Kalapalo

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
kui
Location
-12.30°, -53.23°
Notes
Kalapalo and Kuikuro are dialectal variants.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Basso, Ellen. 2012. A Grammar of Kalapalo, A Southern Cariban Language. Manuscript.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ugupo ugupo unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
and y e grammar õ õ See Language page Joyce McCormick
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment lumbe lumbe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
at en, a em, a location See Language page Joyce McCormick
back espalda costas body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
bad mal mal quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
belly barriga barriga body tefugu tefugu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
below abajo, debajo abaixo location isupoŋa; ofiña (both listed as 'beneath') isupoŋa; ofiña (both listed as 'beneath') unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
big grande grande quality tsekegï tsekegɨ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
black negro preto colour fuseuki; fuseukiñe fuseuki; fuseukiñe unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
blood sangre sangue body uŋu uŋu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
bone hueso osso body itsugu itsugu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
breast pecho, seno peito body aɳatïgï aɳatɨgɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
child niño, niña criança human missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cloud nube nuvem environment kamundu kamundu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
cold frío frio quality keűti keűti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
day día dia time missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
dirty sucio sujo quality ifutugu ifutugu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Joyce McCormick
dry seco seco quality igїfїɳGiɳo igїfїɳGiɳo unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Joyce McCormick
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Joyce McCormick
ear oreja orelha body ifanagï ifanagɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
earth/soil tierra terra environment ŋoŋo ŋoŋo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
egg huevo ovo fauna ifű; fui ifű; fui inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
eye ojo olho body iŋugu iŋugu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
far lejos longe quality (i)faki (i)faki unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
fat/grease grasa gordura body isatïgï isatɨgɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
father padre, papá pai kinship apa apa doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick
feather pluma pena fauna ikogo ikogo unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
fire fuego fogo environment ito ito inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
flower flor flor environment missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Joyce McCormick
fruit fruta fruta flora missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
good bueno bom quality atutu atutu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ipugu (body); ikafugu (male); ndïtï (female) ipugu (body); ikafugu (male); ndɨtɨ (female) inheritance; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
hand mano mão body iñatïgï iñatɨgɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
head cabeza cabeça body Gitïgi Gitɨgi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
heavy pesado pesado quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
how? como como grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
1sg yo eu grammar uge uge inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
if si se grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location isata isata unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
intestines intestinos intestinos body uguiŋï uguiŋɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
lake lago lago environment ipa ipa loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Joyce McCormick
leaf hoja folha environment itagï itagɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
leg/foot pierna perna body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
liver hígado figado body silupe (same as 'heart') silupe (same as 'heart') semantic shift heart See Language page Joyce McCormick
long largo comprido, longo quality fumitsiñï fumitsiñɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ue ue unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
man/male hombre homem human itoto itoto unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ifuŋu ifuŋu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
moon luna lua environment ŋune ŋune inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship a.ma a.ma doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick
mouth boca boca body inzagï; ndagï inzagɨ; ndagɨ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
name nombre nome human ititï ititɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
near/close cerca de perto quality inde inde unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Joyce McCormick
neck cuello pescoço body ifuŋu ifuŋu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
new nuevo novo quality iŋiŋo iŋiŋo inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
night noche noite time koko koko inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
no/not no não grammar #NAME? #NAME? unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
nose nariz nariz body inatagï inatagɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
old viejo velho quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
one uno um number agetsi agetsi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
other otro outro grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
person/human being persona pessoa human kuge; ukuge kuge; ukuge unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
rain lluvia chuva environment koŋofo koŋofo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
red rojo vermelho colour tupisuGiñe tupisuGiñe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
road/path camino caminho manufacture aña aña unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
root raíz raiz flora iñuŋu iñuŋu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
rotten podrido podre quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
sand arena areia environment ñetune ñetune unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
short corto curto quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoulder hombro ombro body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental futisï- futisɨ- doubtful loan Waura, cf. Trumai See Language page Joyce McCormick
skin piel pele body ifidyo; ipufi (also means 'bark') ifidjo; ipufi (also means 'bark') inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
sky cielo céu environment kafu kafu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
small pequeño pequeno quality intsoño intsoño unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
smoke humo fumaça environment gitsitse gitsitse unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
star estrella estrela environment kandiñoko kandiñoko unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora i i inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
stone piedra pedra environment tefu tefu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
that ese/esa esse grammar ele ele inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
thin delgado fino quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
this este/esta este grammar ige ige unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
2sg xx xx grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
