Chumash Barbareno

Family
Chumash
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
boi
Location
34.46°, -119.70°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7alapaj inheritance Wash 2001:82, 188 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -ij unknown Wash 2001:23 Jane Hill
all todo todos other lij'a (< yila-) inheritance Klar 1977:63 Jane Hill
and y e grammar kim; k'e (B76:267, he says kim is “and so”) unknown Ono 1976:14 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body show inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body toq'olo inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment 7alushpawat unknown Wash 2001:52 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body myt inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality xinch'i unknown Ono 1996:71 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body 7aqshiw; mut “belly, stomach” B78 inheritance Wash 2001:522 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location mishup “down, below (in Wash 2001;71)” inheritance Ono 1996:44 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality xax, pl. xaxax (and aug.) B76:264 unknown Ono 1996:152 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body 7uw inheritance Ono 1996:26 Jane Hill
black negro preto colour 7aximaj “be black” unique Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7axul'is inheritance Ono 1996:44 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body aqty/p “build a fire; blow, fan” inheritance Klar 1977:70 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body 7ic'ik'uw “boil” (trans free “hemorrhoids”?? unknown Wash 2001:47 Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body sHe inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body kutet inheritance Klar 1977:73 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body kalash inheritance Klar 1977:29 Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment 7ixut inheritance Klar 1977:73 Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body axtatan unknown Ono 1996:29 Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tupmekch unknown Mithun 1997:235 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion napay “ascend”(“climb” in Wash p. 40) inheritance Klar 1977:66 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment ikc'i7 “be cloudy”, sikch'i7 “cloud” Ono 96:124 inheritance Mithun 1997:224 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality koqton; oxto “person to be cold” inheritance Klar 1977:76 Jane Hill
come venir vir motion jit'i, 7elew inheritance Klar 1977:77 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 7ipshel “cooked” inheritance Klar 1977:78 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 7inu “de veras”, be.true inheritance Wash 2001:128,181 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental silikHat inheritance Wash 2001:173 Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental mish inheritance Wash 2001:46 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact 7iwawan inheritance Klar 1977:17 Jane Hill
day día dia time 7alishaw inheritance Wash 2001:16 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state aqshan inheritance Klar 1977:81 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact 7ush7el inheritance Wash 2001:36 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna myj, pl myjmuj' inheritance Beeler 76:257 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality taqaq unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7atishwich inheritance Ono 1996:25 Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7aqmil inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality 7axwywyk; qiwen B78 unknown Wash 2001:20 Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment oXtopol “be full of dust” unknown Mithun 1997:237 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tu7 loan direction unknown Klar 1977:23 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment shup “earth, God, dirt, year” inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7uw inheritance Klar 1977:40 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna stumtumun “bird eggs” unknown Wash 2001:172 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body tyq inheritance Klar 1977:84 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body waxanish “feces” (waxan defecate) unknown Beeler 76:258 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion piliklaw (Wash has piliqlaw) unknown Ono 1996:44 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality myk inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body -xil (adj?) inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship kok'o inheritance Wash 2001:65 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental 7it'imin “fear, be afraid (B78)”, inheritance Ono 1996:34 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna s-qap loan direction unknown Wash 2001:40 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ny inheritance Klar 1977:85 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna 7al'ilimu unknown JPH Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion axnan' “flow rapidly” unique Wash 2001:311 Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment spej' inheritance Klar 1977:25 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion xalqlaw “to fly down”, xanan'an “go flying about” Wash 123 unknown Wash 2001:33 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment iqc'i7 “be foggy” inheritance Mithun 1997:226 Jane Hill
foot pie body 7yl inheritance Beeler 78 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora tyqytyq “blackberry” unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality -chHo- inheritance Mithun 1997:227 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state kek (of plants B78); inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7oqwon' “head hair” inheritance Wash 2001:368 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body pu inheritance Klar 1977:90 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar s- unknown Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body noksh (human only; noqsh is hum. or animal Wash 2001:38) unknown Mithun 1997:230 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental 7itaq inheritance Klar 1977:92 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality xulxul; xul B78 unknown Wash 2001:179 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion qunumak; nim'ey B78 inheritance Wash 2001:51 Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact tak-til unknown Ono 1996:31 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other toq-lom from tak-lom Wash 2001:54) inheritance Wash 2001:23 Jane Hill
