Candoshi-Shapra

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cbu
Location
-4.24°, -76.93°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Tuggy, John. 2008. Vocabulario candoshi de Loreto (2da. Ed). Serie Lingüística Peruana no. 2. ILV, Lima.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location iváaziriita iwáasiɾiita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment pozachi po̢satʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body kooshich kooʃitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality yóotarĩita jóotaɾĩita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tsapoosho tsapooʃo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality kapógó kapónkó unique See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour kantsiarpi kantsiaɾpi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body koraasi koɾaasi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kirákarich kirákaritʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body napich napitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body tĩtkorich tĩtkoɾitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human missing See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment msaasi msaasi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality kachĩzá katʃĩʂá loan Arawak *kačɨnka See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time zaari ʂaaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality tsaróná tsaɾona unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna ktáparáana ktapaɾaana See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality pooza pooʂa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality moribo morimpo See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment póyibó pójimpo See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body kĩtsĩch kĩtsĩʃ doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment tsaapo tsaapo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna vayagchi wajanktʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body kachich katʃitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality arapi aɾapi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship apaapa apaapa doubtful loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna poro poɾo loan, direction unknown Matses See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment somaasi somaasi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment chápó tʃápó unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment msaasi msaasi See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora vanoosi vanoosi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mochoozi motʃooʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body kovich kobitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ocha otʃa unknown cf. Cofan, Camsa See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body moocho mootʃo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality kayaka kajaka unique See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar tamáapari tamáapaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar nova nowa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar dosh (~ not) doʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body chika tʃika unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment mosa mosa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment masharo maʃaɾo unique See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body bázinógchi báʂinónktʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body paazich paaʂitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mamaaro mamaaɾo doubtful loan, direction unknown Zaparo See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body shipich ʃipitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality vazóráani waʂóɾáani doubtful loan Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna iisi iisi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human kamooza kamooʂa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna notsich notsitʃ doubtful loan, direction unknown Paez See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment tsoopi tsoopi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship atáatá atáatá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body koko koko unique See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human soora sooɾa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality vátsiríita vátsiɾíita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tsorarich tsoɾaɾitʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body yáarponich jáaɾponitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality kaniaschi kaniastʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time missing See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar da; dalla; dánpari nta; ntaja; ntánpaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body shiipa ʃiipa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality sirapchi siɾaptʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number mĩnamtá mĩnamtá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar mino, llíitariita mino, jíitariita unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body vagoya wankoja unique See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human tpootsi tpootsi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment siina siina unique See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour missing See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body bótsanógchi mpótsanónktʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture tovĩtamá tompĩtamá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora xixpori tʂĩtʂpoɾĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality kochaari kotʃaaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment mazachi maʂatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body kooshich kooʃitʃ doubtful loan, direction unknown Zaparo See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment kanĭdá kanĭnntá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality pakchi paktʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment msaasi msaasi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment tsagachi tsankatʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yasina jasina unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment patobchi patomptʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body vaniishi waniiʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality yapĩpĩ japĩpĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality xagĭtama hankĭtama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar ĩnĩ ĩnĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar shiya ʃija unique See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body sanágarich sanánkaritʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number tóochpá tóotʃpá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment kariya karija unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body kapóxomaama kapóhomaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body tapóossamaama (with the mouth) tapóossamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body kanóosámaama kanóosámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment bótamaama; machĭgamaama mpótamaama, matʃĭnkamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body kamĭmaama kamĭmaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion kárimaama kárimaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion nádáragich nántáragitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kupámaama kupámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental tanómaama tanómaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tsópamaama (~ meat), tapósimaama (~ skin), kpómaama (~ until skin/tree bleeds) tsópamaama, tapósimaama, kpómaama loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state tsipáamaana tsipáamaana unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact kutsĭmaama kutsĭmaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental pashábamaama; pamázómaama (~ of bad fortune) paʃámpamaama; pamáʂómaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body vámaama wámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body katógomaana katónkomaana unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion pantsámaama pantsámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental missing See Language page Daniel Valle
