Salinan M

Family
Isolate (NAM)
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
sln
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location leM unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other (k)I:/sili'p 'all, every' I is umlaut I unknown Mason 1918:151 Jane Hill
and y e grammar TA'xo unknown Mason 1918: 153 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing missing Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment TapaiH, Top'ai' unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ti/tc'o/'m / acute accent, ' glottal, c is 'sh' unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality missing missing Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body T'e/pen T retro t unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location lak' unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality (k)etcHa:/' 'large, great' unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
bite morder morder body missing missing Jane Hill
black negro preto colour cauwat unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body pa:/kata unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body xotk unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body paxa/k unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body icu/' unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body missing missing Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment missing missing Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human sepxa:/ unknown Mason 1918:134 Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion a/xap, axa:/ta 'climb, rise' unknown Mason 1918:139 Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment pa:/y' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality missing missing Jane Hill
come venir vir motion iAx, iex unknown Mason 1918:141 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact nApH unknown Mason 1918:144 Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tse'e 'truly' unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental xa:/ta 'weep' unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing missing Jane Hill
day día dia time To:/kan (To:/ken on p. 16) unknown Mason 1918:137 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state ci/tip unknown Mason 1918:139 Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact xA'pko' 'dig, excavate, climb' unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna To:xo/' unknown Mason 1918:125 Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental missing missing Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body missing missing Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality missing missing Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment tApaiyeH unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body e/ntAt A is alpha unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment la:k' 'country, land' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body Icx , lam (143) unknown Mason 1918:141 Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna te:tekHEnel H aspiration unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body coke/neTH unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body pHxat 'excrement, intestines' unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion tum' unknown Mason 1918:147 Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality missing missing Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body upe/nt unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship pexk unknown Mason 1918:134 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental cxa/lo 'be afraid, frighten' unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna sie/tH unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment Tha'a/uH unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna cat' 'bullhead' (no generic) unknown Mason 1918:122 Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment makewe/ unknown Mason 1918:129 Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion maL unknown Mason 1918:143 Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment sa/pa 'fog, frost' unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
foot pie body icxe:/p unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora pamputen unknown Mason 1918:129 Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality ts'ep unknown Mason 1918:151 Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state mopke:/ unknown Mason 1918:144 Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ko/nakiHt unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
hand mano mão body me/nen unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar heo' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body To/paka unknown Mason 1918: 16 Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental pesno/xo' unknown Mason 1918:145 Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality cmo/T 'heavy, deep (snow)' unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact *cme:'L 'beat, strike' unknown Mason 1918:139 Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing missing Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar kHe' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
if si se grammar T(a)- unknown Mason 1918:43 Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing missing Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body pHxat 'excrement, intestines' unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact oko/T'o' unknown Mason 1918:145 Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ium unknown Mason 1918:141 Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment missing missing Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental (k)aite 'laugh, shout' unknown Mason 1918:143 Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment sta unknown Mason 1918:17 Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body la/pai, o'kel (150) unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body sa/nan 'leg' unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion missing missing Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment missing missing Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body o/xoyo:ta'p 'live, exist' unknown Mason 1918:145 Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body acx unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality missing missing Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna I/ke I is lower case I unknown Mason 1918:123 Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body to/hul 'lung, gizzard' unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human lu:wai/ unknown Mason 1918:134 Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ma'TH 'meat, flesh, animal' unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment Tats'o:/pe' loan Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship apa/i (exo', e/pex) unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body elik unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human missing missing Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body la/k'ai 'neck' unknown Mason 1918:127 Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality missing missing Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ei/tc'ai' 'neck' unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality stikwau 'young, new' unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
