Nɨpode Witoto

Family
Witotoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
hux
Location
-2.34°, -70.96°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Aschmann, R. P. 1993. Proto Witotoan. SIL and University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 114. Dallas: SIL and University of Texas at Arlington.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
and y e grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hítu.egï hítu.ɛgɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
at en, a em, a location -mo -mo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
back espalda costas body heráïkï hɛráɯkɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bad mal mal quality pu.éni-da pu.έni-da See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
belly barriga barriga body hébe hέbɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
big grande grande quality áiǰu.e áidʒu.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
black negro preto colour híɗï-re-de híɗɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blood sangre sangue body dḯ.e dɯ́.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bone hueso osso body íkuru íkuru See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
breast pecho, seno peito body hogóbe, woman's breast: mónoï hogóbɛ, woman's breast: mónoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
child niño, niña criança human kïní-ma /hítaru kɯní-ma /hítaru See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cold frío frio quality ročí-re-de rotʃí-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ha.ḯ.kïgobe ha.ɯ́.kɯ̃gobɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
day día dia time móna móna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dirty sucio sujo quality ï.áï-re-de ɯ.áɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dry seco seco quality tapé-re-de tapέ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality há.i-ni-de há.i-ni-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dust polvo poeira environment enḯ-čoma, ïmúitaï ɛnɯ́-tʃoma, ɯmúitaɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ear oreja orelha body hépo hέpo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
earth/soil tierra terra environment énï.e έnɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
egg huevo ovo fauna hḯgï hɯ́gɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
eye ojo olho body u.í-hï u.í-hɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
far lejos longe quality are, hḯka arɛ, hɯ́ka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fat/grease grasa gordura body páre párɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
father padre, papá pai kinship mó.o mó.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
feather pluma pena fauna ipóro ipóro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fire fuego fogo environment irái-kï irái-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flower flor flor environment tápi.a, múdʒeba tápi.a, múdʒɛba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment úidʒï.e úidʒɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fruit fruta fruta flora rí.a rí.a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
good bueno bom quality ñú.era ɲú.ɛra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ïpó-dï.i ɯpó-dɯ.i See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hand mano mão body ónoï ónoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he: apέ-ma, da; she: apέŋo; it: dáge he: apέ-ma, da; she: apέŋo; it: dágɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
head cabeza cabeça body ḯpo ɯ́po See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
heavy pesado pesado quality mée-re-de mέɛ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
how? como como grammar naitó naitó See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
1sg yo eu grammar kúe kúɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
if si se grammar -i.a -i.a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
intestines intestinos intestinos body hébe.o hέbɛ.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lake lago lago environment hórai hórai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
leaf hoja folha environment rábe rábɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body harḯ-pene harɯ́-pɛnɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
leg/foot pierna perna body ïdá-kairo ɯdá-kairo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment amé.o, borí-de amέ.o, borí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
liver hígado figado body banó-hï banó-hɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
long largo comprido, longo quality See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ïbóma ɯbóma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
man/male hombre homem human ï.í-ma ɯ.í-ma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
meat/flesh carne carne fauna úa-tï, rḯǰe úa-tɯ, rɯ́dʒɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
moon luna lua environment pḯbï.i pɯ́bɯ.i See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship á-ño á-ño See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mouth boca boca body pú.e pú.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
name nombre nome human mámekï mámɛkɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
neck cuello pescoço body kïmó-kairo kɯmó-kairo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
new nuevo novo quality kómu.e kómu.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
night noche noite time náï.ïo náɯ.ɯo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
no/not no não grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
nose nariz nariz body dópo dópo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
old viejo velho quality háka-ra háka-ra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
one uno um number da da See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
other otro outro grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
person/human being persona pessoa human komïnï {people} komɯnɯ {people} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rain lluvia chuva environment nókï nókɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
red rojo vermelho colour hí.aï-re-de hí.aɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
right/right hand derecha direita location/body nabé-ne nabέ-nɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
road/path camino caminho manufacture í.o, dḯro-pe í.o, dɯ́ro-pɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
root raíz raiz flora háinao háinao See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rotten podrido podre quality θabí-de, rḯpai-de θabí-dɛ, rɯ́pai-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sand arena areia environment kóniǰï.e kónidʒɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ha.í-re-de ha.í-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
short corto curto quality i.ánori-de i.ánori-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoulder hombro ombro body peká-dʒaidoï pɛká-dʒaidoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
skin piel pele body íni íni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sky cielo céu environment móna móna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