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion magáamaama mankámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state potsĭsámaama potsĭsámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental mázinámaama máʂinámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion pishómaama; tapĭishomaama piʃómaama; tapĭiʃomaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pzkómaama pʂkómaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact pachámaana patʃámaana unique See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental yasámaama jasámaama loan Quechua, poss. via Huambisa See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental stámaama stámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion cháamaama; tsidáamaama tʃáamaama; tsintáamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body támaama támaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact tpámaama tpámaama See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental táamaama táamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental pámaama pámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state koxínamaama kohínamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body mámaama mámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body kaváchimaama kawátʃimaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact ipósamaama ipósamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state xiyámaama hiyámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other shochiimaama ʃotʃĭimaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body kamópshĭmaama kamópʃĭmaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body kobĭimaama kompĭimaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion pamágamaana pamánkamaana unique See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental chinámaama tʃinámaama loan Panoan See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact kiráptámaama kiɾáptámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kamorĭmaama kamoɾĭmaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other yapátámaama japátámaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body kátamaama kátamaama doubtful loan Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion náamaama náamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other patáatamaama; tarávshtámaama patáatamaama; tarávʃtámaama unique; loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body nĩaporich nĩapoɾitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body nassich nassitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number tsĩbonó tsĩmponó unique See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment kógó kónkó unique See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar iya ija unique See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar máyá májá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour boorshi mpooɾʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar cháká tʃáká unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship izalli iʂantʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment kabósoró kampósoɾó unique See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body vazĭitpógchi waʂĭitpónktʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human kiiza kiiʂa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ptsiyáromaashi ptsijáɾomaaʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar siya sija unique See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body kotsich kotsitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other ichĭgoro itʃĭnkoɾo doubtful loan Taushiro, Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body vacháchkorich (pl.) watʃátʃkoɾitʃ doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body msástamaama msástamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body stósámaama stósámaama See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment korótanázi koɾótanáʂĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body tizapich tiʂapitʃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body mago manko unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time zaari ʂaaɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment machi matʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality kavábaná kawámpaná unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality ksani ksani unique See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. llómira, zoopi ntʃómiɾa, ʂoopi doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan xi:ntʃam See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna missing See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. masho maʃo loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. psibsi psimpsi unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. karontsi kaɾontsi loan - WW %kujuwi / kurutsi, via Quechua? See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ponxi pontʂi loan, direction unknown Pastaza Quechua pusisi See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae pagoana pankoana unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes poboota, abosha pompoota, ampoʃa doubtful loan - WW? onomatopoeic? %pupu; cf. Jivaroan pumpuk(u) in Tuggy 1966 See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. karago (yellow one), sánima (red one) kaɾanko, sánima unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kavaaro, mchaki kawaaɾo, mtʃaki loan, direction unknown - WW? %arawo, via Aguaruna kawau See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae mókoaka mókoaka loan - WW %motkuku See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae tskivi tskibi loan, direction unknown Aguaruna tʃikiwí See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae yapo japo unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family vaatsi waatsi doubtful loan cf. Bora kwáʔtsʰaxɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba kxaakxa, áanisha kʂaakʂa, áaniʃa unique See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae pĩvaashi pĩwaaʃi loan, direction unknown Iquito panási See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris tomoozi tomooʂi semantic shift from jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis zozima ʂoʂima See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) makina makina unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kozota koʂota unique See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. migaasi minkaasi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. shanita ʃanita unknown cf. Jivaroan/Candoshi 'iguana' See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus sagíramá sankíɾamá loan, direction unknown Jivaroan; Achuar sungkírum, Huambisa See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna kayopchi kajopntʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. kpávarĩ kpábaɾĩ See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae pánĩ pánĩ loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. karáyamoda kaɾayamonta See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura paróboró paɾómpoɾó See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. sódari sóntaɾi loan, direction unknown Jivaroan, e.g. Huambisa su:ntai See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura zitágóoza ʂitángóoʂa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes isáriyá isáɾijá unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna góyogópshi nkóyonkópʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria dótzá ntótʂa unique See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis kavisha kabiʃa unique See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) karapo kaɾapo loan Arawak, e.g. Baniwa keerípa; cf. Inga Quechua kallamba See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. sona sona unique See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa kacho katʃo doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan atʃu, Quechua; see also Guahiban, Andoke kɒ̃ǝ̃ta See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana yarápaya jaɾápaja See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea taránzĩ taɾánʂĩ unknown cf. Quechua taraputu See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes másĩ másĩ doubtful loan see Cuiva; also Waimiri Atroari for buriti See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua goalli nkoantʃi See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) porasha poɾaʃa unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra sibona simpona See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens komaazi komaaʂi loan, direction unknown Cofan khoma See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea yaashi yaaʃi See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus korisha koriʃa loan, direction unknown - WW %koritʃa: Ashuar kuwíʃ, Matses kantʃi, Boran kidʒa, Candoshi koriʃa See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum gooshi nkooʃi See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. parádama paɾántama loan Spanish 'platano', prob via Arawak See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. miika miika loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays yovato jowato doubtful loan Tupi-Guarani See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tsapantsi tsapantsi unique cf. Jivaro, Arawak? See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yasina jasina unique See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana yobsa jompsa unique See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana parta (Spanish loan) paɾta See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. " " See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kazinzi (not specified as sweet or bitter) kaʂinʂi loan Arawak? See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas vishichi biʃitʃi doubtful loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. chámó tʃámó See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tódó tóntó See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. tódó tóntó loan, direction unknown Boran See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. tabshi tampʃi loan? Quechua? but not certain if this is a native Q term - not in C-P's S. Quechua dictionary. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. tĩmó tĩmó loan Tupi-Guarani, via Jivaroan? See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi zoroopzi ʂoɾoopʂi unique See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata lliizi (brown one), kanáashiríbi (black one) ntʃiʂi, kanáaʃiɾimpi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. goozi nkooʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis biibi mpiimpi doubtful loan Arawak mapa See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria shorota ʃoɾota loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mákawa mákawa doubtful loan Zaparo, from Tupi-Guarani? See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora pĩpĩ, táadá pĩpĩ, táantá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda modĩnari montĩnaɾi See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea mallirsa mantʃiɾsa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera vaníisiri waníisiɾi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae chirfallirí tʃiɾfantʃiɾí unique resembles other onomatopoeic forms See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. mĩdópshi mĩntópʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. manxo (Tuggy 1966) manʂo (Tuggy 1966) loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera toga tonka unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea põtõ põtõ unique cf. Jivaro pi:ti See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita zaano ʂaano loan Kampan Arawak saanɨ See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda gópogó nkóponkó doubtful loan Jivaroan kuŋku; pukuaŋ See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tolli tontʃi loan, direction unknown Jivaroan tunchi ('poisonous spider/witch doctor', Tuggy 1966) See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tomoozi tomooʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha chóró (Tuggy 1966) tʃúrú loan - WW %tʃuru; prob origin Quechua; cf. Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] zalliizi ʂantʃiʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella malloga mantʃonka loan, direction unknown Quechua machin See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons michiko mitʃiko loan, direction unknown Achuar See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus chóopá tʃóopá loan, direction unknown Quechua tʃuba See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae xopzi tʂopʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis koyadchi kojanttʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu kazóomá kaʂóomá doubtful loan Pastaza Quechua kawkuma See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari vagaana wankaana loan Quechua (prob. source?) See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae koro (Tuggy 1966) koro (Tuggy 1966) loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua yogara jonkaɾa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. póllová póntʃowá unique See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris gómiyá nkómijá loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) mazaasi maʂaasi loan, direction unknown Quechua (regional) See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae goosi, konabi (big one) nkoosi, konampi unique; loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris pamara pamaɾa loan, direction unknown Jivaroan See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus mallánusi, mallansi mantʃánusi, mantʃansi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material panero, ptaka panero, ptaka loan; loan - WW Spanish; %panaku, shared Jivaroan pitak See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material ptaka ptaka See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material maashi maaʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material xomanzi tʂomanʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport kánó kánó loan - WW %kanawa See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology vĩshinó bĩʃinó loan Jivaroan In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material tochĩnagaashi totʃĩnankaaʃi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kamaazi kamaaʂi loan Spanish camisa See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other vátsiriíta wátsiɾiita unknown cf. Ashuar wenúti may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other sorama soɾama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kaniizi kaniiʂi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology apaarich (derived from father?) apaaɾitʃ semantic shift from 'father' In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology tiroochzi tiɾootʃʂi unique multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology sirĩgonási siɾĩnkonási See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuchiro kutʃiɾo loan - WW? %kɨtʃe (or Span cuchillo?) See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material mchita mtʃita loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool mchoki mtʃoki unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool tipállĩzi tipántʃĩʂi doubtful loan cf. Aguaruna tupu 'bow'; also Bora 'arrow' hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kchĩrpógo ktʃĩɾpónko unique See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool missing arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport pitzi pitʂi unique See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool shtáshĩ ʃtáʃĩ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool vaashi, kansi waaʃi, kansi unknown; loan, direction unknown Achuar See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other kidoora (also 'honey') kidoora unique See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food kidoora (also 'wax') kidoora unique only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture yago janko unique See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material yarápaya jaɾápaja loan Quechua See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology tzĩgarich tʂĩnkaɾiʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology parĩgorá (not specified as used for the body) paɾĩnkoɾá See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation ískovíara ískowíara See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation kiraka, kirákari kiraka, kirákari loan Quechua (from 'write/paint') See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation ktáshó ktáʃó unknown possibly %kara + -ʃo, cf. Jivaroan ataʃ See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material maxaazi, maaxa matʂaaʂi, maaʂa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sodaro sodaro loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation miishi miiʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kirapa, kirápari kirapa, kirápari unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food yomi jomi unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology vayaasi wajaasi doubtful loan Ticuna wiʔjaé See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool shóganáazi ʃónkanáaʂi unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool baapa mpaapa hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool gootshi nkootʃi unique esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food kachĩimaama katʃĩimaama See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food bótamaama mpótamaama unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food náchogamaama nátʃonkamaama See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tódó tóntó doubtful loan totuma; Carib or Spanish? See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture kapóssĩ kapóssĩ unique prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kazinaz vayápori (kazinaz = yuca) kaʂinaʂ wajápori unknown agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food tada, paga 'pan' tada, paka 'pan' loan; unknown Quechua usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool tspasa tspasa unique hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture patobchi patomptʃi if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
house other pagoosi pankoosi loan Arawak See Language page Daniel Valle