Wintu

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
wit
Location
39.72°, -122.44°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location panti, inheritance P1985 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar hiwehi unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other ko:m, ko:t unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar 7ut (DS) unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body may 7anaq “leg joint” inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body q'an kenti inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment bukul inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location ti inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body jaj inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality c'Epkal inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body telyi unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ken loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality qom inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ba: inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour culul inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body tede:ki inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body phulye inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body c'itik inheritance? Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body paq inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body 7imit “milk, breast” inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body 7ol-phure inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment hire: (vi), inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body c'uka: inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human -lye inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion dika inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment q'ah, q'a:h inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality k'ol unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion hina inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact co:lma (cause to be cooked) inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality caluma inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental ly'a:mah unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental waca: inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact taka;, takca loan Jane Hill
day día dia time sani inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state kira: inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hapa: inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna taret (really something like “beast”) unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality bukul inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental yecew inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body bula inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality Xonos “dried up, dried” inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality mile: unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment baqca :dusty” Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body ma:t unknown Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment po:m inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body ba: inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna lyuh, lyu:h, unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body tum “eyes, face” , tu:mu/tu:mum “eye” (MM) inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body c'enis inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion dile inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality kele:l, k'ele:l inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body hu:m inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -tan inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental k'ilep inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna k'alah, k'alaq inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment pho:h inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna dikit, diket “McCloud speech, generic, obsolete” inheritance? Liedtke 07:43 from Heizer Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion c'uha: loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment luli inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion thiwa inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment Xos inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body mah inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora 7im “berry” inheritance SH05 Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality cali loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state bohema- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tomoy (on head) inheritance? Jane Hill
hand mano mão body seh inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar pi inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body phojoq inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental mute inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality jilmas (< jily) inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion duka (vt) unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact qota loan direction unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other c'aka: unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hen inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ni inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar kil (“conditional”) unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 7el- inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body pot inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body c'ec'ereq unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact keruma: (cause to die) inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental t'ipna: inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment lyul, lyu:l loan Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental nuja unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment dalas inheritance Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body thawharas “left hand, side” inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body tole inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bija inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment walu:qi inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body moroq inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kila inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kelas loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna pheres “body lice” inheritance SH05 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body lyoso unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human wi:ta inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ci:r loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment canaly