small pequeño pequeno quality hí.ï-re-de hí.ɯ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
smoke humo fumaça environment úiǰï.e úidʒɯ.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
star estrella estrela environment ukúdo ukúdo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ráda, radóti ráda, radóti See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stone piedra pedra environment nopḯ-kï nopɯ́-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tail cola, rabo rabo body óda óda See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
that ese/esa esse grammar badá badá See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar apé-makï {pl}, apé-maï-ǰïnoï {m.d.}, dáï-ǰïnoï {md.} apέ-makɯ {pl}, apέ-maɯ-dʒɯnoɯ {m.d.}, dáɯ-dʒɯnoɯ {md.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality hédakï.e-de hέdakɯ.ɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thin delgado fino quality dʒḯ.aï-de dʒɯ́.aɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
this este/esta este grammar bedá bɛdá See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
2sg xx xx grammar o o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
three tres tres number da.áma-ni {one brotherless} da.áma-ni {one brotherless} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thunder truenos trovão environment gïrḯ-de gɯrɯ́-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bite morder morder body aïní-de aɯní-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blow soplar soprar body haiɲó-de, pú.uno.de haiɲó-dɛ, pú.uno.dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
burn quemar queimar environment bó.o-de bó.o-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
climb subir subir motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
come venir vir motion bí-de bí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
count contar contar mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cut/hack cortar cortar impact haidá-de haidá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
die/be dead morir morrer state ɗï.í-de ɗɯ.í-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dig cavar cavar impact ráï-de ráɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drink beber, tomar beber body hiró-de hiró-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
eat comer comer body rḯ-ɗe {meat}, rï-é-de, ǰiǰó-de {fruit}, okó-de rɯ́-ɗɛ {meat}, rɯ-έ-dɛ, dʒidʒó-dɛ {fruit}, okó-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fall caer cair motion baï.í.de baɯ.í.dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fear miedo medo mental hakḯru.i-de, dʒï.i-de hakɯ́ru.i-dɛ, dʒɯ.i-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flow fluir fluir motion dó-de dó-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fly volar voar motion pé.e-de pέ.ɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hear oír ouvir mental kaká-de kaká-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bu-dá-de bu-dá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other motí-de motí-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
kill matar matar impact méine-ɗe mέine-ɗɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental onó-de onó-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
say decir dizer mental See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
see ver ver mental erói-de, kï.ó-de ɛrói-dɛ, kɯ.ó-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sit sentar(se) sentar state ráï.i.-de ráɯ.i.-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sleep dormir dormir body ïnḯ-de ɯnɯ́-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hadʒé-de hadʒέ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact omḯ-de, ïdúi-de, aidá-de, dádai-de omɯ́-dɛ, ɯdúi-dɛ, aidá-dɛ, dádai-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact dʒu-dá-de dʒu-dá-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state náida.i-de náida.i-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
steal robar roubar other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
suck chupar chupar body dʒidʒó-de, moní-de, mugú-de dʒidʒó-dɛ, moní-dɛ, mugú-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
swell hincharse inchar body uaháti-de, pí.iɓuku-de uaháti-dɛ, pí.iɓuku-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
swim nadar nadar motion ḯ.ï-de ɯ́.ɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
think pensar pensar mental komékï paká-de, du.énai-ɗe, merḯdaiɗï-de komέkɯ paká-dɛ, du.έnai-ɗɛ, mɛrɯ́daiɗɯ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bï-ɗá-de (put), dai-ɗá-de, paï-ɗe bɯ-ɗá-dɛ (put), dai-ɗá-dɛ, paɯ-ɗɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact kuiná-de kuiná-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tongue lengua lingua body i.ḯpe i.ɯ́pɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tooth diente dente body íti-do íti-do See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
two dos dois number ména mέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
water agua agua environment háïnoi háɯnoi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kaï {pl}, {kóko {m.d.} kaɯ {pl}, {kóko {m.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wet mojado molhado quality ïnó-re-de ɯnó-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
what? que, qué que grammar nï-póde nɯ-pódɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
when? cuando quando grammar nï-rúi-do nɯ-rúi-do See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
where? donde onde grammar nï-nó, nï-né nɯ-nó, nɯ-nέ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white blanco branco colour úte-re-de útɛ-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
who? quien, quién quem grammar bu bu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wife esposa esposa kinship á.ï á.ɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wind viento vento environment hairípoï hairípoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wing ala asa body i.áiko i.áiko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woman/female mujer mulher human rḯ-ŋo rɯ́-ŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yellow amarillo amarelo colour borá-re-de borá-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ómaï {pl}, ómaï-ko {m.d.} ómaɯ {pl}, ómaɯ-ko {m.d.} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
foot pie body e.ḯ-ba ɛ.ɯ́-ba See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
all todo todos other nána nána See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
lung pulmón pulmão body hágï-dʒï hágɯ-dʒɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bark corteza casca environment igóraï igóraɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fingernail uña unha body onó-be-ko onó-bɛ-ko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
heart corazón coração body komékï komέkɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sun sol sol time hiɗóma hiɗóma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment kaipó-ne-du, íperï kaipó-nɛ-du, ípɛrɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