night noche noite time cmAkHa:/i unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ha:/kse unknown Mason 1918:154 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body e/nenAt A is alpha unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality missing missing Jane Hill
one uno um number t'o/ixYU unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing missing Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body xu/tia, ku/tia 'sick, ill' unknown Mason 1918:151 Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human Tepo:/'T' 'Indian, native' unknown Mason 1918:135 Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact *(k)a/nata 'pound, pulverize' unknown Mason 1918:138 Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment missing missing Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour tc'kA/ten' unknown Mason 1918:149 Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body lamai (sep 150) unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture take/' unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora tepa/so unknown Mason 1918:129 Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment tsi/ntsin unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental he/k'a' 'tell, say' unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental ia:m unknown Mason 1918:141 Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact et'ene/ 'shoot with arrow' unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
short corto curto quality missing missing Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body e/taL L is Mason's symbol unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state a'cel' unknown Mason 1918:138 Jane Hill
skin piel pele body spa/nAt 'skin, hide' A is alpha unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment leM unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body missing missing Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality sko/tAn unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment TatetH unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body mi/slip unknown Mason 1918:144 Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact e/xtc'nop unknown Mason 1918:139 Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact loxo/xo' 'seize, squeeze, grasp unknown Mason 1918:143 Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state eT'a/kox 'stand, remain, halt' unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment TatsuwA/n loan direction unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other missing missing Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora Ta:/kATa 'wood' unknown Mason 1918:130 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment cxAp 'stone, pebble, rock' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body *e:tc'o/i * I think means reconstructed from Sitjar transcription unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body (k)eno/l unknown Mason 1918:140 Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion (k)La'patene unknown Mason 1918:143 Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body itsHe/'p unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar he unknown Mason 1918:151 Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar hewo/'t unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality sku/ntHui' 'small, thin, lesser' unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental a:ki'nyi' unknown Mason 1918:138 Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar *aswa unknown Mason 1918:151 Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mo' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
three tres tres number la/pai loan Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body missing missing Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact *(e)T'etepai 'shoot, throw, cast' unknown Mason 1918:147 Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment T'eLxo' unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact k'e:/lo'(p) 'tie, bind' unknown Mason 1918:142 Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body I/paL first symbol is lower case I inheritance Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body oi/Lit unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number xA'kic unknown Mason 1918:153 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion ica 'go, walk, wander' unknown Mason 1918:141 Jane Hill
water agua agua environment Thca', tHca', tcHxa' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar kHa' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kHa' unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality missing missing Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar Taltom' unknown Mason 1918:36 Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar prefix?? missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar Ake:ton- (?) unknown Mason 1918:36 Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour mA'THa:L unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar tEkHa'- E is e umlaut unknown Mason 1918:36 Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship seN unknown Mason 1918: 134 Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment ts'a:kai/H loan Mason a918:133 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body T'ne/pukH 'arm, wing' unknown Mason 1918:128 Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human lene/' unknown Mason 1918:134 Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ThxauwAt unknown Mason 1918:150 Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mom unknown Mason 1918:32 Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. cmaiyík' abalone unique Salinan M only Not in A (maybe) underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae sep-loo'-kan ant unique Salinan M only not in A underived Merriam 55:381 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana múī' antelope unique Salinan Widespread Hokan antelope/bighorn word, see all the way to Seri haamoja; Cocopa mɂu·ł “antelope, probably related to proto-Yuman *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep”, perhaps *ahat-m?u·ł ...?? An old arealism? WW %mo: underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus t<ó:io badger unique Salinan M only not in A underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata tik<mó<; tekmó (Turner 1983:228) pigeon (Merriam 55:371 confirms band-tail pigeon) unique Salinan M only not in A underived Mason 1918:125 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp tc'émtcem bat loan Yokuts reduplicated This is a loan, but surely the sense of reduplication carries over! Mason 1918:122 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp sum-tahn' beetle unique Salinan M only not in A underived Merriam 55:381 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus k'ámta< tule (Merriam confirms as S. lacustris) unique Salinan M only not in A underived Mason 1918:129 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis cowá skunk unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus To:xó' wolf unique Salinan looks a bit like the tukut “wildcat” words, but usually wolf and mountain lion are similar, not wolf and wildcat underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis lă-wā'-sit Bighorn loan unknown Note similar forms as far east as Tub le:wshe:p “female spirit, perhaps otter”; Yowlumne lew-ā'-sip; le-wā'-sip; WW %lewasip underived Merriam 55:367 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna sa:xe Turner has initial š bird unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:122 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger santən black ant unique Salinan this is a plural underived Mason 1918:124 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus T<Axaí' bear unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus koL hare (Merriam 55:369 confirms blak-tail jackrabbit) unique Salinan Compare Chumash *kun(V)7 ? Turner 1983:226 underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus elpónə blackberries (Merriam confirms 55:387) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:129 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus snam wildcat unique Salinan note n- infixing as in “eagle”. Cute. other complex s- animal prefix (or maybe /n/ infix? Antoniano is sam' Mason 1918:124 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera sokóko butterfly unique Salinan reduplicated Mason 1918:124 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus te'tc' great California vulture unique Salinan Note Pmie chy:$y- “buzzard” (JHH from Callaghan 2001:325 #111 underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? Tahi bluejay (Merriam 55:371 confirms California Jay) loan unknown areal form; Miwokan *T'ayT'ay, Yokutsan similar, etc. WW %chaj underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palá:kak' California woodpecker loan Salinan unknown widespread areal form of unknown origin WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Mason 1918:124 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae pásiL Chia loan Takic Proto-Californian(Takic & Tubatulabal) *pasa/i WW %pasv underived Mason 1918:129 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. mats'éko' chipmunk (Merriam confirms Eutamius) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota siatánil swallow (Merriam confirms 55:373) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:124 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana shum'-shum coot unique Salinan reduplicated Merriam 55:377 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii map' rabbit (Merriam 55:369 confirms cottontail) loan Chumash Turner 1983:226; Chumashan *ma7 “jackrabbit” underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. pă'-chŏl Cottonwood unique Salinan Merriam has pahtah'-pah al'-way for Mil (57:533); Yuki ; pątme7; Wappo pah-to (CHM) underived Merriam 55:385 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans helk'á Coyote unique Salinan other complex hel- must be prefix Mason 1918:123 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos cka:k' crow unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii mo:noí'YI toloache loan Chumash underived Mason 1918:129 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus Taá'p deer (Merriam 55:367 confirms mule deer) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana cho' digger pine unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:383 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris xutca:i dog unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum t'mahn' Indian hemp unique not recorded in A; perhaps same as “Yucca root” in 59??; note Yukian mah, Pomo *mahxwa WW %mah other complex t- is articular prefix (should be /T/, on mah, areal form Merriam 55:393 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura T<a:xwén' turtledove (Merriam 55:371 confirms) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae helpáT' duck loan Salinan M only Obispeño Chumash O.C. tpatpa; note paat words in Yuman underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus tetáp<ko:L elderberries (Merriam 55:385 confirms as Sambucus glauca, the plant) unique Salinan reduplicated Mason 1918:129 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus p'ac elk unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:124 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna cwá'N fish unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera TaiyeL' flea unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. wut'-tuk Flicker unique Salinan M only not in A underived Merriam 55:373 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera a:we:té< fly unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:122 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei t<Ma (this is the root); tri-yahs' Y. whipplei unique Salinan other complex t- is articular prefix (should be /T/ Mason 1918:129; Merriam 55:397 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon sto' fox (Merriam Gray Fox (Urocyon) 55:365) unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wákaT' frog unique Salinan very widespread frog word of unknown origin; e.g. PUA *wakaC-ta; WW %wakat underived Mason 1918:125 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos snai eagle unique Salinan other complex -n- is some kind of infix here; Turner doesn't discuss Mason 1918:124 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. toipen gooseberries unique Salinan M only underived Mason 1918:130 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer sha-num'-kul, shă-num'-kŭs gopher or bull snake unique Salinan other complex probably prhasal but translation impossible Merriam 55:377 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) kat; hay, grass; unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:129 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera kaculó grasshopper unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. samkó'm squirrel (Merriam confirms Gray Ground squirrel 55:367) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. To:lóc gray squirrel (Merriam confirms Sciurus fossor 55:369) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus cokonoí' horned-owl unique Salinan Note Proto-Miwokan *tuk:úli- WW %(hu)tukul underived Mason 1918:123 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis T<Axaí' grizzly bear (Merriam confirms 55:365 unique Salinan underived 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae swah'-kah-kah' horned toad unique Salinan reduplicated Merriam 55:379 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae pé:lts'e humming bird loan Serran not in A; Compare Kitanemuk pituru7; Serrano piti:dhi7 (from a UA form) underived Mason 1918:124 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. Toelám