how? como como grammar 7akim unknown Wash 2001:88 Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar no7 (indep. pro) loan Ono 1996:21, 96 Jane Hill
if si se grammar hak'u inheritance Wash 2001:176ff Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location mam' inheritance Wash 2001:109 Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body missing Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body 7aq'uwsh inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact iniwe unknown Mithun 1997:224 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ch'am'in inheritance Ono 1996:31 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment 7yk' unknown Beeler 78 Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental qon (Wash has qon': p. 316) unknown Mithun 1997:239 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment s-qap loan Ono 1996:141 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kawach unknown Wash 2001:429 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body 7yl inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ton' “be lying down”, toy'in “lie down” inheritance Klar 1977:94 Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment s-qunt'aw inheritance Ono 1996:27 Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body 7al'ek'en inheritance Wash 2001:18 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body 7al' inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7yhyj “be long” inheritance Wash 2001:36 Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna shik “head louse” inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body stot loan direction unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7yhyj' inheritance Ono 1996:19 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7am'in inheritance Klar 1977:96 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7aw7aj inheritance Klar 1977:91 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship xoni, xon'i in Wash unknown Sapir 1920:289 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7yk inheritance Klar 1977:99 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ty inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ni7 inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality mut'ej “to be near” inheritance Klar 1977:131 Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ni7 inheritance Klar 1977:19 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality 7ikimin inheritance Klar 1977:101 Jane Hill
night noche noite time s-ulkuw inheritance Klar 1977:118 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar (-e-) unknown Klar 1977:59 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body noxsh inheritance Mithun 1997:229 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality pakuwash (note -wash suffix) inheritance Ono 1996:143 Jane Hill
one uno um number pak'a inheritance Klar 1977:120 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other 7ush-ka/l (be open of razor clam in Wash p. 406 and vt of door p. 436) inheritance Klar 1977:102 Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar c'oyni- (things, persons) inheritance Ono 1996:20 Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body 7ishk'ij “hurt, throb, be painful” inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ku inheritance Klar 1977:103 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact itatan inheritance Beeler 1976:265 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tuhuj inheritance Klar 1977:24 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour tasin unknown Ono 1996:33 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body -kuj'uw inheritance Wash 2001:429 Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture ch'alayash unknown Mithun 1997:225 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora 7axpil'il inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality topshok'in unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment xas inheritance Wash 2001:334 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7ip inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact e7e, 7ixwa B78 unknown Mithun 1997:232 Jane Hill
see ver ver mental kutij inheritance Mithun 1997:228 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality c'ec' “be sharp” inheritance Mithun 1997:226 Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact wyl inheritance Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality qlowqlowon inheritance Ono 1996:60 Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body q'en'-en inheritance Beeler 1976:260 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental 7ununus inheritance Wash 2001:326 Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state leken; lek'en (Wash) inheritance Sapir 1920:289 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body pHax (< p pax) inheritance Klar 77:14 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment alapaj? (on top) inheritance Beeler 1976:263 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body we7 inheritance Mithun 1997:223 Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality ch-taniw unknown Ono 1976:19 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment tow' inheritance Klar 1977:108 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body jul'uksh inheritance Wash 2001:311 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wi-ch'eq inheritance Klar 1977:79 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tent'ej “press between palms” (in cheese making) unknown Wash 2001:48 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact niloq “pierce” (shell center in making beads) inheritance Wash 2001:461 Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state shu-junto-nown “he makes it stand” inheritance Beeler 1976:263 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment 7aqiwo, 7aqiwu B78 inheritance Klar 1977:119 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other xonon inheritance Ono 1996:103 Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora pon' inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment xyp inheritance Klar 1977:111 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body 7axsjut'en “suck.in”, 7axt'utun (of bees, B78) unknown