three tres tres number tilako tilako inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
thunder truenos trovão environment isilu isilu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
bite morder morder body fife; itsi- fife; itsi- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
blow soplar soprar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
breathe respirar respirar body fїɳGi- fїɳGi- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
burn quemar queimar environment fote fote inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
come venir vir motion e; si- e; si- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cry llorar chorar mental fonu- fonu- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
die/be dead morir morrer state tsitsi- tsitsi- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
dig cavar cavar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
dream soñar sonhar mental eni-; (n)Gitu- eni-; (n)Gitu- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
drink beber, tomar beber body ili- ili- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
eat comer comer body tiñamba- tiñamba- inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
fall caer cair motion indiga- ('fall down') indiga- ('fall down') inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
fear miedo medo mental missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
fly volar voar motion alu- alu- doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Joyce McCormick
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hear oír ouvir mental tsa- tsa- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hit golpear, pegar bater impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other taŋu-ki taŋu-ki unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
kill matar matar impact e- e- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental fu-; ufu fu-; ufu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
laugh reír rir mental tego- tego- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion iŋati-; itite- iŋati-; itite- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
say decir dizer mental ki- ki- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
see ver ver mental ŋi- ŋi- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
sit sentar(se) sentar state kaŋ- kaŋ- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
sleep dormir dormir body ïŋï- ɨŋɨ- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact auki- auki- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tikai- tikai- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
steal robar roubar other imbi- imbi- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
suck chupar chupar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
swell hincharse inchar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
swim nadar nadar motion missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
think pensar pensar mental missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact oi - oi - unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
walk caminar, andar andar motion fulu- fulu- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
work trabajar trabalhar other missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
tongue lengua lingua body iŋugu iŋugu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
tooth diente dente body igu igu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
two dos dois number takiko takiko unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
water agua agua environment tuwa; tűwakoŋofo tuwa; tűwakoŋofo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kukuge kukuge inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar tisuge tisuge unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
wet mojado molhado quality missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
what? que, qué que grammar uwa- uwa- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
when? cuando quando grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
where? donde onde grammar una; unde una; unde doubtful loan Kamayura See Language page Joyce McCormick
white blanco branco colour talakiñe talakiñe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
who? quien, quién quem grammar uŋu uŋu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
wife esposa esposa kinship missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
wind viento vento environment missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
wing ala asa body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
woman/female mujer mulher human itaű itaű unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kwadyapiŋo kwadjapiŋo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
foot pie body tapïgï tapɨgɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar gehale gehale unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
all todo todos other katote katote unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body itï itɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
lung pulmón pulmão body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Joyce McCormick
bark corteza casca environment ipufi ipufi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
fingernail uña unha body iñombigu iñombigu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
heart corazón coração body silupe (same as "liver"); sa- silupe (same as "liver"); sa- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
sun sol sol time Giti Giti unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tefu tefu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick
green verde verde quality tukumiluiñe tukumiluiñe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
hot caliente quente quality atuŋu atuŋu inheritance xx See Language page Joyce McCormick


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tolo tolo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia Joyce McCormick
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Joyce McCormick
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Joyce McCormick
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae missing See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes missing See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. tafitse tafitse unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kuaku kuaku inheritance See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae dafa dafa loan Arawak, e.g. Waura watapa See Language page Joyce McCormick
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ugufu ugufu doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae itu itu inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris katsogo katsogo loan Portuguese See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) aGiGi ("giant anteater") aGiGi ("giant anteater") unknown maybe cognate w/ warisi terms? See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Joyce McCormick
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri agua ("giant armadillo") agua ("giant armadillo") unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Joyce McCormick
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. missing See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kaŋa kaŋa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Joyce McCormick
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna eke eke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria missing See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Joyce McCormick
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Joyce McCormick
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Joyce McCormick
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Joyce McCormick
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Joyce McCormick
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Joyce McCormick