tobacco unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:130 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp skō'-tot; to'-sil Junco unique Salinan M only not in A other complex s- animal prefix Merriam 55:375 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica trah-nem' Juniper unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:383 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera íke louse unique Salinan Chumash has seke; somewhere is dike, where? Maidu? underived Mason 1918:123 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos slă-ăt Mallard unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix on la7at Merriam 55:377 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. pă-trahk'; pă' Arctostaphylos glauca unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:387 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa mataí'YI milkweed (Merriam confirms 55:393) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:129 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis təmá:l milkweed (Merriam has as broad-leaf 55:393) unique not recorded in A ; probably same word as 58, 59 with n-l sound simbolism other complex t- is articular prefix (should be /T/ Mason 1918:130 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera kacáp mosquito loan Yokuts Nim-Yokuts k'asup'; Salinan A seems to have metathesis: k7epts7íjin (Harrington); kopts7En (Jacobson) underived Mason 1918:123 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera lapé tarantula-hawk unique Salinan M only not in A underived Mason 1918:123 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor T<a'muL puma loan Salinan unknown widespread areal form of unknown origin WW %talom underived Mason 1918:125 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus k'aiyák< mountain-quail (Merriam confirms) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. xaiík mussel unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? chă-lā'-o Crested Jay (Cyanocitta) unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:371 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla t<o< pine nuts unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:130 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum čkóya:m clams loan Obispeño Chumash Turner 1983:226 underived Mason 1918:123; Turner 1983:226 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys ee'cesi gopher unique Salinan M only underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum mosh-sCH we'-lit Poison oak unique Salinan In A as “Ivy” phrase meaning unknown Merriam 55:389 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. smekoí rattlesnake unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp ilkát ant (Merriam “red ant, hairy” 55:381 unique Salinan other complex l- probably prefix Mason 1918:123 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus tcal Brewer's blackbird unique Salinan forms with chak, etc. quite common underived Mason 1918:125 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis spi:k' red-tailed hawk unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus xó:'mI roadrunner, ground cuckoo unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica stah-lah', stah'-lit' stah'-lut sageherb (A. ludoviciana) unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:391 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss T<etēyau salmon unique underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? xapailə/' lizard (Merriam confirms scaly lizard 55:379) loan Salinan unknown note Note Pmiw *pet:el:li, Mip pit:e:le-, WW %petel underived Mason 1918:123 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ck'ot snake, worm, grub; (Merriam's “snake, any” 55”379) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum ck'alə/<; tetaí large soap-root; small soaproot 129 (Merriam confirms first as Chlorogalum) unique not recorded in in A WW %svkv underived Mason 1918:128 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco skelé:le sparrow hawk loan Salinan unknown This is a widespread form; e.g. Chumash B xelex “hawk sp.”, Maidu ke'-lik-lik'-kim; Proto-UA *kɨlɨ-. This is the sound of this hawk. WW %kili other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae sopnét spider unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:125 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis smo-hel' little spotted skunk unique Salinan other complex s- animal prefix Merriam 55:367 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae hah-yoCH toad unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:379 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) te-kah'-tit, te-kaht-nil a tree unique Salinan M only IN Salinan A only as “Valley Oak” underived Merriam 55:397 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura xo:pNéL red-headed vulture unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:126 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines Tawə/ turtle loan Miwokan e.g. Pmie *7awan:a- WW %awan other complex probably /T-/ on vowe initial Mason 1918:125 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia s'ow'-wut Valley live oak unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:385 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata p<á:<t (p'at Turner 1983:230) white oak (Merriam confirms Q. lobata 55:385) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:129 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica smaté:xan; quail (Merriam confirms valley quail) unique Salinan M only not in A other complex s- animal prefix Mason 1918:124 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis t'lai Canada Goose unique Salinan Probably same root as Salinan A loiná other complex t- is articular prefix (should be /T/ Mason 1918:123 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos tewé pelican (Merriam has as Brown Pelican) loan Chumash Central Chumash *hew; t- in Salinan is a prefix WW %hew other complex t- is articular prefix on Chumash loan (should be /T/ Mason 1918:125 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica o:pIs wild grape (Merriam has as “grapes”, in which case < uvas) loan Spanish surely from uvas underived Mason 1918:129 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) atLó:'s wild oats loan Spanish Spanish /arroz/ WW %arroz underived Mason 1918:128 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica stuk'-kil wild rose unique Salinan underived Merriam 55:387 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) k'á:ciL sunflower unique not recorded in in A underived Mason 1918:129 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. pəsxét willow loan Takic saxat; perhaps by way of Yokuts WW %saka other complex p- is articular prefix on loan Mason 1918:129 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. mákel; rat (Merriam 55:369 confirms round-tailed woodrat) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) Taaú caterpillar unique Salinan Not in A (maybe) underived Mason 1918:125 