Wash 2001:166 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body isawus inheritance Mithun 1997:229 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pokosh “be bloated” inheritance Ono 1996:141 Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 7aqiwywyn; B76:266 has aqiw-iwin inheritance Wash 2001:320 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body tel'eq inheritance Klar 1977:27 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ho7, hu, kam unknown Klar 1977;44 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar s-ij unknown Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality astipil inheritance Wash 2001:67 Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality taxshan unknown Ono 1996:32 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental aqniwilich; niwil B78 inheritance Ono 1996:14 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar he7; it'i “this one” (Ono 1996:99) inheritance Klar 1977:44 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar p-; pi7 (indep. inheritance Ono 1996:21, 96 Jane Hill
three tres tres number masix inheritance Klar 1977:120 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body missing Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact supilkitwon; B76:268 sHu-pintap unknown Ono 1996:51 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment soxk'on' inheritance Wash 2001:190 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact salaqway' unknown Ono 1996:57 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7e7lew inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body sHa inheritance Klar 1977:113 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kin'omoj “turn over” unknown Wash 2001:482 Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7ishkom' inheritance Klar 1977:29, 120 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body pash inheritance Klar 1977:114 Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion nan' “go, walk” inheritance Ono 1996:96 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7o7 inheritance Klar 1977:115 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar k-ij- inheritance Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar k-ij- (pl; du is k-ish-); k-ij-ky (indep) inheritance Ono 1996:21, 96 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality otc' inheritance Mithun 1997:237 (cf. 7o7 “water” Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar kiki'i inheritance Wash 2001:39 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar ashnim inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar nuk'a k'e unknown Wash 2001:88 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour 7ow'ow inheritance Ono 1996:45 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar 7aj'i unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship 7uniw'i unknown Ono 1996:103 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment sax7axkHyt “winds” inheritance Wash 2001:330 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body kam inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human enex inheritance Sapir 1920:289 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other talawaxach loan Wash 2001:51 Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body xasham loan Klar 1977:117 Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar p-ij- (pl; du is p-ish-); p-ij-ky (indep) inheritance Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. qaʃi abalone inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno, Ventureno WW %kys underived Beeler 1978:182 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae taq'ayas ant inheritance *tkaya7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno tqaya “ant, small black ant”; Klar 1977:64 underived I'm suspicious but nobody provides any help here Beeler 1978:185 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus ʔal'-uʃ'e-ʃ; badger unique Central Chumash only other complex -Vš resultative, 7al-S123 Beeler 1978:187 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp makal bat inheritance *mVkala Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68 WW %tamakala underived Beeler 1978:179 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor ʧip'ik beaver unique Central Chumash only noted by Kroeber; Yok. toepuek, etc. but loan is into Central Chumash WW %t'ypyk underived Beeler 1978:174 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp watikiʃlóp stinkbug inheritance Central Chumash only same root in Ineseno phrase meaming of elements unknown for lack of dictionary Beeler 1978:188 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus stapan big round tule, S. californicus inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno underived Timbrook 2007:203 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis taxama skunk inheritance *tVqema Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:108 underived Beeler 1978:185 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus mɨy wolf inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno k-asiməj, hesiməj underived Beeler 1978:179 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna chwiw bird unique underived Beeler 1978:174 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger anenoho black ant loan Takic Takic 7ani-t phrase ane-noho ant-X Heizer/Pinart I:59 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus xus bear (both grizzly and black) inheritance *qus Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:68-9 underived Beeler 1978:190 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus maʔ jackrabbit inheritance *ma' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:105 underived Beeler 1978:179 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus tɨq'ɨtɨq' Rubus ursinus, California blackberry inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno reduplicated Timbrook 2007:174, Beeler 1978 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus ʔanaq-puw wild cat inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Ineseno phrase meaming of elements unknown for lack of dictionary Applegate 61, Beeler 1978:172 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera ʔaya-tulutul butterfly inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Ineseno phrase meaming of elements unknown for lack of dictionary Beeler 1978:174 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus wit Condor loan Yokuts WW %wit underived Beeler 1978:188 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? ch'ay' scrub jay, California Jay loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts very widespread form; loan into Central Chumash at least; note NUA *cha'i Stubbs 209 WW %chaj underived Beeler 1978:174 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pulak'ak acorn woodpecker (this confirms ID) loan into protolanguage *pVlak'a(k') Proto-Chumash unknown Klar 1977:116 (may be a loan, widespread arealism) reduplicated Applegate 194; Beeler 1978:182 2 nephew of the sun, only one who did not die in the first flood (Applegate 531) 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae ilepesh chia inheritance *'epV- Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:75-6 same other complex -Vš resultative Timbrook 2007;192 1 “given as a ceremonial offering at most public and private rituals” Timbrook 2007:192 1 1 to clear eyes of particles gathered (wild but closely managed) women toasted, ground into flour 0 0 to Island Chumash “one hatful of chia worth five hatfuls of acorns, 5 o 8 hatfuls of Chia for a good elderberry-wood bow, also could be bought w/ strings of shell money (Timbrook 2007:192 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. ʃoʃo chipmunk, flying squirrel loan Takic WW %sik reduplicated Beeler 1978:184 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota ʔan'ipHey cliff swallow unique ansut'uy “bank swallow” other complex has 7al- Beeler 1978:172 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii kun' rabbit inheritance *kuni Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:105 underived Beeler 1978:178 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. kwek' Fremont cottonwood inheritance Central Chumash only I, V have reduplicated version, or a different reduplication underived Beeler 1978:178 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans ʔaʃkaʔ coyote unique underived Ono 85, Beeler 1978:173 1 approaches house to warn of death 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ʔaʔ crow inheritance *7a7 Proto-Chumash Obispeno t-a7 underived ʔaʔ-ʔiwaʃ crow-pejorative Beeler 1978:171 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mo'moy Datura wrightii, toloache loan into protolanguage *mom'oy from *moy Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977:93 sees as inheritance but really a loan from Gab or Lu “moon” WW %moji ~ %moni same reduplicated Timbrook 2007:65 1 taken at initiation to seek dream helper, and any time afterward 1 1 painkiller for serious injuries and broken bones gathered (wild) men, women boiled to make infusion 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus deer unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:188 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana tak Pinus, except p. monophylla, p. jeffreyi inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Ineseno underived Timbrook 2007:141 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris ʧtɨn dog, pet inheritance Also in Ventureno underived Beeler 1978:174 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum tok Apocynum cannabinum unique B,Cr,I,V Source of Luiseno tokmat milkweed underived Timbrook 2007:31 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura tukutuk mourning dove unique Note Obispeno toqmoloqlo, Salinan loan; also Ventureno shukushuk -- most be sound symbolic variants reduplicated Beeler 1978:187 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus qayas Sambucus mexicanus unique Central Chumash only underived timbrook 2007:195 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna 7al'il'imuw fish inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno other complex 7alal- Agentive prefix Beeler 1978:FIND 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera step flea unique *-tep Central Chumash only There's a tepuchi word in UA -- check? Or is this a Californianism. Klar 1977:86 thinks is PUA but this is wrong. underived Beeler 1978:184 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. syit red-shafted flicker, 'named for the sound he makes' unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:184 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ʔaxulpes a fly inheritance *axulpes Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:86-7 phrase meaming of elements unknown for lack of dictionary Beeler 1978:174 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei meq yucca unique underived Beeler 1978:179 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon knɨy fox unique Central Chumash only underived Ono 85; Beeler 1978:178 2 approaches house to warn of death 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna waq'aq' frog inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno weqeq WW %wakat reduplicated Ono 124, Beeler 1978:188 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos slow' eagle unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:183 clan symbol (Applegate p. 452) 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. chtɨmɨy Ribes spp., Gooseberry unique Central Chumash only underived Timbrook 2007:170 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer pʃoʃ gopher snake inheritance *pSoSo Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Beeler 1978:182 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera tuq' small grasshopper inheritance *ti/uqu (from *-qu) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:89 underived Beeler 1978:187 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. pistuk squirrel inheritance Also in Ventureno underived Heizer/Pinart I:57 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. ʃoʃo chipmunk, flying squirrel loan Takic WW %sik reduplicated Beeler 1978:184 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus muhu Great horned owl inheritance Central Chumash only Gab. muhut; this is a Proto-Uto-Aztecan word. But it's sound-imitative..., and if loan is into Central Chumash underived Beeler? 1 Warns “a good person will die” (Ono 89) 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis xus bear (both grizzly and black) inheritance *qus Central Chumash only underived nunaʃiʃ “animal; beast, devil” Beeler 1978:181 (and used this way in an Ono text, as “(big) vs. (small) animals re hunting preferences Beeler 1978:190 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae enekeyey'e horned toad inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno; this looks oddly like the Eastern Miwokan word etekiliwa (approxminate rendering). reduplicated Beeler 1978:175 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae yuxnuc hummingbird unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:190 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. show tobacco loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts WW %sokon underived Timbrook 2007:149 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic sxonin bug unique underived Beeler 1978:184 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica mulus Juniperus californicus, California Juniper unique Central Chumash only underived Timbrook 2007:108 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera -ʃik head louse inheritance *Seke Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:96 underived Applegate 239; Beeler 1978:184 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. sq'oyon Arctostaphylos spp., manzanita inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Ineseno underived Timbrook 2007:34 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis 7okhponush A. fascicularis inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno other complex -Vš resultative Timbrook 2007:40 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus mekhme'y Mission tule, J. textilis inheritance Central Chumash only Also in Ineseno (Ventureno has Takic loan) reduplicated Timbrook 2007:102 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos ʧ'uʔ mockingbird unique underived Beeler 1978:174 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera pɨw'ɨ mosquito inheritance *pewe(we)' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:98 underived Beeler 1978:182 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera ʔantipak moth inheritance Venureno 7aLtipaka “moth” other complex 7al- Beeler 1978:172 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor tuk'em' mountain lion inheritance *tVkem' Proto-Chumash Widespread Californianism, note NUA *tuCkuC; Klar 1977:98, probably a post P-Ch loan, I think, hence irregularity WW %tuku underived Beeler 1978:187 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. t'o (Mary Yee in Ono); kiw mussel (O), mussels sp. (Beeler unique Also in Ventureno underived Ono p. 30, B eeler 1978:177 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata q'oy' (Ono), q'oy (Beeler) olivella shell inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno underived Ono p. 57, Beeler 1978:183 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? xay'xay' (western belted) kingfisher loan Central Chumash only unknown same as Crested Jay word in Yokuts?? Loan into central Chumash at least (Pinart recorded for Ineseno) WW %kaj reduplicated Beeler 1978:189 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla posh Pinus monophylla unique Central Chumash only underived Timbrook 2007:142 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum ʔaʧiʃiʃ; ʔalaquc'um clam sp. inheritance *'ala-qu-Cum clam sp., money Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:97 other complex 7al- Beeler 1978:172 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys ʔoxwón' gopher unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:181 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum yasis Toxicodendron diversilobum, poison oak unique Central Chumash only underived Timbrook 2007:214 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. xʃap rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Chumash Obispeno kaxʃap underived Beeler 1978:190 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp tiʃ'iʎ'il red ant inheritance Central Chumash only same root in Ineseno underived Beeler 1978:186 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus ʧ'oq blackbird loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only Yokuts Kroeber noted this loan; Proto-NimYokuts *ch'ax (Golla 1964:60); Yuki is also very similar, it's an arealism. But loan is into Central Chumash WW %chak underived Beeler 1978:174 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis xelex hawk sp. loan into protolanguage Central Chumash only unknown WW %kili underived Beeler 1978:189 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus pup'u roadrunner loan into protolanguage *pu' Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977;106 WW %pu: reduplicated Beeler 1978:182 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica wew'ey Sage herb unique Central Chumash only reduplicated Beeler 1978:188 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss kowoʧ salmon inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno underived Beeler 1978:178 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna ʔonok'ok' lizard inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno reduplicated Beeler 1978:181 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna c'iqHiy' snake unique underived Beeler 1978:175 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum qi'w, Soaproot unique underived Timbrook 2007;56 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata shu'nay Rhus trilobata unique Central Chumash only underived Timbrook 2007:166 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kwiʧ peregrine falcon, duck hawk unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:178 CHECK 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae ktut spider unique Central Chumash only Note Yowlumne ko-to-gil-loi; ko-lo-kil'-wi; Delta-california Yuman IA hellytutt “black widow spider”; C. xłycuc underived Mamet 2008:18; Beeler 1978:178 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae qewet (Beeler), toad inheritance Ventureno xwetet underived Beeler 1978:183; 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) pon' tree inheritance *pono' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:116 underived Beeler 1978:182 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera pokh Tree yucca unique underived Timbrook 2007:226 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ʔonoq(') Check B glottal turkey vulture unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:181 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines ʃaq turtle unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:184 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia ku'w Q. agrifolia inheritance *kuwu(') Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:160 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata ta' Q. lobata inheritance *ta' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:102 underived Timbrook 2007:163 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica takak valley quail loan into protolanguage *takaka Proto-Chumash Takic Klar 1977:105, but a widespread arealism, may be a loan WW %kaka reduplicated Beeler 1978:185 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis waw'aw goose unique Central Chumash only reduplicated Beeler 1987:188 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus paxat whale inheritance *paqat(V) Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:115 underived Beeler 1978:182 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos hew' (Klar xew') California Brown Pelican inheritance *sew Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:103 WW %hew underived Beeler 1978:175 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica nu'nit' Vitis californica unique Central Chumash only might be %sonot (the not part) underived Timbrook 2007:224 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) aluche'esh Avena spp., wild oats unique alu might be < Spanish arroz other complex -Vš resultative (and probably 7al-) Timbrook 2007:43 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica washtiq'oliq'ol California wild rose, R. californica unique phrase, reduplicated meaming of elements unknown for lack of dictionary Timbrook 2007:172 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) naxayxáy chaparral sunflower, daisy (Calochortus in Timbrook 2007) unique reduplicated Beeler 1978:180 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. shtayɨt “S. laevigata; S. lasiolepis unique Central Chumash only underived Timbrook 2007:182 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ʧ'iʔ woodrat unique Central Chumash only underived Beeler 1978:174 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper skiʃ' angleworm loan unknown This looks like Miwokan ke$y- forms -- areal?? WW %kes underived Beeler 1978:183 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. 7ɨy yellowjacket inheritance *ɨyɨ, *ɨyɨ' Proto-Chumash Klar 1977:117 underived Klar 1977;117 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum wishap' Yerba santa E. crassifolium inheritance Central Chumash only also in Ineseno underived Timbrook 2007:83 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna tak'ajas “ant” inheritance Klar 1977:64 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ch-wiw' loan direction unknown Ono 1996:91 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna 7axulpes inheritance Klar 1977:87 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna tshti/n'; Beeler 76:258 has chtyn', cht'in' B78 unknown Ono 1996:21 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna sicweq “zacate”; cweq (Wash 41) unknown Mithun 1997:225 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna wy inheritance Wash 2001:103 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna xshap “rattlesnake” inheritance Ono 1996:26 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna ktut, pl ktutHut' inheritance Beeler 76:258 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food 7exwex-eš acorn mush unknown also šipitiš Beeler p. 184 derived resultative -vsh Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology hemišup floor, hell unknown compound shup 'world' Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
feather headband dress tú-hu headdress of feathers loan Yokuts an aspirating squiggle next to /h/; probably this is the cux word simplex Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool ya' arrow inheritance *ya Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977, Beeler 1978:190 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool 7is'uw bait inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived 7uw 'to bite' Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material kiwš stone pot, olla loan Yokuts JPH (155) simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing missing kim 'basket sp.', x'im' coiled storage basket Beeler 1978:189 (sound symbolism?) Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material 7epsú7 hat inheritance Proto-Central Chumash basketry hat' in CI simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material k'elk'ilïlï beads unknown reduplicated Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7ax bow, gun inheritance *aqa Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport tom'ol sewn-plank canoe inheritance *tomolo Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation wote:ya bottle loan Spanish puhu7 water jug, vessel Beeler 1978:182; h<im water bottle not covered with pitch Henshaw simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wot' chief, be rich inheritance Proto-Central Chumash in I and V simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress 7ičk'i7 breechcloth inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived inst -7i7 Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
cook food food 7ipšel to cook (Beeler 175 'cooked') inheritance *pSel Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
corpse food šaqša dead body inheritance *qsa 'to die' Proto-Chumashan also ho7-s-a7min-iwaš 'the corpse' that-3-body-PAST Mithun 1997:232 derived s-aqša 3-dead Mithun 1997:230 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology 7expén sing, dance unknown nïw 'dance' Wash 2001:247 simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology šup earth, god inheritance šup Proto-Southern Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool burtch digging stick unknown simplex Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool wuli gourd dipper unknown simplex Ono 1996 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7atišwič dream (V) inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kayi:na chicken loan Spanish WW %gallina simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
earring other su-wayan-iš earrings inheritance *wayan Proto-Chumashan WW %sonot derived Klar 1977 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology nunašiš animal, beast, devil inheritance Proto-Central Chumash also yowoyow, devil, proper name of mythic creature, Beeler 1978:190; also lewlew Ono 1996:87 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool k'wo/-no-hi fire drill unknown derived looks like -7i7 inst suffix Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7aqtïp'i7 firewood inheritance derived aqtïp 'to make fire' Wash 2001 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food tululun fish with pole unknown also sax7anpič Wash 2001:225 reduplicated Wash 2001 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool sŭk-ka-mŭk fish line unknown probably has sax- in it derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool sHa tooth, fishhook, arrowhead inheritance *Sa Proto-Chumashan Klar 1997 simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tiwalul'ay flute inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7ahaš, 7ahašiš axa7š Wash 2001:17 heart, ghost, spirit inheritance *-haš Proto-Chumashan Klar 1977:73 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology 7ut'imay'mu graveyard, burial place unknown 7uš7eš 'grave' < dig-RESLT Mithun 1997:230 derived utimay 'to bury' Wash 2001 Jane Hill
alcohol food 7alwayente brandy loan Spanish ak-ci'-ti-sla 'whiskey' from Henshaw in Mithun 1997:231 WW %aguardiente simplex looks like it got assimilated to the 7al- nmlzr?? Ono 1996 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics mom'oy Jimsonweed loan into protolanguage *mom'oy from *moy Proto-Chumashan Gabrielino may not be proto if from Gab. Moya- 'moon', loan wouldn't be into Proto-Chumashan WW %moji ~ %moni reduplicated Klar 1977; Beeler 1978:180 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology 7al-atišwinič one who has dreams from taking jimsonweed; shaman inheritance Proto-Central Chumash 7atishwin is spirit helper or power from them; see also 7al'alqutHopš 'sorcerer' Wash 2001:66 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food mow honey, sugar (Wash 2001:52) semantic shift Proto-Central Chumash reed sugar' at Wash p. 251 simplex mowon 'sweet' Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
house other 7ap house inheritance Proto-Southern Chumashan simplex Ono 1996 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food huniyiw hunt unknown also wïl 'shoot, go hunting' Beeler 1978:187 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material 7ïwï knife inheritance *7iw Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
mat culture-material 7as tule mat inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool al-kap mortar inheritance Proto-Southern Chumash derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
necklace other 7el' necklace inheritance *el' Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Klar 1977. Beeler 1978:174 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport tišlé7 oar, paddle unknown simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool c'uniy'ik pestle inheritance Proto-Southern Chumashan looks too much like the Henshaw Ineseno form not to call it the same derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
pinole food 7oqtokuš pinole unknown Henshaw has ki-weth 'meal of seeds' derived oqtokok 'toast corn for pinole meal' Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tipxop stone pipe inheritance Proto-Central Chumash 7uw'aš 'smoking pipe' Wash 2001:179 derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
pitch food spïl pitch inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool 7olot'oč quiver unknown this is NOT the verb, which is 7ališk'iy (Wash 2001:189) derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology muns-ma/ red paint unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer) Jane Hill
salt sal sal food tip salt inheritance *tepu(7), *tipu(7) Proto-Chumashan simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool ke-ahw< seed fan unknown also a-ta-cák simplex Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology 7axwin' clothes inheritance Proto-Southern Chumashan see haxwi- in IC derived suffix -n' Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool talip sinew-backed bow loan Yokuts simplex Klar 1977; Beeler 1978:185 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology niwiš song unknown derived Wash 2001 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture skin'it skën'ët' Ono 1996:47 string, cord unknown toq' string, thread (probably < milkweed) simplex Beeler 1978:186 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material meš sack, bag inheritance Proto-Central Chumash simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
string of shell money other 7ančum money inheritance 7ala-qu-Cum, *ana-qu-Cum Proto-Chumashan I disagree; cognacy is not perfect and shell money is too late to be P-C. The string itself is /pux/ (Wash 2001:131) derived Klar 1977, Beeler 1978:172 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 7asuka sugar loan Spanish see also 'honey' WW %azúcar simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology saqutinan' saqutin'an in Wash 2001:49 tell a story unknown derived Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics šow tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Central Chumash Yokuts ultimately probably a Yokutsan loan WW %sokon simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material â-lâ-kén winnowing basket unknown derived Henshaw (Heizer 1955) Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
medicine narcotics xul'apšan medicine unknown derived Wash 2001 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material č'omš cradleboard inheritance Proto-Central Chumash derived Mithun 1997 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sululalu soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
corn food mays corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Wash 2001 Jane Hill
beans food piliholi beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Ono 1996 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation katu cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 7ax bow, gun semantic shift *aqa Proto-Central Chumash simplex Klar 1977 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture s-kyn'yt' inheritance wash 2001:60 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture s-kyn'yt' inheritance wash 2001:60 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material 7ixti/sh inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7alqap “mortar” inheritance Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture c'unij'ik “pestle” unknown Beeler 1978 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7ax “bow” inheritance Klar 1977:71 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ya7 “arrow” inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
house other 7ap', 7ap inheritance Ono 1996:25, 27 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense sedentary no