unknown Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship -tu:tu: address form unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body qo:l inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human -jet, jechuna:s inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tomoykenwiti unknown Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality coki loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body doki loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality po:, po:bes (of things) inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time cipi unknown Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar -mina inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body sono inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality ho:n unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number k'ete: inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other xilama unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar k'ete inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body t'aqima:s “painful” inheritance? Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human winthu:h, winthuh, winthu:n inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact palya inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment luh, lu:hej loan direction unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour te:di inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body cali right (dexter) side inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture jemer inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora se:k inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality julel loan direction unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment c'eri inheritance Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ti:n “talk, say, scold” unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact luka: unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental wine inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality tutuha “sharp-edged” unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact jupca unknown Jane Hill
short corto curto quality woro:ta unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body salas inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental kaja:, inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state buha inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body c'op inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment q'olci unknown Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body xi:na inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality ku:t'e, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment nu:q inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body sube: inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ly'uqa unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact Xica inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact c'i:qa inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact lyucu loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state suke loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment satu:s “stars” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other q'aja inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora k'ok loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment so:n inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body c'uje inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body k'iwe: inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body 7ol-xusal inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion dumca inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body sutu inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar pibeh inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar pite inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality cutup (of solids) unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality c'iri:kit inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental jomoj loan direction unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 7ew inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number panuly inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body doki loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact lyej inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment thumu:ka, thumu:kit, thumu:kus unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact c'e:ka inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body tahal inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body si: inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other -thama unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number pa:l inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body 7oqca inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion q'aja: inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment me:m inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nele:t inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar p'ele inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality lyata: unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar pe:h inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar he:s inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar heke inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour xa:ja inheritance? Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar heket inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship p'oqta inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment k'ahi inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body q'an inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human p'oqta inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other jura: inheritance Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha:sma inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour qanal inheritance? Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mil inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. L'al shell of any animal; abalone, etc. inheritance *L'al Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae t'i:do:q ant, red ant (Pitkin t'idoq, only in one entry) inheritance *t'edVq Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana ture:p antelope unique underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus socet beaver, badger (merriam has paht so-chit “badger” inheritance *so:č- Wintun Shepherd 2005 other complex Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus moi'-e-hahs, moi'-ye-hus Merriam consistent with similar forms across nearly all dialects for bald eagle (Merriam; he has this form k'acet for “golden eagle” 56:69)) unique other complex Merriam 56:7, 56:69 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata xowit band-tailed pigeon (CHM confirms 56:7) inheritance *xo- ... wi- Wintun Shepherd 2005; a terrible set; note NimYokuts *s/howin other complex xow ... 1 only in this word Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp tehe:lah bat (Merriam confirms 56:3) inheritance *dehe:la (?) Wintun Shepherd 2005 relative clause deh “wings outstretched”; perhaps from *damhal “bat” with folk etymology Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor bisu:s beaver, otter, mink unique underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp xerismet stinkbug inheritance *xed-i-men Wintun Shepherd 2005 relative clause xEd “eject odor” Pitkin 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus lyupul tule, rat-tail grass, needle grass (Merriam Scirpus sp., small tule 56:59; big round tule 56:123 (S. lacustris)) inheritance *L'op Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived maybe -VL derivation? Pitkin 1985 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis Xo: skunk inheritance *qHo: Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus lubeles wolf unique other complex Schlichter 1981 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis son too-rep so:n ture:p bighorn “rock antelope” unique phrase Merriam 56:67; 97 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna č'ilč'iL č (Schlichter) and c (Pitkin) are same sound; L is always lamda (my L) in Pitkin, in Schlichter she writes Lambda glottal (my L') for glottalized sound and barred l (my L) for the non-glottalized one. bird unique Looks like a lot of other bird words; may have a sound-symbolism relationship to Shepherd's “bird” cognate reduplicated Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger lalas ti'ido:q little black ant, tiny stink ant unique phrase Schlichter 1981 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus c'iL bear, black or brown, all except grizzly inheritance *č'il Wintun Shepherd 2005; Golla 1997:164 relates to Alsea su:Ln 'grizzly' and perhaps ultimately to words for “black” underived just means “black” Pitkin 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus pombo:las, bombo:las jackrabbit unique underived must be an old compound; -as not the right vowel so not the derivational suffix, probably Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus 7im blackberry inheritance *7im(il) Wintun Shepherd 2005; Berman compares to Molala 7i:m “huckleberries” underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? nirit blue grouse (CHM confirms 56:7) unique other complex nir ... Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus p'aLimet bobcat, lynx inheritance *p'a ..l ..m- Wintun Shepherd 2005; she assumes metathesis in P p'amalay relative clause -met; but p'aLi probably part of a loan word Schlichter 1981 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera saysayboloq butterfly inheritance *bolVq Wintun Shepherd 2005 phrase say “light, lamp”; saysay “glitter”; boloq “fragile, soft, delicate” Pitkin 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus wu:qwuq condor (Merriam yum-hahk 56:7; mol'-luk 56:39; ly'uk form 56:69) unique reduplicated Pitkin 1985 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? c'ayik jaybird, bluejay, smooth-headed bluejay (CHM confirms) loan into protolanguage *č'ayi(:)k Wintun unknown Shepherd 2005 WW %chaj underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? č'ura:t California woodpecker (CHM confirms 56:9) loan Yana same word is in Yana c'uraadu (Sapir & Swadesh 1960); W word is NOT cognate with other Wintun forms so loan probable, although system is probably wider underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. č'upč'ubukus chipmunk (OK CHM) inheritance *č'ube “mouse, rat” Wintun Shepherd 2005:81 phrase elements unknown, -us presumably derivaitonal Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota q'i(:)rteqčit q'an-tun-ut “wing-gatherer” California swallow, barn swallow; mud dauber bee; CHM >kēL-to-ne “cliff swallow” (L raised, underlined); at 56:69 has >kan-too'-nut Cliff swallow) unique relative clause q'i(:)r- “mud”, teqčit dauber Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana qa:tqat any tame or wild duck, coot unique reduplicated Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii wacit cottontail (CHM “brush rabbit” but cottontail at 56:99 McCloud dialect) unique other complex waci “cry”, the crying one, crybaby Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. t'arap cottonwood, maple (CHM tar-rap' me 56:19, different word for maple) unique Shepherd 2005:183 has as word for “mushroom, flat, on trees” in River Patwin WW %pa(t) ~ %lapat underived Pitkin 1985 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans sedet coyote, dog,fox inheritance *sede Wintun Pitkin 1985 says is possibly loan from Yurok; verb root means “promiscuous”. But Shepherd 2005 gives *sede, so loan is into Proto-Wintun if loan other complex Schlichter 1981 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7a:L, 7alal (P) crow inheritance *7a:l Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus no:p deer, buck, venison inheritance *no:p Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana čatimi digger pine tree (CHM confirms) unique compound Pitkin 1985 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris suku, sukuh dog, horse inheritance *suku Wintun Nisenan has identical form, as does Yana, Mis; areal form WW %suku underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura qi:nus dove (CHM confirms 56:71, says means “sleepy or sad” unique other complex qi:n only here; -us unclear but recurrent partial Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae qa:tqat duck (CHM confirms all ducks) unique looks like Luiseno word reduplicated Pitkin 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus 7apmi elderberry tree unique compound < 7ap “elderberry”, mi: “tree” Pitkin 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus qu:l elk, buffalo (Merriam has with -it') semantic shift *qo(:)la “hide, buckskin Wintun Shepherd 2005:153 underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna nur fish, salmon inheritance *nur Wintun Shepherd 2005; salmon definitely the prototype. Slightly irregular, she has speculations p. 135 underived nur ... Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera k'okos flea, “he who puts rafters on” inheritance *k'ok'o Wintun Shepherd 2005; note Miwokan *ky:ky$-, Maiduan tyk'y/si (the Maidu form, Nisenan only from Merriam) other complex k'ok “rafter”, but I think this is folk etymology of a Penutian flea word, look at Miwokan, -os has wrong vowel to be the usual suffix Pitkin 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. č'ilew yellowhammer (CHM confirms) inheritance *či- Wintun Shepherd 2005; some forms changed on analogy with “old man” preventing full reconstruction underived č'il... 1 Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera xilit fly, flies unique other complex Pitkin 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon 7uwe ha:w common gray fox loan into protolanguage *ha:w Wintun unknown Shepherd 2005; identical form in Proto-Maidu, perhaps related to Yokutsan words WW %kaw relative clause Pitkin 1985 says ha:w “probably a kenning originally” (from “go”, keep going”; he glosses 7uwe as “just that way” Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wataq(met) frog (CHM confirms 56:15) inheritance *wataq Wintun Shepherd 2005; a large areal group of very similar forms WW %wakat underived waq...1 Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos L'uk (bald?) eagle (Pitkin has for “eagle”), worm; see “Other notes” (Merriam confirms 56:7), but also has Pitkin's k'acet “white-headed bald eagle” semantic shift *L'uk “worm” Wintun Shepherd 2005; Pitkin says means “worm” because unauthorized person who takes eagle or feathers will get worms. However Golla (1997:162) following Liedtke thinks it may be cognate with Alsea Li:q-iy-s “feather”, Li:x “tail feather”, and Wintu L'uq-e “pl underived Schlichter 1981 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. buli kilus gooseberry, thorny gooseberry (CHM Ribes sp. “currant” 56:23) unique on *kHi:l “thorn”, note also Utian *kil:i- “horn, antler” (which appears in “thorn” words too -- and W “thorn” is related to “horn” words. A “Penutian” item? phrase buli “hill”/ kilus from *kHi:l “thorn” Schlichter 1981 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer moroqp'eh bullsnake (CHM confirms) unique relative clause moroq “to move, quiver” is a Wintun cognate Pitkin 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) č'aru:q green, greens, grass, edible clover inheritance *č'aro:q(-i) Wintun Shepherd 2005; Golla 1997:164 relates to Alsea su:lha7k “grass” underived Pitkin 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera nep grasshopper (several kinds) unique underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. Lat ground squirrel (CHM confirms at 56:67 in “Ono wintu, Wintu proper”) inheritance *L'et Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. k'aysas gray squirrel (generic aspect) inheritance *k'ay Wintun Shepherd 2005: 107 “rodent, gopher, squirrel”, maybe fast walker other complex k'ay “to walk fast, hurry, run” Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus ču(:)tkudu:t great horned owl (CHM confirms 56:7) inheritance *kudu: (?) Wintun Shepherd 2005; not a very good set JHH WW %(hu)tukul other complex Schlichter 1981 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis wimah grizzly bear (particular aspect) unique Note Proto-Pomo *li:ma (with mima in some dialects); Wappo wima “cougar” Elmendorf 1993:230 underived Pitkin 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus suku, sukuh dog, horse loan no information Same as “dog” underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae lučit hummingbird (CHM confirms for all dialects) unique Note li:cici- in Mis and Nisenan other complex lOč ... Schlichter 1981 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. lol tobacco inheritance *lo(:)l Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp č'enduk little mountain snowbird, junco? (CHM confirms junco 56:11) unique underived č'en only in this word, duk unknown. Probably etymologicall complex Schlichter 1981 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica puy7it juniperW tree (Merriam chĕ-ĕk chek'-min 56:113 McCloud) unique Wintun is *mon other complex puy “east”??? Pitkin 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera don headlice unique underived Pitkin 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos qa:tqat mallard duck unique reduplicated Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. pʰaqami manzanita tree (CHM A. viscida 56:117 McCloud) unique compound < pʰaqa “manzanita” -mi: “tree” Pitkin 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa boq Shepherd 2005 transcription A. eriocarpa (consistent, several dialects) inheritance *boq Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived baqi “brush”?? Merriam 56:25 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis koo-roo'-te A. fascicularis unique other complex q'ur “pick grass in fistfuls”?? Merriam 56:121 McCloud 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos č'a:wi č'ilč'iL mockingbird unique relative clause č'a:w ... “sing” Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera yu:s mosquito unique underived Pitkin 1985 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera tukulu:t moth unique relative clause tu:k “the flutterer” Pitkin 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor patet mountain lion inheritance *pate Wintun Shepherd 2005 other complex pat “outside”; “the one from outside, from the wild” Pitkin 1985 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus č'olč'oL mountain quail (CHM confirms 56:7) inheritance *čHolčHol Wintun Shepherd 2005 reduplicated č'ol (also root in sound word); čHoL “mountain” Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. L'al mussels inheritance *L'al Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata Lono:q olivella shells inheritance *Lono(:)q Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? woč'ot Stellar's Jay (CHM confirms Cyanocitta 56:7) inheritance *woč- Wintun Shepherd 2005 other complex woč.., opknot of bird. A harmonizing vowel and -t derive many, many nouns from roots that sometimes appear nowhere else Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum L'al clams inheritance *L'al Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys yilal gopher (CHM confirms 56:67) unique other complex yil “heavy” (the one who is heavy earth mover???) Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum p'otxom, potxom poison oak inheritance *p'oqHom Wintun Shepherd 2005 other complex p'od “hurt”?? Pitkin 1985 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. L'a:q rattlesnake unique underived possibly L'aqa “strike at” as in knapping?? Schlichter 1981 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp t'i:do:q ant, red ant inheritance *t'edVq Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus L'ul č'ač'at red-winged blackbird (lit. “lake blackbird”) (Merriam confirms headword) loan unknown The č'ač'at part is in a large family of blackbird words in č'a... in NAM WW %chak phrase lake č'a Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis ladet, ladit red-tailed hawk (CHM confirms, consistent for all dialects e.g. 56:7, 39) unique other complex Pitkin 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus pu:pu: roadrunner (CHM pōm to'-hut 56:71 and elsewhere; pom “ground”, to'-hut “runner” -- a neologism? ) loan unknown Not the Wintun form; looks like UA words! But a loan from Takic puypuy seems unlikely. May just be sound symbolic. WW %pu: reduplicated Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica qeti wormwood (CHM confirms 56:25) inheritance *qeti Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 2 2 1 used for rheumatism when boiled up in a liquor (Pitkin 1985) 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss nur salmon, fish inheritance *nur Wintun Shepherd 2005; Golla 1997:163 relates to Alsea nu:ns' “to eat”, “elk (meat)”, probably from nu:-nu:s- (no:p “deer”, “meat” in Patwin, may be related) underived nur ... Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? č'iwiL fence lizard (Sceloporus) (CHM confirms) inheritance *č'iwil Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived č'iw 2 only Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna La:q snakes (really, just loses glottalization) unique underived Pitkin 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum sa:q'as soap-root (CHM confirms sa:q'as at 56:89); (CHM has >het-te 56:27) loan Eastern Miwok Pmie *saka:ni (Callaghan 1971)-, but note Mil şikíiti , which Merriam says is soaproot (JHH) WW %svkv underived derived with -Vs ??? like the -us forms?? Pitkin 1985 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata pHintus R. trilobata inheritance *pHintus Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived -us derivation? Merriam 56:55; Shepherd 2005:144 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco e'-re-ēs' sparrow hawk (CHM consistent for all dialects) inheritance *7i:r7ir (?) Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Merriam 56:7 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae kerek spider inheritance *kHerek Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis pim-me-lit little spotted skunk unique other complex Merriam 56:3 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae yoho:lmet frog, toad (CHM confirms 56:47, 79) inheritance *yoho(:)l Wintun Shepherd 2005 relative clause yoho:la “to have pimples” Pitkin 1985 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) mi: tree inheritance *mi Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Schlichter 1981 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura hu:s buzzard loan *hu:s Wintun Miwok Shepherd 2005;99; widespread form in Miwok, Yokutsan, Maidu (and Mayan!) WW %hus underived Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines xokohas mud turtle unique underived probably complex but no root given even by Pitkin, -as has wrong suffix vowel Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia ta:sal live oak (Q. chrysolepis CHM 56:51) unique underived Schlichter 1981 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata sulehmi valley oak (CHM confirms) unique compound sule “valley oak acorns” (Pitkin 1985) Schlichter 1981 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica pʰites valley quail (CHM confirms 56:7) inheritance *pHit “feathers” Wintun Shepherd 2005; Golla 1997:163 relates to Alsea plu:h “feather, hear” and Wintu phil-e “cut hair”; reference is to quail topknot. Note Yokutsan *T'iphith “mountain quail” relative clause pʰit “feathers” (feathered one, one with topknot) Schlichter 1981 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis laq goose, geese, wild goose (CHM all geese) loan into protolanguage *laq Wintun unknown Shepherd 2005; very widespread form WW %lala ~ %lak underived Pitkin 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica halat wild grapevine (CHM confirms); also oo-yu'-me, oo-yool'-me 56:123 unique other complex Schlichter 1981 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) nomel loki wild oats (CHM confirms 56:59) unique phrase lok- only in this word; perhaps nome:l “uphill to the west”, referring to stands of wild oats on foothills of Trinity Alps?? Schlichter 1981 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica mī-o-lŏk-me wild rose plant (fruit “no good”; this is Pitkin's moy 'oloq “tomatoes” unique Proto-Wintun *moy “seed”??? Shepherd 2005:129 underived probably complex but no root given even by Pitkin Merriam 56:55 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) xolom sunflower (Merriam confirms 56:117) inheritance *qHolo Wintun Shepherd 2005 underived Pitkin 1985 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. tonmi “white willow” white willow, used for baskets (CHM confirms S. hindsiana 56:117 McCloud) inheritance *ton - *mi Wintun Shepherd 2005 compound Pitkin 1985 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. Lomus packrat, woodrat, edible mountain rat (CHM confirms) inheritance *Lom Wintun Shepherd 2005:122; in Nomlaki, Patwin is “fisher” other complex given harmonizing vowel I think this is -Vs derivation Pitkin 1985 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) klah'-dus L(')arus? hairy caterpillar unique underived maybe Pitkin's L'abus “mole”?? (“lives in the ground”) Merriam 56:111 McCloud 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper k'e:s angleworm loan into protolanguage *k'es Wintun Eastern Miwok Shepherd 2005; Pmie *ke:$u- “angleworm” WW %kes underived Schlichter 1981 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. wenemk'ecit wasp, yellowjacket (CHM consistent with hoo'-bit across all dialects) inheritance *k'eč Wintun Shepherd 2005 phrase elements unknown Pitkin 1985 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia č'arawah po7ilah American goldfinch (CHM te-le'-che 56:11, wol-was 56:105 McCloud) unique relative clause č'araw-ah “field-one.who.is.in” (Coyote); po7ilah “little” Schlichter 1981 0 There is a myth in which they are Coyote's children, hence their name (Schlichter 1981:38 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum how'-chus; how-we choos me Eriodiction unique underived Merriam 56:87; 119 McCloud) 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna t'idoq inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna c'il (also means “eclipse, bear”) inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna xilit unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna se-cila, unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna c'aru:q “green, grass,clover” inheritance? Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna no:p inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna lya:q “snake, rattlesnake” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna kerek inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food pukit7aqi acorn mush before cooking inheritance *t'aq-i/u 'pound' Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:183; also yiwit, acorn mush, soup *yiwit compound raw-acorn.mush Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology nor-Lu:t-to:nin in heaven, "that south sweathouse" unknown compound south-sweathouse Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
feather headband dress č'ile maku:s headdress of yellowhammer feathers unknown also č'il tewči phrase č'ile 'yellowhammer' Schllichter 1981 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool č'ipčus arrow (especially the shaft) inheritance *č'eb Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:76 simplex possibly from ch'ip 'to peel bark' (Pitkin) Schllichter 1981 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other moqos arrow straightener inheritance *moq Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:129 derived mOq 'straighten arrows' Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material mo:koheti stone bowl, mortar loan Spanish molcajete simplex Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material pulu:q basket inheritance *pol Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006 derived from pOl 'container' Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material k'olom cup or bowl serving basket, container, dish(es) inheritance *k'olom Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:111; note Proto-Pomoan *q'olólY 'mortar (basket)',so might be Pomoan loan into PW simplex possibly from k'Ol 'become curled?) Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material tHaku:s little Indian basket cap inheritance *tHaki Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:180 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material topi beads, money loan simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology sačaq red pigment stone, red ochre … unknown Where have I seen sa-? It's in Washo, too simplex Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool k'ulu:l bow, gun, rifle, pistol unknown simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport kenu: canoe, boat loan English canoe WW simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation me:m pulu:q bottle, bucket (lit water basket) inheritance *pHul, *pol Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:140; this looks like the Miwokan %pulu words phrase Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation pape:l paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wih chief inheritance *wiy, *wi: Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:198 other complex the 'particular aspect' of "person" (wi) (Pitkin) Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool p'oLču:m L is barred l knobbed club (Schlichter), hammer-like weapon (Pitkin) inheritance *pHo -*č'us Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:83, 144 derived Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress 7ol-q'alamena:s breech clout for men unknown compound Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
cook food food Loma to cook inheritance *Lom-i/u Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:122 derived base is Lom Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
corpse food minelis the dead one(s) unknown derived minel 'to die' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology čuna to dance inheritance čHono Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:74 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool sen č'us digging stick inheritance *sen Proto-Wintun Shpeherd 2006:167 phrase Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool Xolom X is x with subdot dipper inheritance *qHolo Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:157 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology yečew to dream inheritance *yečew Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:203 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tHudi something like a drum (foot drum JHH) simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation čikin chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
earring other L'ala:s L' is barred lamda; ordinary L, barred l, never is glottalized earring, abalone shell, etc. inheritance *L'al Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:188; also Lanoq Olivella earring derived L'al 'shell' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology tewismet devil, Devil inheritance *tewe Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2000:127 'to fly, go up' includes sense of 'dangerous' derived tew 'dangerous' Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool t'ili:kus buckeye fire drill inheritance *t'ir 'to twist' Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2005:185 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other docitopi stove, fireplace unknown derived dOc 'fire Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other č'u:s wood, stick, club, log inheritance *č'us Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:83 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food noryala to fish, to throw the line in the water unknown might be related to nur 'salmon' derived must be from nur 'salmon, fish' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool noryalus č'e:k fish line unknown phrase Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool noryalus fishhook unknown derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
acorn bread food sa:w any kind of food, acorn bread inheritance *sa:w Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:166 WW %saw simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
wheat food tili:kus wheat loan Spanish WW %trigo simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology li:lus, Li:lus flute inheritance *lul 'cylinder' Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:118; but note widespread lul forms in Mis, Maidu, Tubatulabal derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other toki(t) handgame sticks inheritance *toki? *t'oki? Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:177 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology Les shade, shadow, ghost, spirit inheritance *Les Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:120 simplex might be from LE 'to be transformed' Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology q'i:laq grave inheritance *q'ilaq Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:162 derived from q'i:l 'to smear mud' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
alcohol food daqči mem whiskey (lit. hot water) semantic shift phrase Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology Lahit doctor, shaman unknown derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food hu:bi honey of bumblebee unknown derived from hUb 'to swarm' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
house other qewel house inheritance *qewel Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:151 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food k'oduma to hunt inheritance *k'od 'move in a direction' Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:110 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material k'elek'ele knife unknown reduplicated Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool simis flat rock under the mortar basket for pounding acorns unknown simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
necklace other loyo:q necklace unknown derived Loy 'encircle' (O is cap, Excel refuses to admit L.O. sequence) Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool č'u:p awl, needle inheritance *č'up Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:82 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport heruna:s paddle, oar inheritance *her-u Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:94 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool sataq pestle, pounding rock inheritance *sat 'hold in hand'? Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:166 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other ho:la pipe inheritance *hol 'throat' Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2005:96 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
pitch food hu:des pine pitch unknown derived generic aspect' (Pitkin) Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool pulu:q basket, pot, barrel, box, bottle inheritance *pHul, *pol Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:140 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool 7api:lis, 7apmes quiver unknown derived 7ap 'to carry on back' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology soko:kus cocoon rattle loan Miwok Shepherd 2006:170; in W and both Patwin WW %soko simplex Shepherd 2006 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology te:di red, red paint inheritance *tede Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:174 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food weL, we:L salt inheritance *we(:)L Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:194 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool Xawas fan-shaped seed beater inheritance *qHawa? *q'awa? Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:155 derived Shepherd 2006 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology t'aLas clothes inheritance *t'aLa Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:183 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material Lo:yos net, apron, weaving inheritance *Lo(:)y Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:121; maybe *Lele 'weave'?? Shepherd 2006:120, notes a CHM for kloi-e with that set; also lo:yos deerskin apron for the front derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool ken k'owčus snare for small game phrase from k'ow- 'peck', referring to the acorn used as bait for birds, rabbits Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology č'a:wi song unknown derived c'a:w 'to sing' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool k'i:r spear inheritance *k'ir Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:110 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
stirring stick food tHolo:y cooking paddle, paddle for stirring inheritance *tHulu? *tHolo? Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:182 derived Shepherd 2006 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture su:pi string, twine unknown derived sup 'unravel Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material sewi sack inheritance *siw/*sew Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2005:158; note Washo sy7wa 'burlap sack' derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
string of shell money other topi beads, money unknown simplex perhaps from top 'used'" (Pitkin) Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation su:ka sugar loan English also xurxur 'pine sugar, sugar', and mun- root for 'sweet' WW %sugar simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
sweathouse other Li:dunas small individual sweathouse for 4 or 5 people unknown also Lu:t (p. 138) for the big one that holds 50 and is really dancehouse derived Li:da 'throw water on fire' Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology bo:la to tell a story, make a speech inheritance *bo:le Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:69 derived the way Pitkin treats the morphology, every verb stem is derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics lol, lo:l tobacco inheritance *lo:l Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:117 simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
tule boat transport nuh-doli raft (?-tied) loan into protolanguage *nuh 'boat' Proto-Wintun Miwokan Shepherd 2006:134;Callaghan 2001:322 notes matches Maidu nö WW %nuh compound Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material k'enu:s sifting, winnowing basket inheritance *k'en-i Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:128 derived Shepherd 2006 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress t'a:mus shoe(s), ladyslipper flower inheritance *t'amu Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:183 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics meres medicine, liniment loan English the suffix -in interpreted as instrumental case WW %medicine simplex Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material L'ol baby basket unknown simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation činitopi sheriff (lit. one who catches) semantic shift derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food mayis corn loan Spanish WW %maiz simplex Pitkin 1985 Jane Hill
beans food friho:lis beans loan Spanish also binis WW %frijol simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation kiri, kirikirit cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation k'ulu:l bow, gun, rifle, pistol semantic shift derivied Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress tHaki(t) hat, cap (white men's kind) semantic shift *tHaki Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:180 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation Lada:rus, L'asa:sus split rattle elderberry rattle inheritance *L'aL Proto-Wintun Shepherd 2006:189 derived Schlichter 1981 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material tis (on brush hut), unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture dolumes inheritance? Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture mo:koheti loan Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool sen c'u:s inheritance SH05 Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture k'ina: inheritance Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture sataq “pestle”, inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool k'ulu:l “bow” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool no:t “arrow” inheritance Jane Hill
house other qewel inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG dense seasonal no