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ck'ot; teméhai; T'iopé' snake, worm, grub; worm; grubs, worms loan Salinan M only Yokuts not in A (except for ck'ot) WW %kes underived Mason 1918:123 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. lemé'm wasps, bees (Merriam “yellowjacket wasp” 55:381) unique Salinan underived Mason 1918:123 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia kŭ-too'-lik-kah, skah-to'-le-kah Yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique Salinan M only not in A phrase probably prhasal but translation impossible Merriam 55:375 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum t'cha-luk, trā-pul-trah'-hi Yerba Santa (E. glutinosum) unique not recorded in in A other complex t- is articular prefix (should be /T/ Merriam 55:389 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna ilka/t unknown Mason 1918:123 Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna sa:xe unknown Mason 1918:122 Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna a:we:te/H 'fly' unknown Mason 1918:122 Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna xutca:i unknown Mason 1918:126 Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna petL unknown Mason 1918:129 Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna Taa/'p unknown Mason 1918:125 Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna Tinele/' 'serpent' loan direction unknown Mason 1918:125 Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna sopne/t unknown Mason 1918:125 Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food nα/siL acorn atole unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology Tuxtine hells unknown Proto-Salinan only plural given other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
feather headband dress cotolë/ ë is schwa feather headdress unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool etei'yini/' arrow loan Yokuts simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other pomnawe/' a squiggle after final ' arrow straightener unknown awi element shared with Salinan A (derivation?) simplex probably derived but insufficient info Mason 1918 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material cla/ coil basket unknown Proto-Salinan teca/< 'basket' p 131, topë/š 'twined basket' 132 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material xe/nes beads unknown Takic WW %xene simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool paxuwe/ bow unknown note Esselen simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress e/tapalapei breechcloth unknown reduplicated Mason 1918 Jane Hill
cook food food nαp< cook unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
corpse food missing missing Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology sawine/ dance unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool si-mil gourd cup or dipper unknown simplex Merriam 38:397 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
earring other missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology Samt'iL diablo unknown Harrington lists as "M.", from Rosario Cooper simplex Harrington Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other Ta:/kaTa wood unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing missing Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food k'one/< acorn bread unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
wheat food missing unknown Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other pēu:/< bones for game unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology t'kama/tl' shallow grave unknown derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
alcohol food tepintca whiskey unknown unknown Mason 1918 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics monoi'->YI toloache loan Chumash WW %moji ~ %moni simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology tα/ken shaman unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other (T<)a:M house unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food a'mTi' hunt unknown Proto-Salinan derived Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Mason 1918 Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tca:k knife unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
mat culture-material teki/wi bed unknown note Mutsun toko simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool T<oxo/L mortar unknown Proto-Salinan may be loan from Yokutsan into ProtoSalinan, note Yokutsan *k'ojwos 'portable mortar' other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
necklace other apenik necklace unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool (T)eta/xk awl unknown other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pane/, p'αnE' pestle unknown note the pa- element simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other T<anõ final o has subdot pipe unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool pana/me quiver unknown Merriam recorded this for A simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology tet'aut'onë/' rattles inheritance Proto-Salinan tc'oxo/k 'cocoon rattle' 132 unknown Mason 1918 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food Takai/ salt unknown Proto-Salinan other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool To:na/L seed beater unknown other complex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material o:ni/su' skirt unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool t<a/iL trap unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ka:/keL song unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool cik<Enai/ fish-spear unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing missing Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other k<Uwap< sweathouse unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology he/k'a' tell, say unknown also T<e' 'tell, say to' p 147 simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics toela/m tobacco unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
tule boat transport tuwipe/ boat, raft unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material sa:ma/k< winnowing tray unknown simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing missing Jane Hill
medicine narcotics tihoni/ mediicine unknown Proto-Salinan simplex Mason 1918 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material tc'αname/' baby carrier unknown derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress ts'wa:ke:te/' hat unknown Proto-Salinan derived Mason 1918 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing missing Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture tTHoxo/L 'mortar' unknown Mason 1918:132 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture pane/, p'An'E 'pestle' loan direction unknown Mason 1918:133 Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool paxuwe/ 'bow' loan direction unknown Mason 1918:131 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool et'eyini/' 'arrow' unknown Mason 1918:130 Jane Hill
house other (TH)a:M loan Mason 1918:130 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium seasonal no