Sáliva

Family
Saliban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
slc
Location
5.30°, -69.38°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Benaissa, Taik. 1991. Vocabulario Sáliba-Español Español Sáliba. Lomalinda: Alberto Lleras Camargo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location otoona otoːna unknown See Language page Becky Walker
and y e grammar bahixa, lleetoho baʔixa, ʤeːtoʔo See Language page Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment emijõ emihõ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location See Language page Becky Walker
back espalda costas body amana amana unknown See Language page Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality balladi badʒadi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body tehche teʔʧe doubtful loan, direction unknown Kabiyari te[re] See Language page Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ubena ubena unique See Language page Becky Walker
big grande grande quality wodi, gode wodi, gode inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
black negro preto colour missing See Language page Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body cuaho, cuahu kwaʔo, kwaʔu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body pãĩjãje pãĩhãhe unique See Language page Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body lluhllu ʤuʔʤu doutbful loan Onomatopoeic, but possibly a loan since the same form is found in a number of areal languages; Makú /tʃütʃü/; Quechua del Pastaza /tʃutʃu/; Yucuna (Arawak) tʃuʔutʃú; Proto-Chibchan See Language page Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human nee neː unique See Language page Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment tetahe tetaʔe unique See Language page Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality õõcha õːʧa unique See Language page Becky Walker
day día dia time ñucudiã ɲukudiã unique See Language page Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality llequihãjĩã ʤekʷihãhĩã inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality illa (inanim); ipudi (anim) iʤa (inanim); ipudi (anim) unique See Language page Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality rõjĩ rõʔĩ See Language page Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment isejõ iseʔõ See Language page Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body ãxoxo ãxoxo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment saji, sẽxẽ sahi, sẽxẽ unique See Language page Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna jillella hiʤeʤa unique See Language page Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body paxute paxute unique See Language page Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality oto ĩxe oto ĩxe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body õdeeto õdeeto inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship bahwa bahʷa unique See Language page Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna juwoo huwoː inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment ohsa oʔsa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment sehbahpu seʔbaʔpu unique See Language page Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment eñuxoh eɲuxoʔ See Language page Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora ipu ipu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality balla baʤa unique See Language page Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body juwo huwo inheritance cf. Hodi tuuwë See Language page Becky Walker
hand mano mão body umoo umoː inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar llojoh/jixuh ʤohoʔ/hixuʔ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body illu, illute iʤu, iʤute unknown See Language page Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
how? como como grammar ñehẽ, umehexa ɲeʔẽ, umeʔexa unique See Language page Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar jĩsi hĩsi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
if si se grammar See Language page Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location joahna hoaʔna unique See Language page Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body itebo itebo unique See Language page Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment oopu oːpu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment oxoxo oxoxo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ñobohehnahda ɲoboʔeʔnaʔda unique See Language page Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body ũja ũha unique See Language page Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment leliga leliga unique See Language page Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body missing See Language page Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality ñocui ɲokʷi unique See Language page Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna jũwõõ hũwõː unique See Language page Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human ũbe ũbe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna deha deʔa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment bejo beho unique See Language page Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nahna naʔna unique See Language page Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body aja aha unknown See Language page Becky Walker
name nombre nome human umacha umaʧa unique See Language page Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality llene dʒene unique See Language page Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body illulah, illulãhte, iñulah iʤulaʔ, iʤulãʔte, iɲulaʔ See Language page Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body õcua õkua unknown See Language page Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality missing See Language page Becky Walker
night noche noite time ãchiena 'at night' ãtʃiena 'at night' unique See Language page Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar jĩhã, jũhũ hĩʔã, hũʔũ unique See Language page Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body ĩxu ĩxu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality sĩgwe sĩgʷe unique See Language page Becky Walker
one uno um number jotabe hotabe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar johte hoʔte unknown See Language page Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sõhdi 'illness' sõʔdi 'illness' unique See Language page Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human joxo hoxo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment oxo oxo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour duwa duwa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ballama baʤama unknown See Language page Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture maana maːna inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora illellaixu iʤeʤaixu unique See Language page Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality bihlãchẽ biʔlãʧẽ unique See Language page Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment mesea saji mesea sahi unique See Language page Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality fiji fihi doubtful loan Spanish See Language page Becky Walker
short corto curto quality sõcui sõkʷi unique See Language page Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body anojaha anohaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental daha jĩãhgahgajaha daʔa hĩãʔgaʔgahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
skin piel pele body ĩxexe ĩxexe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment mumasẽxẽ mumasẽxẽ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality isabaje isabahe unique See Language page Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment omiñu omiɲu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment missing See Language page Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora missing See Language page Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment inaachu inaːʧu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body ihnehe iʔneʔe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar jicuah hikʷaʔ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar jĩtuhu (ellos) hĩtuʔu (ellos) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality wihbe wiʔbe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality bohdi, ichaheje boʔdi, iʧaʔehe unique See Language page Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar ahna aʔna unique See Language page Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar ũcu ũcu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body õcuajã õkʷahã unique See Language page Becky Walker
three tres tres number jehdubahdu heʔdubaʔdu unique See Language page Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment missing See Language page Becky Walker
bite morder morder body ñiajaha ɲiahaʔa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body juwahllajaha huwaʔʤahaʔa unique See Language page Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment juwajaha huwahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
come venir vir motion ohmajaha oʔmahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact icuaa doajaha ikʷaː doahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
count contar contar mental paxodajaha paxodahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental seajaha seahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact loadajaha, nañadajaha loadahaʔa, naɲadahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state ãhẽhajaha, añagamajaha ãʔẽʔahaʔa, añagamahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact tajihxu juwajaha tahiʔxu huwahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental sõdena ahajaha sõdena aʔahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body õguajaha õgʷahaʔa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
eat comer comer body icuajaha ikʷahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion llahbajaha ʤaʔbahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental tecue tekʷe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion jĩãsajaha hĩãsahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state põãjaha põãhaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental ĩãhsajaha ĩãʔsahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact poajaha poahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other jeajaha heahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental pãẽjaha pãẽhaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental missing See Language page Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ũpajaha ũpahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other ajadajaha, cañadajaha ahadahaʔa, kaɲadahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental ajajaha, pajajaha ahahaʔa, pahahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact tõãhñajaha tõãʔɲahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
see ver ver mental ĩtajaha ĩtahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact lliagajaha dʒiagahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state ĩgajaha ĩgahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body ahajaha aʔahaʔa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ñoajaha ɲoahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body suwajaha suwahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ñiehbãjãha ɲieʔbãhãʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body lluhlluhajaha, lluwagajaha ʤuʔʤuʔahaʔa, ʤuwagahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body jiamajaha, juwamajaha hiamahaʔa, huwamahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion weajaha weahaʔa inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental ona-guwehgajaha onaguweʔgahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact fiãdajaha, ihajaha, lliagajaha, walladajaha ɸiãdahaʔa, iʔahaʔa, ʤiagahaʔa, waʤadahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact wiãdajaha wiãdahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other cãchahllajaha kãʧaʔʤahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body añabia (n.) aɲabia (n.) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion gupõhxajaha gupõʔxahaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other missing See Language page Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body anene anene loan Arawak See Language page Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body oihxu oiʔxu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
two dos dois number tomesahga, tũjũhdu (anim.) tomesaʔga, tũhũʔdu (anim.) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
water agua agua environment caha kaʔa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ãxu ãxu inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality ohwe ohʷe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar ãda ãda unknown See Language page Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar missing See Language page Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar tejeja teheha inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour dea dea inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar ãdijã ãdihã inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship jixuhgui ĩxoho, ẽxãxu hixuʔgʷi ĩxoʔo, ẽxãxu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment guwa guwa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
wing ala asa body jarripahe haripaʔe inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human naaxu naːxu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour eewaha eːwaʔa loan Arawak See Language page Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ũcuhdo ũkuʔdo inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
foot pie body jahba haʔba inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar jõõdahguih hõːdaʔgʷiʔ See Language page Becky Walker
all todo todos other missing See Language page Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body illehlla iʤeʔʤa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ite ite unknown See Language page Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body bojehmo boheʔmo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body aixi aixi inheritance? See Language page Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment ĩxe ĩxe inheritance? See Language page Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body inexẽ inexẽ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body omaĩdi, omeñah omaĩdi, omeɲah unknown See Language page Becky Walker
sun sol sol time joxoote hoxoːte unknown See Language page Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment inacoho inakoʔo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
green verde verde quality ñodi ɲodi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality duwahda duwaʔda inheritance See Language page Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus efe eɸe See Language page Becky Walker
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. cuãĩxuga kʷãĩxuga inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ñide ɲide unique See Language page Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ĩxuse ĩxuse inheritance See Language page Amazonia Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. malinaidi malinaidi unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. culli kudʒi loan - WW %kujuwi / %kurutsi See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae llacahni ʤakaʔni unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae bihwisi biʔwisi unique See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae isi isi unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes sechu seʧu unique See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. wacamai wakamai loan - WW %wakamaja, maybe from Span? See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica lolo lolo loan Arawak or Span See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae rẽruwa (small doves) rẽruwa (small doves) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae callalla (small hawk) kaʤaʤa (small hawk) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae walluli wadʒuli loan - WW Arawak See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family cumada kumada loan Arawak See Language page Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wacala wakala loan - WW %wakara See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae culichichi kuliʧiʧi unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris oli oli loan - WW %auli See Language page Not native; widespread Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) chau, wĩxõ ʧau, wĩxõ doubtful loan Guahiban See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ima ima unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. uhda uʔda See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. callui kaʤui loan Arawak See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing See Language page Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pajĩdi pahĩdi inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. salata salata See Language page Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae maliwana maliwana doubtful loan possibly from Arawak/Carib malije 'knife'; see other terms based on 'knife'/'spear', Waimiri Atroari marɨma See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. sehwa 'bagre' seʔwa 'bagre' See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura uuxo uuxo See Language page Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. juwahga huwaʔga inheritance See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata duhda duʔda doubtful loan Achagua du:ru See Language page Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. dechowa deʧowa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura calabahlla kalabaʔʤa loan cf. Sikuani kaluwai, Wayana kalapu; maybe from Arawak See Language page Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes dopa dopa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae tunana dopa tunana dopa loan, direction unknown Sikuani túnunu See Language page Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna llacui ʤakʷi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ĩhllacui ĩʔdʒakui See Language page Widespread South America Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria cuweje kuwehe doubtful loan Muisca kueγi; cf. Wai Wai kwači See Language page Widespread Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. nenichi neniʧi doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Witoto? cf. Murui neere See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa llĩde ʤĩde unique See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca ĩxuta ĩxuta unknown See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) põjãhno põhãʔno inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra quilimisi kilimisi See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens tarre tarre inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea liñu liɲu See Language page plant Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus jana hana unknown possibly from TG nana? See Language page plant Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paatuna, coteñu paatuna, koteɲu loan; unknown Spanish See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. cañu kaɲu doubtful loan see Hodi kumana > kanawa See Language page plant Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ohda oʔda unknown See Language page Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays llomo ʤomo inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum arre are unique See Language page plant Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna nuguu nuguː inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana muuñu muːɲu inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana cuja, cujoo kuha, kuhoː unknown See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta seña seɲa doubtful loan Carib sere forms See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta piquilla pikidʒa unique See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ehche eʔʧe unknown See Language page plant Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. wacua wakʷa See Language page Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) allehno (bejuco), llucudoho (tapara) aʤeʔno (bejuco), ʤukudoʔo (tapara) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. alle aʤe unknown See Language page plant Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. poxu poxu See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. texu texu unknown See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola ñopa ɲopa See Language page Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae niño niño See Language page Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis muĩgodi muĩgodi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria awa awa doubtful loan - WW %arawe, via Arawak? See Language page Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera rohrota roʔrota unknown See Language page Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora docojõĩte wĩpõ dokohõĩte wĩpõ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda juxuwa huxuwa See Language page Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ĩdisaca ĩdisaka inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea dũpũ dũpũ unique See Language page Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera jahñu (pl.) haʔñu (pl.) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pulutoo pulutoː unknown See Language page Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae camadulu kamadulu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae llamuhlucu dʒamuʔluku See Language page Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. noxõ noxõ unknown See Language page Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera fãpo ɸãpo unknown See Language page Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing See Language page Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita pãjõ (pl.) pãhõ (pl.) inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda fahlẽda ɸaʔlẽda unknown See Language page Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ehga eʔga inheritance See Language page Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ũpu ũpu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See Language page Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] llupe ʤupe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella capuchini (Sp.) capuchini (Sp.) loan Spanish See Language page Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae mejapu mehapu See Language page Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis tahbu taʔbu unique See Language page Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu apicha rãpoge apitʃa rãpõge unique See Language page Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae llawa ʤawa doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. uhwi uʔwi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing See Language page Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) pume pume unique See Language page Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ĩgwe ĩgʷe unknown See Language page Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae tahihne taʔiʔne unique See Language page Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris rãpoje rãpohe unique See Language page Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ñama, llama ɲama, ʤama loan (into protolg?) Tukanoan See Language page Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ulixoho ulixoʔo unique See Language page Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tuliguichi 'collar' tuliguitʃi 'collar' loan - WW %tulikiʃi See Language page Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material jahaxoode haʔaxoːde unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material õcuah tehsia õkʷaʔ teʔsia unknown cf. Carib? See Language page Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material dulai, ĩgaxoa dulai, ĩgaxoa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport wechuju weʧuhu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology rãpodoo rãpodoː unknown See Language page Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology saicua 'curandero' saikʷa unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology saicua 'curandero' saikʷa Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material fejadoxohñu, jõtahñu ɸehadoxoʔɲu, hõtaʔɲu unknown See Language page Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology muãha, muña muãʔa, muɲa unknown See Language page Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ohwahixa oʔwaʔixa unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other missing See Language page Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology õhwaĩhdi ẽdi tãdofaidi õʔwaĩʔdi ẽdi tãdoɸaidi unknown See Language page Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology llipehaidi 'creator' dʒipeʔaidi 'creator' unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material willaide wiʤaide unknown See Language page Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ñoahite, ñohãhite ɲoaʔite, ɲoʔãʔite unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool docono dokono doubtful loan, direction unknown Puinave jukon 'arrow' hunting, warfare See Language page Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool cuẽlãhẽ, waihnixe kuẽlãʔẽ, waiʔnixe unique See Language page Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool llipah, llupaha ʤipaʔ, ʤupaʔa unique arco See Language page Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport dehnaihde deʔnaiʔde unique See Language page Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool jõjĩhmo hõhĩʔmo unique See Language page Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material lopasa lopasa unique See Language page Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool puhlihu puʔliʔu doubtful loan Arawak, e.g. Piapoco puali agriculture? See Language page Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology walacaba walakaba loan Carib maraka See Language page Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page Becky Walker
wax cera cera other mite mite unknown See Language page Becky Walker
honey miel mel food missing only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture onono onono unique See Language page Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation cuelutaha kʷelutaʔa loan Span/Port 'carta' See Language page Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology pũdi pũdi See Language page Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation acala akala loan - WW %takara See Language page Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation õdi õdi See Language page Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation misi misi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation puhduhba puʔduʔba unknown See Language page Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress calloho kaʤoʔo loan Arawak (Achagua/Piapoco?) See Language page Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology aixohdi aixoʔdi unique See Language page Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
salt sal sal food llejo ʤeho loan, direction unknown Macaguan, Sikuani See Language page Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology coja koha unique See Language page Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food ẽba dajajaha ẽba dahahaʔa See Language page Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ẽba ẽba inheritance Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool pacãhxõ, llucudoho (tapara) pakãʔxõ, ʤukudoʔo (tapara) unknown; loan %koto/matoko, prob via Achagua tʃukúta See Language page Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool wallahgajaha 'grate yuca (v.)' wadʒaʔgahaʔa 'grate yuca (v.)' inheritance? esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool guapaba (Suarez77) wapaba (Suarez77) unknown See Language page Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture masato masato loan Spanish prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food isejõ isehõ inheritance? agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food pehe peʔe loan N. Arawak usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool juwehgaha 'bait' huweʔgaʔa can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Becky Walker
house other ito ito unique See Language page Becky Walker