green verde verde quality móko-re-de móko-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hot caliente quente quality utí-re-de utí-rɛ-dɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ǰḯni dʒɯ́ni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna íguijˇïkoï íguijˇïkoï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ǰó.oda dʒó.oda See Language page Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nokáido nokáido See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. múido múido See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae pitído pitído See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes durída durída See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. áβa áβa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ui.ḯkï, úi.ï ui.ɯ́kɯ, úi.ɯ See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae íno íno See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris hḯko hɯ́ko See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) eréño, dobóǰi ɛrέɲo, dobódʒi See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ñenḯŋo ɲɛnɯ́ŋo See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. té.ema, tɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) té.ema, tɯkɯ́naɯma (H&R92) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna čámu tʃámu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae térobeño tέrobɛɲo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura gúku, akáiño, nopáïŋo, héro gúku, akáiɲo, nopáɯŋo, hέro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. kúema kúɛma See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes nú.io nú.io See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hái.o, iβána hái.o, iβána See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox rattlesnake: nonórai rattlesnake: nonórai See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria uiǰóniño, meníño uidʒóniɲo, mɛníɲo See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes né.egoï nέ.ɛgoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hibí.e hibí.ɛ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) há.ikï-na há.ikɯ-na See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens hípi-hï hípi-hɯ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum kaní-da kaní-da See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ó.ogo-do (H&R92) ó.ogo-do (H&R92) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ráidï.aï ráidï.aï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays béǰa bέdʒa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum dï.ó-na dɯ.ó-na See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna aména amέna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana nonó-kï nonó-kɯ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta húhï {tuber}, húti {plant} húhɯ {tuber}, húti {plant} See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ma.íka(hï) ma.íka(hɯ) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas repí-hï rɛpí-hɯ See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. repí-hɯ (H&R92) repí-hɯ (H&R92) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. hakái-kï {plant}, hakái-huï {tuber} hakái-kɯ {plant}, hakái-huɯ {tuber} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) huǰéko hudʒέ-ko See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi úna.o úna.o See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae rakɯ́ŋo (H&R92) rakɯ́ŋo (H&R92) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hiráŋo hiráŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera païrádo paɯrádo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ïníkï ïníkï See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. uidódo uidódo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera karáŋo, káraï {pl}, ígïdaŋo karáŋo, káraɯ {pl}, ígɯdaŋo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae hébekïŋo, ǰútu hέbɛkɯŋo, dʒútu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca hánaǰari, hḯko {same as cat} hánadʒari, hɯ́ko {same as cat} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] í.u í.u See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella dídʒɯ, hóma (also white-fronted capuchin?) (H&R92) dídʒɯ, hóma (also white-fronted capuchin?) (H&R92) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus tíǰo, mé.eku tídʒo, mέ.ɛku See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ïpó.e ɯpó.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu méro mέro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari e.ímo ɛ.ímo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mḯgui, okáina mɯ́gui, okáina See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris meréhaiño mɛrέhaiɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ḯme ɯ́mɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus má.u má.u See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris turúma turúma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kḯɗo kɯ́ɗo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bed cama cama culture-material bḯ.i-ra-ǰu bɯ́.i-ra-dʒu See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kḯnai kɯ́nai See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material rá.ï.i-ra-bï-kï rá.ɯ.i-ra-bɯ-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
canoe canoa canoa transport nókae nókaɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture hú.aï-ɗïru {size not indicated} hú.aɯ-ɗɯru {size not indicated} Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology manó-ri-raïma manó-ri-raɯma In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology manó-ri-raïma manó-ri-raɯma Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
firewood leña lenha other ré.ï-ïe rέɯ-ɯɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
knife cuchillo faca culture-material čoβéɗïrï tʃoβέɗɯrɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool čo-βéma tʃo-βέma especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool tïkúi-ra-da, kanída tɯkúi-ra-da, kanída hunting, warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dukḯ-ra-ǰoi-kï dukɯ́-ra-dʒoi-kɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bow arco arco subsistence tool tïkúi-ña tɯkúi-ña arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paddle/oar remo remo transport hḯ.aï-be hɯ́.aɯ-bɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool nógo, kadéru {Spanish} nógo, kadέru {Spanish} See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kaβáǰe, hó.ohi kaβádʒɛ, hó.ohi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wax cera cera other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture íga.ï, ra.o íga.ɯ, ra.o See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chicken gallina galinha acculturation aɗá-βa aɗá-βa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cat gato gato acculturation mítʃi mítʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool bɯ́gɯ bɯ́gɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
salt sal sal food ɯ́.aitaɯ ɯ́.aitaɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool obí-ǰakaï obí-dʒakaɯ currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool huǰéko hudʒέ-ko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture haïgá-bï haɯgá-bɯ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool igḯroï, áïkï igɯ́roɯ, áɯkɯ can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
house other hópo hópo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz