an “como esta..., cual es” unknown JPH Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar no, ne7e (indep pronoun), k- loan Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
if si se grammar Aju j is [x] in this source unknown B67:14 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ma7am unknown JPH Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body si-k-7axshyw unknown JPH Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body shik7y (91:0201); akshik7y (92:0009) unknown JPH Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact alwa (kill person), takty “kill animal” unknown JPH Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental chposhoch “he knows” unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment 7alka7ash “any charco or laguna” unknown JPH Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental kHqo7o “I laughed unknown JPH Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment staqapqap loan JPH Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body k-talkaw' “my left hand” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body 7yl unknown JPH Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion otoy'i inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tsqunqunt'aw “esta relampagueando” unknown JPH Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body k'alitpe, k'alititpe “estoy vivo (not dead” unknown JPH Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body 7al inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7ulji “long, tall” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna shik “louse” inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7at'axach' loan Harrington 1974:4 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7amamy “body, meat” inheritance Klar 1977:132 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7awhay7 inheritance Klar 1977:91 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship k'ete “my mother (but root is tete) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7yk inheritance Klar 1977:99 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ty inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body si-k-ni “mi nuca” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality ne7e sijaxikyhy “ya estan cerca” unknown JPH Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body aqnyw; note that JPY has aqlyw at 91:387 unknown Klar 1977:19 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality missing Jane Hill
night noche noite time ulkuw unknown Klar 1977:118 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar muc'il “there is no, not”, mus-, mu-, muhu-; mu B67:14 Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body nuxsh unknown Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality -iwach (on nouns "old", on vbs "past" unknown Harrington 1974 Jane Hill
one uno um number pake7et inheritance Klar 1977:120 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other 7ush-qal inheritance Klar 1977:103 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar ts'ohoj unknown JPH Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ushi7ik “tener dolor” unknown JPH Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ku inheritance Klar 1977:103 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact wiwex “with blows (not instrument)” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tuhuy inheritance Klar 1977:24 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7al-uqshtahaj unknown JPH Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body -talkujuw' "right hand" inheritance JPH Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture 7al-ijash unknown JPH Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora c'axpilil “root, sinew” inheritance Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality tolmow unknown JPH Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment qas unknown JPH Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ipi B67:14, yp “di” B67:16 inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact tiqul unknown JPH Jane Hill
see ver ver mental qisy unknown JPH Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality c'yc' unknown Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wyl inheritance Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality nowowo unknown JPH Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body si-kH-k'uk'uj “mi hombro” unknown JPH Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental nuxiliwy unknown JPH Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state ilik'e (also “dwell in a place”); 7isijilik'e “ la vida” 92:9723 unknown JPH Jane Hill
skin piel pele body cpax unknown Harrington 1974:9 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment alalpaj unknown Pinart II, B67:12 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body we loan JPH Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality mit'i loan JPH Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment itow inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body jut'uxsh unknown JPH Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body 7uxch'yk loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact nich'eq (of board) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact kipshe unknown JPH Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact uqwash unknown JPH Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tynyn unknown JPH Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment 7aqiwo unknown JPH Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other xono unknown JPH Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora pon' inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment xyp inheritance Klar 1977:111 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body ckutet “he sucks” inheritance Harrington 1974:9 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body tsisawus “he is sweating” unknown JPH Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body tysh unknown JPH Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion aqiwywy unknown JPH Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body teleq inheritance Klar 1977:27 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar hohit; lesi “aquella” JPH 3(69) 0017R, kaki se7e “esa agua” 0018L unknown B67:24 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ci- (def), cam- (indef) unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ch-ashtipil (of blanket, etc., not liquid) unknown JPH Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality cjuqmit'i “it is slender” loan Harrington 1974:7 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental oqwoli “idear” unknown JPH Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar hesa, 7iti7i (JPH 3(69) 0019L) inheritance Harrington 1974:5 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar pi; ynip B67:12; p- inheritance Pinart II Jane Hill
three tres tres number masyq inheritance Klar 1977:120 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body aqlewyny7ysh “tragadera” unknown JPH Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wach7yw unknown JPH Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment so7oxk'oho “the thunder”(once he writes oqk'oho) unknown JPH Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact qsikH “tie up in bundle” unknown JPH Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7elew' inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body sa inheritance Klar 1977:113 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kinomoj “turn around while standing” unknown JPH Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7ishkom' inheritance Klar 1977:29, 120 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pash inheritance Klar 1977:114 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion tintina7al unique JPH Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7o inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kiske unknown Pinart II Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality o7och inheritance JPH Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar kjeki, huki he? (89:062) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar 7asnym, ki7ashnym (3(69)oo16L) unknown Harrington 1974:7 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar neL; ne7le 69:0049R unknown JPH Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour -7owow "to be white" unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar 7asku unknown JPH Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship shatiwyw “spouse” unknown Harrington 1974:3 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment 7aqtywyw unknown JPH Jane Hill
wing ala asa body sqawwayha, qawawa, qawawha 92:0494, 0500 unknown JPH Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human x7anwa unknown Harrington 1974:9 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other isuxuxmalits loka x'anwa “esta trabajando la mujer” unknown JPH Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body shashham unknown Klar 1977:117 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pi7 inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. kaše; t'aja “aulon” JPH abalone inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash WW %kys underived Heizer/Pinart I:60 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ah'-nēCH-ō'p (šutele Pinart) ant loan Takic Takic 7ane- “ant, red ant” phrase ant-X Merriam 55:51 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana q'aq'; na7na7a7 JPH III 91:032?? antelope unique underived Merriam 55:37; JPH III:91:0142 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus 7aluš7eš badger inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash relative clause means “the digger”; 7al-, -Vsh JPH III:91:0113 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus mah'-ke-wo bald eagle unique Central Chumash only 7almaxwo? See 27, JPH's “aura” underived Merriam 55:41 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata sŭ'-kŭ-suk' (1932), soo-koo-sōk (1905) band-tail pigeon unique reduplicated Merriam 55:41 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp makaL bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:88 WW %tamakala underived Merriam 55:37; JPH III:91:0391 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp matexkčaopo pinacate unique phrase meaning of elements unknown Heizer/Pinart I:58 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus kawɨyɨsh Scirpus acutus, Scirpus californicus, Bulrush, Tule unique other complex -Vsh resultative Timbrook 2007:203 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis tah'-kah-mah Klar taxama skunk inheritance *tVqema Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:108 underived Merriam 55:37 V 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus mueis wolf inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno k-asiməj, hesiməj underived Heizer/Pinart I:57 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis al-lix'mah 1932 bighorn sheep unique other complex 7al- Merriam 55:37 V 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tswiw bird inheritance In Barbareno underived Mamet 2008:14 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger aniwouho aLnunasimilaqsa small black ant loan Takic Takic 7ane- “ant, red ant” other complex ant-X JPH III:69:0081 from FL 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus xus bear (both grizzly and black) inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68-9 underived Merriam 55:35 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus mah black-tailed jack rabbit inheritance *ma' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977;105 underived Merriam 55:39 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus tɨhɨ California blackberry, Rubus ursinus unique loan? Ineseno tɨqɨtɨq underived Timbrook 2007:174 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus 7aLxa7i small gato montes unique also 7al7ap'aLpai “big gato montes” JPH other complex 7al- Merriam 55:35; JPH III:69:0403 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus on-hawk (1905; hujawüt JPH “huitre”, big bird, red head” Chumash B. wit from Yokuts; Beeler 1978:188; V , also turkey buzzard) Condor, turkey buzzard inheritance Central Chumash only same as Ineseno 7onoq(') “turkey vulture” underived Merriam 55:41; JPH III:69:0080 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? chi'-chi' California jay inheritance Central Chumash only In Barbareno WW %chay reduplicated Merriam 55:51 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? čulakak woodpecker loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977:116; this is NOT a regular reflex and argues that this is a loan through the family WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Klar 1977:116 2 nephew of the sun, only one who did not die in the first flood (Applegate 531) 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae itepesh Salvia columbariae, Chia inheritance *'epV- Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:75-6 same other complex -Vsh resultative Timbrook 2007:188 1 “given as a ceremonial offering at most public and private rituals” Timbrook 2007:192 1 1 to clear eyes of particles gathered (wild but closely managed) women toasted, ground into flour 0 0 to Island Chumash “one hatful of chia worth five hatfuls of acorns, 5 o 8 hatfuls of Chia for a good elderberry-wood bow, also could be bought w/ strings of shell money (Timbrook 2007:192 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota an-ne'-pe barn swallow (Hirundo) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash other complex 7al- Merriam 55:43 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana ksen coot (Merriam confirms k'sā-en 55:45) unique underived Mamet 2008:18 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii timew rabbit (Merriam 55:39 confirms cottontail); but note ku'nU “conejo prietito”; JPH says timew is “larger than ku'nU” unique underived Mamet 2008:57 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. khwelekhwel Populus fremontii, Cottonwood (Merriam confirms 55:53) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash reduplicated Timbrook 2007:149 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7alaquweL coyote unique other complex 7al- agentive Merriam 58:35 ; JPH III:91:374 1 approaches house to warn of death 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a7awash crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno t-a7 other complex ʔaʔ-ʔiwaʃ crow-pejorative Merriam 55:41; JPH III:69:0080 from FL) 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii momoy Datura wrightii, Jimsonweed, toloache loan into protolanguage *mom'oy < *moy Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977:93 sees as inheritance but it's a loan from Gab or Lu “moon” WW %moji ~ %moni same reduplicated Timbrook 2007:65 1 taken at initiation to seek dream helper, and any time afterward 1 1 painkiller for serious injuries and broken bones gathered (wild) men, women boiled to make infusion 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus deer (Merriam confirms All deer, blacktail and mule) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Mamet 2008:57; 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tsɨkɨnɨn Pinus spp. (except P. monophylla) unique underived Timbrook 2007:141 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris ʧtɨn (same in B., also “pet”) Merriam steh-un, stā-un; JPH tšə7əniwaš dog inheritance Also in Barbareno underived Mamet 2008:36, Merriam 55:39; JPH III:91:0326 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum tok Apocynum cannabinum, Indian-Hemp, Dogbane inheritance Southern Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:31 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura šukušuk tortola, turtle-dove unique Note Barbareno tukutuk, must be sound-symbolic variants reduplicated JPH III:91:0011 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae alishnoshkoloi duck unique Central Chumash only -koloj root in Ineseno phrase 7al-...Vsh, koloi; note 7aLmaLkoloi “alacran” JPH III:69:0483 Heizer/Pinart I:56 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus qayas Sambucus mexicana, Blue Elderberry; Merriam confirms 55:55 inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:195 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus ši7iw(o) elk loan Central Chumash only Yokuts Central Chumash -- could this be from Yokuts %sok, the /soyo/ form??? underived Merriam 55:37 ; JPH III:91:0307 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ʧoʧonɨʃ fish (Merriam confirms) unique reduplicated Mamet 2008:26 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera step flea inheritance *-tep Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Klar 1977:86 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera 7axunpes (Pinart has paopao) fly inheritance *axulpes Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:87: Pinart form also Harrington pawapaw “flies”;, axunpes is “mosquito in Harrington III:91:0106 phrase meaning of elements unknown Klar 1977:87 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei pash amole unique ts'ats'əs 7i pash “barba del amole”, amole fiber, suggests Y. whipplei underived JPH III:91:00278 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon haw' fox unique Is this a loan? Seems like I've seen a similar form somewhere WW %kaw underived JPH III:91:0044 2 approaches house to warn of death 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna xwetet; JPH waqaq from FL frog (Merriam confirms) unique WW %wakat underived Mamet 2008:92; JPH III:69:0081 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos slo aguila real (JPH) inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:41; JPH III:69:0080 from FL) clan symbol (Applegate p. 452) 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. chtɨmɨy Ribes spp., Gooseberry inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:170 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer pʃoʃ bullsnake (V); gopher snake (B) inheritance *pSoSo Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Mamet 2008:18 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) tašta7aš grass (any) unique reduplicated taš “un tule muy delgado” Merriam 55:61; JPH III:91:0114 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera took (1932), tōk (1905); tukh grasshopper inheritance *ti/uqu (<-qu) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Merriam 55:51; JPH 0157 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. pistuk Gray ground squirrel, Citellus beecheyi group inheritance Also in Barbareno underived Merriam 55:37; JPH III:91:0133 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. tŏn'-tŏn' Gray tree squirrel unique reduplicated Merriam 55:37 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus moo-hoo (1932), mŏ-hŏ 1905; JPH muju great horned owl inheritance Central Chumash only Gab. muhut; this is a Proto-Uto-Aztecan word. But it's sound-imitative.... Also loan is into Central Chumash, not daughter langs. May be Chumash. underived Merriam 55:41 1 Warns “a good person will die” (Ono 89) 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis xus bear (Merriam 55:35 confirms grizzly and black bear) inheritance Proto-Chumash underived nunaʃiʃ “animal; beast, devil” Beeler 1978:181 (and used this way in an Ono text, as “(big) vs. (small) animals re hunting preferences Mamet 2008:57 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae an-tim'-men kā-yā-yă horned toad unique Central Chumash only phrase Merriam 55:49 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawaju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Mamet 2008:47 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae juxnuts hummingbird inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Heizer/Pinart I:57; JPH III:69:0081 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. show Nicotiana quadrivalvis, Indian tobacco loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts loan from Yokutsan into Central Chumash WW %sokon underived Timbrook 2007:126 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica mulus Juniperus californicus, California Juniper inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:108 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera šik louse inheritance *Seke Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:92-3 underived Klar 1977:92 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos al'-le-wush-ko'-loi; JPH aniXwutskoloi mallard unique Central Chumash only phrase Merriam 55:45; JPH III:69:0081 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. tsqoqo'n Arctostaphylos spp., Manzanita unique Central Chumash? Ineseno, Barbareno tsqo'yon reduplicated Timbrook 2007:34 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa 7usha'ak Asclepias (eriocarpa and fascicularis) unique underived Timbrook 2007:40 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis 7usha'ak Asclepias (eriocarpa and fascicularis) unique underived Timbrook 2007:40 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus syɨt (Pinart has mexmei like in I.); Harrington has meXmei III:69:0028 Juncus textilis, Indian Rush loan Takic Note Serrano/Kitanemuk hy-T; Takic *sɨji- “Juncus”; the final -t also suggests a Takic loan although Takic languages have /l/ absolutive. underived Timbrook 2007:102 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera uakaneč mosquito unique phrase meaning of elements unknown Heizer/Pinart I:58 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera 7aLtipaka palomita de la noche, moth inheritance Barbareno 7antipaka other complex 7al- JPH III:69:0407 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tuk'em' (took-am' (1932), 500-kem' (1905) mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Widespread Californianism, note NUA *tuCkuC; Klar 1977:98 but I think loan is post-Proto-Ch, hence irregularity WW %tuku underived Merriam 55:35 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus 7üxüi7iXenti codorniz unique phrase a real mystery word JPH III:69:008a from FL 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. ttoho; qep JPH; t'o mussels inheritance Also in Barbareno underived Heizer/Pinart I:60 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla posh Pinus monophylla inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:142 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum 7alčʰum; qəpqə7əp; tswaqsiq (F. Librado JPH III:69:0030 clam sp., money; clam inheritance *'ala-qu-Cum Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:97 other complex 7al- Klar 1977:97; JPH III:91:0425 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys awCH'-wah, ŏCH'-wah (1932) ohCH'-wah 1905 pocket gopher inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:39 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum yasis Toxicodendron diversilobum, poison oak inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:214 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. xʃap rattlesnake Merriam confirms 55:47) inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno kaxʃap underived Mamet 2008:18; 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp sutülhüL rose-colored ant unique underived maybe a redup here JPH III:69:0081 from FL 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus tš'oq blackbird loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts In Barbareno WW %chak underived JPH II:91:0346 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis k'wee'ch (1932), koo-ētch 1905; kwits (JPH) hawk sp. inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Merriam 55:41 V ; JPH III:69:0080 (from FL) 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus pupu road runner loan into protolanguage *pu' Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977:106 WW %pu: reduplicated Merriam 55:41; JPH III:91-0260 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica wewe'y Artemisia californica inheritance Central Chumash only In Barbareno reduplicated Timbrook 2007:36 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss lap (2), poiok (3) salmon inheritance Central Chumash only Ineseno has lap; what about Yokuts lopit? WW %lvp underived Heizer/Pinart I:60, 61 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? an'-tip-snă'-ki scaly lizard unique other complex 7al- Merriam 55:49 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna tšwiw small bird, any bird inheritance In Barbareno underived JPH II:91:0336 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna ʔolpo; 7oLpo JPH lizard sp. unique underived is this from 7al-?? Mamet 2008:32 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna pʃoʃ snake inheritance *pSoSo Proto-Chumash underived Heizer/Pinart I:58 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum pash paʃ Chlorogalum pomeridianum; Soap plant, Soap root, Amole unique I think this is wrong word, this is the yucca-root soap underived Timbrook 2007:56 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata shuna'y Rhus trilobata, 3-leaved sumac inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:166 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kwiʧ; perhaps kilik JPH? falcon sp. loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only unknown Ineseno has kilik WW %kili underived Mamet 2008:18 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae ktut spider inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash; Note Yowlumne ko-to-gil-loi; ko-lo-kil'-wi; Delta-california Yuman IA hellytutt “black widow spider”; C. xłycuc underived Mamet 2008:18; 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis tah'-kah-mah little spotted skunk inheritance *tVqema Proto-Chumash underived Merriam 55:37 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae xwetet toad inheritance Barbareno qewet underived Heizer/Pinart I:58; JPH III:69:0081 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) pon' tree inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:116 underived Mamet 2008:46; Beeler 1978:182 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera shtakuk Yucca whipplei, Chaparral Yucca, Spanish Bayonet (Timbrook lacks Y. schidegera) unique underived Timbrook 2007:226 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura awn'-hawk (1932), on'-howk (1905); aLmaXwo turkey vulture, condor; aura inheritance Central Chumash only underived Merriam 55:41 V ; JPH III:69:0080 (from FL) 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ʃaq turtle inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Mamet 2008:57 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia kuw Quercus agrifolia, Coast live oak inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ta Quercus lobata, Valley Oak inheritance *ta' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:163 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica tah-kah'-ka Valley quail loan into protolanguage *takaka Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977;105; perhaps a loan, a widespread arealism WW %kaka reduplicated Merriam 55:41 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis xox; JPH wauwau goose unique underived Heizer/Pinart I:56; JPH III:69:0081 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus paxat whale inheritance *paqat(V) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977;115 underived Mamet 2008:59 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos hew; Pinart 3 has pelepesh pelican (may be brown) inheritance *sew Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:103 WW %hew underived Klar 1977;103 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica nunit (noo-net'-tah Merriam 55:63) Vitis californica, girdiana inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash ; maybe %sonot underived Timbrook 2007:224 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica wati'qon'iqon Rosa californica , California Wild Rose unique Central Chumash only looks a little loan-y, irregular phrase meaning of elements unknown Timbrook 2007:172 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) tahCH'-al ? Wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) unique underived Merriam 55:63 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. khaw S. lasiolepis unique Only in V, C underived Timbrook 2007:180 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. nakh woodrat unique underived Merriam 55:39; JPH III:69:0405 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper tskonin worm inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash, could this be part of the %kes system??? underived JPH III:91:0149 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. 7ɨy yellowjacket inheritance *ɨyɨ, *ɨyɨ' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:117 underived Klar 1977;117 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum wishap Eriodictyon crassifolium, Yerba Santa inheritance Central Chumash only Central Chumash underived Timbrook 2007:83 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna 7aniwo7uho loan JPH Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna si-ch-wiw “a bird” loan direction unknown Harrington 1974:6 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna -pawapaw "any fly" inheritance JPH Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna 7ishty7yniwash unknown JPH Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna tashta7ash “grass in general” unknown JPH Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna wyl unknown JPH Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna xshap “rattlesnake” unknown JPH Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna 7aja7kHa “any spider” unknown JPH Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food sŭ'-pŭ-tush šïpïta7aš (Applegate 2:29) acorn mush inheritance Proto-Central Chumash see Ineseno derived Merriam 39:29 Jane Hill
ball game food tiqaw shinny game unknown simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress cux headdress loan Yokuts Pyokutsan *cux by Golla 1964; early as also in Ineseno simplex Applegathe 1973 ms Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ya arrow inheritance *ya Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool s'uw bait inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material al-as-ko-woks shallow steatite dish unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material 7aqnïpaš coiled basketry unknown caya 'kind of basket' 4-14 derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material h>em sub-globular choke-mouth bowl unknown simplex Merriam 38:25 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material 7epsuN hat inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material si-ciyel'iku l' in Mamet 2008:82 a bead unknown al-taqaš Applegate 1973 Ch. 10:9 derived si is just definite article but the rest is obviously multimorphemic Harrington 1974 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology hïlhïl ochre unknown could this be loan from Kitanemuk hyt?? Much speculation about UA source of ï in Ventureno in Mamet reduplicated Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7ax bow inheritance *aqa Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport tomol canoe inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wot' chief inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash in I & B simplex Mamet 2003 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wïpï7ïš club unknown also wikalï7ïš derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress 7ičk'ï loin cloth inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash Henshaw has yu-yák derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
cook food food 7ipsïl to cook inheritance *pSel Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
corpse food čaqšanuč he is dead/corpse inheritance *qsa 'to die' Proto-Chumashan derived ts-aqsa- 3-to.die … Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology 7axinal' to dance inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash also wïwïn Mamet 2008:77 derived axi-nal' ITER-to.g Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool 7ušpajï7ïš digging stick unknown Henshaw spa derived paj 'dig' Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7atišwič to dream inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived 7atišwiN 'charmstone' verbalized Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ka7ataxač male chicken semantic shift quail word simplex Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
earring other su-wayan earrings inheritance *wayan Proto-Chumashan derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology nunašïš devil inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool hup-was-no-ho fire drill unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other 7aqtïpmu ï is barred i hearth, fireplace inheritance Proto-Central Chumash B 7aqtip 'build a fire' derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other pon' wood, tree, stick inheritance *pono Proto-Chumashan Merriam confirms 39:19 simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food su-axsil to angle unknown derived CAUS-to.bite Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wašt'ujaš fishline unknown derived waš-t'uj involving.hands-to.depart Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool tsHa fishhook, arrowhead inheritance *Sa Proto-Chumashan mi-as 'shell fishhook' Henshaw simplex ts-sa 3-tooth Mamet's anal. Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7enhešeš ghost, spirit unknown also alcinaxkuhu Lex 10 derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology 7usc'ïmïčmu burial ground unknown Merriam 38:31 on-moi grave (lying place? JHH) derived ts'ïmïN 'cloud' Mamet 2008:52 Harrington 1974 Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics momoy Jimsonweed loan into protolanguage *mom'oy from *moy Proto-Chumashan Gabrielino may not be proto if from Gab. Moya- 'moon', loan wouldn't be into Proto-Chumashan WW %moji ~ %moni reduplicated Klar 1977 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology al-al-loos-tes doctor or shaman unknown derived Merriam 38:35 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food mow honey semantic shift c-hin-mow honey of bee Applegate 1973:V9 simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
house other 7ap house inheritance Proto-Southern Chumashan simplex ap 'to live' with 7-, according to Mamet 2008:36 Harrington 1974 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food 7ut7aw to hunt unknown w derived Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material 7ïw (Mamet's 7ïwï p. 55) knife inheritance *7iw Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
mat culture-material 7as sleeping mat, mat inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool pā-yes peyeš Applegate 'a mortar that sits by itself' Ch. 10 p. 3 portable mortar unknown I think this is an error: pej 'to stick to' suggests this is bricklaying mortar??? Or maybe Mamet's peješ form (60) is really the portable mortar??? Maybe al-qap Applegate 1973 4:17 derived Merriam 38:23 Jane Hill
necklace other 7el necklace inheritance *el' Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool ahk-nŭp awl used in basketry unknown tipïš 'awl' (maybe) Applegate 1973:8-3 simplex Merriam 38:23 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool t'spoo pestle unknown c'uniyhïk Applegate 1973:Ch. 10-1 simplex Merriam 38:23 Jane Hill
pinole food 7it'epeš chia mush inheritance *epe 'chia' Proto-Chumashan derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tip-haw-pe pipe inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Merriam 38:21 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool 7oja pot loan Spanish WW %la olla simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool 7olotoč quiver inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Harrington 1974 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ts'iwis rattle inheritance Proto-Southern Chumashan also towonwon Mamet 2008:57 simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology al-lōk-sta'-hi 7uqštahay 'be red' Mamet 2008:72 red paint unknown and Henshaw derived Merriam 38:19 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food tip salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool pu-wōt seed fan unknown pu 'with hand' derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology axwi clothes inheritance Proto-Southern Chumashan simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool taliwiš a bow loan Yokuts simplex possessed -taliw Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tiwansk'ït apron, to put on apron piyač feather skirt derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool qujiwaš lance unknown al-ic'uq-š lance Applegate 1973 ms:3-17 derived ic'uq to pierce Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture mijaš cord inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived miy 'to make cord' + RSLT Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material meš bag (Merriam 'tobacco bag' 39:23) inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
string of shell money other 7al-cHum (Mamet has 7ančum p. 37) money inheritance 7ala-qu-Cum, *ana-qu-Cum Proto-Chumashan I disagree; cognacy is not perfect and shell money is too late to be P-C derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 7asukal sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology tinawajuč to tell stories unknown derived long.ago (plus VB, NMZR) ti-nawaj- 'by.speaking'- Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics sow' tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Central Chumash Yokuts WW %sokon simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology al-o-wo 7ow'ow be.white Mamet 2008:58 white paint unknown derived Merriam 38:19 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material suwatïy'ï7ïš winnowing basket unknown also 7ewhey' Applegate 4-17 and Henshaw derived Applegate 1973 ms Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapatu shoe loan Spanish 7eqenmu 'sandal' Applegate 1973 4-12 WW %zapato simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics 7axiye7ep medicine inheritance Proto-Central Chumash B 7axiyep 'cure' Beeler derived 7axiyep 'to cure' Applegate 1973 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material o-te'-nah-e 7utin'ay Applegate Lex 4 baby basket unknown derived Merriam 38:25 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation 7emečeš soldier semantic shift Proto-Central Chumash B 7em'echesh 'army, enemies' derived Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
corn food majs corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sumlelu hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Mamet 2008 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation wansaq split-stick rattle inheritance *wanS-aq'a, *wacs-aq'a Proto-Chumashan derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture sutine/t “mecate” unknown B67:64 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material 7ixty unknown JPH Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7aLqap, 7aLqapuch, pejesh unknown JPH Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture kshuwapysh “I winnow with tray” unknown JPH Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ts'unihjykH “mano de mortero” unknown JPH Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7ax “bow” inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kal-awa “arrow inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
house other 7ap unknown Harrington 1974:8 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense sedentary no