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Joyce McCormick
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Joyce McCormick
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Joyce McCormick
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Joyce McCormick
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Joyce McCormick
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Joyce McCormick
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea etigitegï etigitegɨ See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus susu susu unique See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Joyce McCormick
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. missing See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Joyce McCormick
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays a'na a'na inheritance? possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum teñiñĩ teñiñĩ inheritance See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna i i inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Joyce McCormick
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Joyce McCormick
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Joyce McCormick
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Joyce McCormick
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Joyce McCormick
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Joyce McCormick
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana aŋa aŋa loan Arawak (Waura jana) or TG See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Joyce McCormick
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Joyce McCormick
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Joyce McCormick
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Joyce McCormick
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Joyce McCormick
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kwigi kwigi inheritance? See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Joyce McCormick
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kusiugu kusiugu inheritance See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Joyce McCormick
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Joyce McCormick
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas aŋisa; mbatata (from Port.); mukutsi aŋisa; mbatata (from Port.); mukutsi unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Joyce McCormick
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Joyce McCormick
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. itopui; topu itopui; topu unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Joyce McCormick
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Joyce McCormick
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Joyce McCormick
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Joyce McCormick
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Joyce McCormick
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Joyce McCormick
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Joyce McCormick
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda ifanda ifanda See Language page Joyce McCormick
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea nzueŋi nzueŋi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Joyce McCormick
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita okõ okõ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda iñu iñu unknown cf. Waura See Language page Joyce McCormick
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae asoti asoti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ekege ekege inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Joyce McCormick
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari feu (generic peccary) feu (generic peccary) inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akugi akugi loan into protolg, direction unknown Tupi-Guarani See Language page Joyce McCormick
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris akïgisa akɨgisa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Joyce McCormick
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) agenagi agenagi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae igu igu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris idyali idjali unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus asa asa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Joyce McCormick


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ataũ ("carrying basket") ataũ ('carrying basket') doubtful loan - WW Tupi-Guarani watura? See Language page Joyce McCormick
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
canoe canoa canoa transport missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Joyce McCormick
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology fuati; padye (from Tupian pajé) fuati; padje (from Tupian pajé) unknown; loan Tupi-Guarani In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Joyce McCormick
broom escoba vassoura culture-material agapa agapa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Joyce McCormick
firewood leña lenha other missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Joyce McCormick
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Joyce McCormick
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology agï (manioc ritual song) agɨ (manioc ritual song) See Language page Joyce McCormick
knife cuchillo faca culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool missing especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool missing hunting, warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
bow arco arco subsistence tool missing arco See Language page Joyce McCormick
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Joyce McCormick
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool itali itali unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
honey miel mel food iŋge(iŋgi) iŋge(iŋgi) unknown only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Joyce McCormick
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology kagutu ("large flute used in men’s ceremonies") kagutu ('large flute used in men’s ceremonies') a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Joyce McCormick
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology endifegiku (with parrot feathers) endifegiku (with parrot feathers) See Language page Joyce McCormick
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Joyce McCormick
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Joyce McCormick
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Joyce McCormick
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Joyce McCormick
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
salt sal sal food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Joyce McCormick
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Joyce McCormick
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
hunt cazar caçar food ɳeni-tsi-ŋu ɳeni-tsi-ŋu See Language page Joyce McCormick
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Joyce McCormick
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Joyce McCormick
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Joyce McCormick
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food kine kine inheritance? usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Joyce McCormick
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Joyce McCormick
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Joyce McCormick
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Joyce McCormick
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Joyce McCormick
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Joyce McCormick
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Joyce McCormick
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
house other ŋïne; uŋu ŋɨne; uŋu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick