Ocaina

Family
Witotoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
oca
Location
-2.16°, -72.14°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Aschmann, R. P. 1993. Proto Witotoan. SIL and University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 114. Dallas: SIL and University of Texas at Arlington. Leach, Ilo M. 1969. Vocabulario ocaina. ILV-SLP 4. Rodriguez, José Vicente, compiler, and others. 1995. Mamíferos colombianos: sus nombres comunes e indígenas. Bogotá: Conservation International, Fundación Mario Santo Domingo.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location am̈ijón, aam̈i; bum̈oon, bum̈oónh am:ijó, aam:i; bɯm:õõ, bɯm:õṍʔ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
and y e grammar uná ɯná See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ohtiihi oʔtiiʔi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
at en, a em, a location uunaah ɯ̃ɯ̃aaʔ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
back espalda costas body juuhxo, juuhxomó (human), hɯɯʔxo; hɯɯʔxomó unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bad mal mal quality úúra ɯ́ɯ́ra unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
belly barriga barriga body gáájo gááho See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location aan, aann̈a ãã; ããn:a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
big grande grande quality óóxu, oxííja óóxɯ, oxííha inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
black negro preto colour juhtóóhfu hɯʔtóóʔɸɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blood sangre sangue body tsijíín tsihĩ́ĩ́ inheritance cf. Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ñañavúroga ɲaɲaβɯ́roga unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bone hueso osso body ñonhóónhcovo ɲõʔṍṍʔkoβo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body bagóóhya, monn̈o bagóóʔja, mõn:o inheritance similar to Bora form See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
child niño, niña criança human xaviin xaβĩĩ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment jahfíího haʔɸííʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cold frío frio quality dyótu dʲótɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality jaanchonó hããčõó unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
day día dia time mooñ̵a, moñ̵amó mooɲa, moɲamó inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality áánm̈a; ahvóóhxo; ñááhun ããm:a; aʔβóóʔxo; ɲááʔɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dry seco seco quality jáánhta hã́ã́ʔta unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality moiinyínah moĩ́ĩ́jĩ́ĩaʔ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment ajóóju, ajoohuvóra, añoonhunvóra ahóóhɯ, ahooʔɯβóra, aɲoonʔɯ̃βóra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ear oreja orelha body xoñoon xoɲõõ unique? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment an̈oonhun, nahaaxo an:õõʔɯ̃, naʔaaxo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna jóóhto hṍṍʔto inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eye ojo olho body ojúú ohɯ́ɯ́ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
far lejos longe quality aan̈u ããn:ɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body fajiin ɸahĩĩ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship mõõ(hõ) mõõ(hõ) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna tyafóóro tʲaɸóóro inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment tyaaro tʲaaro inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flower flor flor environment tsíín (noun), tsiiin (verb) tsĩ́ĩ(noun), tsĩ́ĩĩ́(verb) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora dyaajun, juxaan dʲaahɯ̃, hɯxãã unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
good bueno bom quality fójun ɸṍhɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tyafáánjiin, ohfotohófe (del brazo) tʲaɸã́ã́hĩĩ, oʔɸotoʔóɸɛ (dɛl brazo) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hand mano mão body on̈oon, on̈óónpo on:õõ(po) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he: áʔii-m̵a, ïïm̵a, ĩĩhã, ha(ʔ)-; she: aʔiiko, ïïko, ĩĩhã, ña, ha- haʔ-; it: tʸã(hï̃), tʸa he: áʔii-m̵a, ɯɯm̵a, ĩĩhã, ha(ʔ)-; she: aʔiiko, ɯɯko, ĩĩhã, ɲa, ha- haʔ-; it: tʲã(hɯ̃), tʲa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body oohfo ooʔɸo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality mááyi (weight) mááji inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
how? como como grammar dsoh; dsohfuurá dzoʔ; dzoʔɸɯɯrá unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar xo, xoun xo, xõɯ̃ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
if si se grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location jaa haa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body mañííco maɲííko unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lake lago lago environment jonháánjin hõʔã́ã́hĩ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment opaavi opaaβi unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body uroohfatí ɯrooʔɸatí inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body odzákõa, odzááβũa odzákõa, odzááβɯ̃a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment uuváhyo (relámpago) ɯɯβáʔjo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
liver hígado figado body fahúúnxo ɸaʔɯ̃'ɯ̃'xo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality ááñi ááɲi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ohfóóxaco oʔɸóóxaco inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
man/male hombre homem human oohu ooʔɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dyajííhxa,onhaanjin dʲahííʔxa, õʔããhĩ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
moon luna lua environment fodyoome ɸodʲoomɛ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ánhinco, úúdsah ã́ʔĩʔko, ɯ́ɯ́dzaʔ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mouth boca boca body foou ɸooɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
name nombre nome human mammu maam̵ɯ loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality áán̈urah ã́ã́n:ɯraʔ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ñonmáánhon (neck) ɲõmã́ã́ʔõ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body ñonmáánhon ɲõmã́ã́ʔõ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
new nuevo novo quality juhto hɯʔto unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
night noche noite time natyón natʲṍ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
no/not no não grammar aán; aanñi aã́; ã́ã́ɲí unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nose nariz nariz body tyoofo tʲooɸo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
old viejo velho quality uroojun ɯroo-hɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
one uno um number tya. -mah tʲa-, -maʔ doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
other otro outro grammar añ..ii aɲ..ii unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ahtího (pain); tyóuuhyo (sick) aʔtíʔo (pain); tʲóɯɯʔjo (sick) unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human jaróhtuh haróʔtuʔ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment ñoon, ñoonjun; ñóótuño (si 2-4 dias) ɲõõ; ɲõõjɯ̃; ɲóótɯɳo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour tsíího tsííʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ɸóóʔtʸa ɸóóʔtʲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture naajon, tóvuhtya naahõ, tóβɯʔtʲa inheritance; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
root raíz raiz flora tsiñ̵íínhonfe, tsiñ̵ííhonco tsiɲ̵ĩ́ĩ́ʔõɸɛ, tsiɲ̵ĩ́ĩ́ʔõko unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality dsoou (to rot; meat) dzooɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sand arena areia environment llíoonjin, llíoonhin dʒíõõhĩ,dʒíõõʔĩ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality goou ('afilar' verb) gooɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
short corto curto quality ĩhã́hḯ ĩhã́hɯ́ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body juuhxo; juuhxomó hɯɯʔxo; jɯɯʔxomó unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental mayíítyo majíítjo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skin piel pele body xonúúhca xon̵ɯ́ɯ́ʔka unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sky cielo céu environment aam̈i; aam̈ijón; bum̈onñ..á; xutymóóña aam:i; aam:ihón; bɯm:õɲá; xɯtʲmóóɲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality síítih, sóógo, tóógo, xavi- síítiʔ, sóógo, tóógo, xaβi- unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment jahfíího haʔɸííʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
star estrella estrela environment ohxóóhtyo; com̈aando (del este), dsávoohcho (del oeste) oʔxóóʔtʲo, kom:aando (del este) dzáβooʔĉo (del oeste), inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora dyáátya; am̈uunñ..a dʲáátʲa; am:ɯ̃ɯ̃ɲa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment gotúúh-xo gotɯ́ɯ́ʔ-xo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body ohoo oʔoo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar xahiima xaʔiima unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ïï-sa, áá {pl}, ïï-m̵á(ha) {m.d.}, ïï-ká(ha) {f.d.} ɯɯ-sa, áá {pl}, ɯɯ-m̵á(ha) {m.d.}, ɯɯ-ká(ha) {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality hïtʲááxo hɯtʲááxo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thin delgado fino quality bójo; xaviihtyóhfo bóho; xaβiiʔtʲóʔɸo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
this este/esta este grammar bíín, bínjan, bahi-, bu- {m./f. sing./pl.}, báhiim̵a bĩ́ĩ́, bĩ́hã, baʔi-, bɯ- {m./f. sing./pl.}, báʔiim̵a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar on, oun õ; õɯ̃ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throat garganta garganta body johxóóho; johxóóra hoʔxóóʔo; hoʔxóóra unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
three tres tres number han̵ãã-maʔ-tʸáá-maʔ {two-one} han̵ãã-maʔ-tʲáá-maʔ {two-one} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment am̈unhño am:ɯ̃ʔɲo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bite morder morder body aanun ããɯ̃ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blow soplar soprar body foofo; juuhxa ɸooɸo; hɯɯʔxa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body jaayo haajo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment biih biiʔ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body faaan; borojo ɸããã; boroho unique; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
climb subir subir motion aau aaɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
come venir vir motion aaji aahi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact aasa; dyaana aasa; dʲããa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
count contar contar mental bucoohfílli; fahxaajo bɯkooʔɸídʒi; ɸaʔxaaho inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental aanjíín ããhĩ́ĩ́ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact baah; aavo; juubo; xaajo baaʔ; aaβo; hɯɯbo; zaaho unknown; doubtful loan Andoke See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state urá nuu (U), ñomoonbi (D) ɯrá nɯɯ {u}, ɳom̵õõbi {d} unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact fuuso ɸɯɯso unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental nohxáállo noʔxáádʒo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body ñooxo ɲooxo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eat comer comer body dyaa/dyoo (carne), goonh (dulce), ooxo dʲaa, dʲoo (carne), gõõ (dulce), ooxo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fall caer cair motion ooha, joova, faati ooʔa, hooβa, ɸaati inheritance? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fear miedo medo mental turoohtyóho, tuuro (to fear) tɯrooʔtʲóʔo, tɯɯro (to fear) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion dsooro, dsoou dzooro; dzooɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fly volar voar motion dyaahi dʲaaʔi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grow crecer crescer state aam̈on; jiia; jiinño; buuco (tr and intr) aamõ; hiia; hĩĩɲo; buuko (tr and intr) inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental xaaxa xaaxa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion xoon̈u; bohtyaatu (hide oneself) xõõɯ; boʔtʲaatɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact aadsí aadzí unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other annaβïata annaβɯata unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
kill matar matar impact ïrá ña ha-nḯḯ-ta {?-die-cause} ɯrá ɲa ha-nɯ́ɯ́-ta {?-die-cause} unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ááxa, ooroja ááxa, ooroha doubtful loan; inheritance Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
laugh reír rir mental maato maato unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion iian; tuudya (acostar) ĩĩã; tɯɯdʲa unknown; loan, direction unknown Bora See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body naavi; aan/ uun; xooba naaβi; ãã/ ɯ̃ɯ̃; xooba unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other fuura ɸɯɯra unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact boonm̈a bõõma See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
say decir dizer mental uun, aan ɯ̃ɯ̃, ããn unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact caayi kaaji unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
see ver ver mental xaa xaa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ñiih (shoot with gun) ɲiiʔ (shoot with gun) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state biiñihi biiɲiʔi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body uunon ɯ̃ɯ̃õ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body dyooro (verb 'oler') dʲooro (verb 'oler') unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body caau; tsaafu kaaɯ; tsaaɸɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact botyoojo botʲoojo doubtful loan W. Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact aanñi ããɲ:i doubtful loan, direction unknown Resigaro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ɸaaʔ, haara, ttʲõõʔɸo ɸaaʔ, haara, ttʲõõʔɸo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state nïïʔtʲa nɯɯʔtʲa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
steal robar roubar other muuro mɯrro doubtful loan Kokama See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
suck chupar chupar body tsoonhñ..o; goon tsõõʔɲ:o; gõõ unknown loan or onomatopoeia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body juuxha (verb 'hinchar' hɯɯxʔa (verb 'hinchar) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion oonhon õõʔõ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
think pensar pensar mental xomuuxohyálli xomɯɯxoʔjádʒi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact oou (con lanza); ñiih (con escopeta) ooɯ (con lanza); ɲiiʔ (con escopeta) unique; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ocááfu; gaan okááɸɯ; gãã unique; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other toon̈u tõõn:ɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body xoohxu xooʔxɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion maaxa maaxa inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other jooadyu hooadʲɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body afaaxorálli aɸaaxorádʒi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body jinñóónhfu hĩɲṍṍʔɸɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tooth diente dente body ahtiihtyo aʔtiiʔtʲo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
two dos dois number jan̈aa han:aa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
water agua agua environment noon(jun) ɲõõ(hɯ̃) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar xa(jo) {pl}, xo(xo) {m.dual.}, xac(a) {f.dual.} xa(ho) {pl}, xo(xo) {m.dual.}, xak(a) {f.dual.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality jááʔi hááhi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar dsoh dzoʔ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar dzoʔ-kã, dzoʔ-aa dzoʔ-kã, dzoʔ-aa unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
where? donde onde grammar dsoo, dsoon, dsoonh dzoo; dzõõ,dzõõʔ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white blanco branco colour furááñ̵a ɸɯrã́ã́ɲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar bón bṍ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship munhton mɯ̃ʔtõ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wind viento vento environment juvóódyo, juvóón hɯβóódʲo, hɯβṍṍ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wing ala asa body fonn̈óónvuca ɸõn:ṍṍβuka unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human maami maami doubtful loan Spanish? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour bóóra bóóra inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mon(hto)[pl], monxho (m.dual.),monhca (f.dual.) mõ(ʔto)[pl], mõxʔo (m.dual.),mõʔka (f.dual.) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
foot pie body uhyóó(ga) ɯʔjóó(ga) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar añ..iiracáh/añ..ííracán̈uh aɲ:iirakáʔ/aɲíírakã́ɯʔ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
all todo todos other chíí, chííva; jántih šíí, šííβa; hã́tiʔ doubtful loan, direction unknown Siona/Secoya See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body uróóhyavo ɯróóʔjaβo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body num̈oonjin num:õõhin loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body fávaaxo ɸáβaaxo loan Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body dyohóón̈an dʲoʔṍṍn:ã inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body dsiita; xonhsaarúna dziita; xõʔsaarɯ̃'a See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bark corteza casca environment dyacán, xonúúhca dʲakã́, xon̵ɯ́ɯ́ʔka inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fingernail uña unha body xáátyo xáátʲo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heart corazón coração body xomúú-monti xomɯ́ɯ́-m̵õti inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sun sol sol time núúna nɯ̃'ɯ̃'na loan Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tyavúúro (colina) tʲaβɯ́ɯ́ro (colina) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
green verde verde quality moxóóso, jiááho moxóó-so, hiááʔo inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hot caliente quente quality dyóho dʲóʔo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. nooun nõõɯ̃ loan, direction unknown Andoke, Kakua-Nukak See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna afóytsoyi aɸójtsoji inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. acááyi akááji inheritance See Language page Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ñoxaahcho, yíoovu ɲoxaaʔtʃo, jíooβɯ inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans ñijíínxo ɲixĩ́ĩ́xo unique See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ánhfiityo ánhfiitʲo unique See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae cooño, tiityo, xootyo kooɲo, tiitʲo, xootyo unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae fahtííhtyo ɸaʔtííʔtʲo inheritance loan into Andoke, or possibly A > Proto-W See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae an̈antyahóhfo ãn:ãtʲaʔóʔɸo unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes aúúxo, boboonu aɯ́ɯ́xo, bobõõɯ inheritance See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. faaro ɸaaro unknown cf. %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica cáyoojo kájooho unique; loan-WW %ele, also prob. Bora loan tʲóóra See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae fohxáánco, tohtohííco ɸoʔxã́ã́ko, toʔtoʔííko inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae mááxañ̈o, nóónhso, báácoa, téntso mááxaɲ:o, nóónhso, báácoa, téntso unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ï̃ï̃nóóčo ɯ̃ɯ̃nóótʃo inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family ñiihbo ɲiiʔbo inheritance loan into Bora? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae ícooro (possible loan from Tukano??), tóónma ícooro, jidyotyo, con̈óójunco íkooro, tóónma íkooro, hidʲotʲo, kon̵óóhunko doubtful loan Tukanoan kone See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris hõʔxo {see jaguar} hõʔxo {see jaguar} semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis dsam̈óón̈unma dzam̵ṍṍɯ̃ma See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) jíaanco, joonhan hĩ́ããco, hõõʔã unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri dsoojom, ñóónn̈on dzoohom, ɲṍṍnõ, nɨhtyuudsuuju (dasypus kappleri, R95) inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. joohfíra hooʔɸíra See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. jonhóónm̈a honhóónm̵a unique See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus am̈unhñ̈o am:ũʔɲ̵o unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna injanm̈a ĩhãm:a unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. noonxo nṍṍxo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae dyohyoohxo dʲoʔjooʔxo unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. juuhtyo hɯɯʔtʲo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. dyafííhtya dʲaɸííʔtʲa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. un̈áánhun un:ã́ã́ʔɯ̃ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura gocóójo, tyooro, opépeco, uura gokóóho, tʲooro, opépeko, ɯɯra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. mááñaho mááɲaʔo loan - WW %maɲaʔo See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata jogaaho hogaaʔo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. bohtáñ̈i boʔtáɲ:i unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ohxóóroco oʔxóóroko unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes toxóóʔyo toxóóʔjo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae toxóóhyo toxóóʔjo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna gonjóónhinhtsi gõhṍṍʔĩʔtsi unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox rattlesnake: namaañi rattlesnake: namaaɲi See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria dsoohdso (motelo) dzooʔdzo (motelo) inheritance See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis am̈áánu am̵ã́ã́ɯ loan - WW See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) tsiixo, úvaaja tsiixo, ɯ́βaaha unknown See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. ñijííntya ɲihĩ́ĩ́tʲa doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Saliban? cf. Piaroa neʔneʔa See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa xonuuñ̈a xõɯɯɲ̵a inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana ayííviro ajííβiro See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea tyoroodyo tʲoroodʲo unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes jamiin̈a hamiin:a unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua obaanco obããko See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca jiibiro hiibiro loan, direction unknown - WW %hibie See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) fíaan, fíaanja ɸíãã, ɸíããha semantic shift? original meaning kapok See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra fíaan ɸíãã See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens haʔɸíí-ʔoβï {fruit}, haʔɸíí-ǰa {plant} haʔɸíí-ʔoβɯ {fruit}, haʔɸíí-dʒa {plant} inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea dyudsoon dʲɯdzõõ See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus dyahsoonco dʲaʔsõõko unique See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ɸookan̵ḯḯʔtʸa ɸookan:ɯ́ɯ́ʔtʲa See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. juxaaro {plantain} huxaaro {plantain} unknown See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. poróótyo poróótʸo loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) tyojáán; tyojáánjan tʲohã́ã́; tʲohã́ã́hã unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays xóɸiiro xóɸiiro unique See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tyohooko tʲoʔooko inheritance See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna am̈uuñ..a am:ɯ̃ɯ̃ɲ:a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ñon̵ṍṍya ñon:ṍṍja inheritance cf. Bora See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. tuvóólla, tuvóódyo tɯβóódʒa, tɯβóódʲo unknown See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana nom̈úúro {tree} nom̵ɯ́ɯ́ro {tree} See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala mááhcha, mááhfi mááʔtʃa, mááʔɸi See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] jofááya {tree} hoɸáája {tree} See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum añááro {tree} aɲááro {tree} loan, direction unknown shared Ocaina, Resigaro, Bora See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana juráávu hɯrááβɯ unknown See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. jáám̈ira háám:ira See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia cováátso, (tree: covááya) koβáátso, (tree: cováája) unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta oxóóm̵a(tsííra) {tuber}, jonhtáái {bitter, plant} oxóóm̵a(tsííra) {tuber}, hõʔtáái {bitter, plant} unknown See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bóójin bóóhin unknown See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum ahxaati aʔxaati See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas botyootyo botʲootʲo loan Spanish batata? but cf. attributed Taino origin See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ahxashti; botʲootʲo (H&R92) aʔxaʃti See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ahxaahti, am̈uuro aʔxaaʔti, am:ɯɯro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) mon̈áánfu (Crescentia; Leach dict), toonhfu (Allin: 'gourd'; Leach 'calabaza seca') momáánɸɯ, tõõʔɸɯ See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. dyahóófe dʲaʔóóɸe See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. onmán õmã́n unique See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi onn̈aanhon õn:ããʔõ inheritance See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata am̈oonxo am:õõxo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. moñaan̈ájinh moɲaan:áhĩʔ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis dyohúúraco dʲoʔɯ́ɯ́rako inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria bovúxotya, cucaracha {Spanish} boβɯ́xotʲa, kɯ́karatʃa {Spanish} unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae capiiyi kapiiji unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera juvááuxo hɯvááɯxo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera dyuróóvuhyo dʲɯróóβɯʔjo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora xoonhño xõõʔɲo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda bóóxon̈oco, viríítiho bóóxon̵oko, βiríítiʔo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ahxaahcho aʔxaaʔtʃo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea tíaanhxo tĩ́ããʔxo doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW onomatopoeic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera oróóvutyo oróóβɯtʸo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera áánbeco ã́ã́beko unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae chichího tʃitʃíʔo loan, direction unknown Muinane síísi, Resigaro tsiiʔtsiʔo, Ocaina tʃitʃíʔo onomatopoeic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. atóónmojonh, dsoruhyóhco, joxóóvuco, ñon̈oonja, uhtyódyunaco atṍṍmohõʔ, dzorɯʔyóʔko, hoxóóβɯko, ɲon̈õõha, ɯʔtʲódʲɯ̃ako unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. anuunco ãɯ̃ɯ̃ko unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera ojuun, ojúnxho ohɯ̃ɯ̃ ojɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea joyaaco hojaako unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita on̈uum̈a on:ɯɯm:a inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda cáánhxo kã́ã́ʔxo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ooru oorɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca hõʔxo {same as dog}, čiβaβááña hõʔxo {same as dog}, tʃiβaβááɲa; tʃiβaβááɲa hɯmã́ã́ʔxaxo (H&R92) loan, direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha jumoonxo, jɨmmo (R95) hɯmõõxo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] joojo; juuju (R95) hooho unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella sooriiyo (R95) sooriijo (R95) loan, direction unknown Bora tsoríri See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus ooru oorɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae jáátitso, fayivoñaco, moñáxatyo háátitso, fajivoɲaco, moɲáxatʲo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis uhsoroxonko (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis hitóóro; jɨɨturu (R95) hitóóro inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu nan̵ṍṍpa nan:ṍṍpa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari hã́ã́čoβa; xaruhtyiiba (R95) hã́ã́tʃoβa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae jinhñ̈ááhso, jovádyuna hiʔɲ̵ááʔso, hoβádʲɯ̃a unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua ñamúúnhxohtyo ɲamɯ̃'ɯ̃'ʔxoʔtʲo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. fɨɨyu (R95) ɸɨɨju (R95) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ñóónm̈a ɲṍṍm̵a loan, direction unknown Muinane See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti moono (R95) moono (R95) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) axaaño axaaɲo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus tsóraaxo tsóraaxo loan, direction unknown Bora ohdako; cf. Resigaro tʲúukó See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae cajíínco, tsihtsihfííco kahĩ́ĩ́ko, tsiʔtsiʔfííko unique; doubtful loan (into protolg?) Western Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tʸõõhã; fuubahtyooja (yarumo blanco), jafihxu-tyooja (caimo), tsuvahtyooja (yarumo) (R95) tʲõõhã unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ïïxo, xooʔtʸo {smaller species} ɯɯxo, xooʔtʲo {small} unique; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, Aimee Lawrence, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material generic: ñaaro, josóóvura generic: ɲaaro, hosóóβɯra unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material generic: ñaaro, josóóvura generic: ɲaaro, hosóóβɯra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material llíoonji, ahtiiho (necklace) dʒíoonhi, aʔtiiʔo (necklace) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bed cama cama culture-material unonhxatsíívo, fojóótyo ɯ̃õʔxatsííβo, ɸohóótʸo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material xonaajin xõaahĩ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material biiñi-ráá-βoho, biiñi-ráá-ko biiñi-ráá-βoho, biiñi-ráá-ko unique from 'sit' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
canoe canoa canoa transport hõɸã́ã́ʔï hõɸã́ã́ʔɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture arón arṍ unique Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology taruuma tarɯɯma unique In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology juhxaforáám̈a hɯʔxaɸoráám̵a Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
broom escoba vassoura culture-material dyahonhxorátudsa, dyahonhxorátyofo, janhtidsan̈útyofo dʲaʔõʔxorátɯdza, dʲaʔõʔxorátʲoɸo, hãʔtidzanɯ́tʲoɸo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology an̈áánca ('ropa interior') an:ã́ã́ka ('ropa interior') inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fence, palisade cerco cerca other áán̈urah áán:ɯraʔ inheritance? may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
firewood leña lenha other dyam̈oon,dyam̈oonjun dʲam̵õõ, dʲamõõhɯ̃ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology foonhun, fonhúúnm̈a, núúrama ɸõõʔhũ, ɸõʔɯ̃'ɯ̃'m̵a, nɯ́ɯ́rama unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology bucoome, jonhtúúgoma, xámon bɯkoome, hõʔtɯ́ɯ́goma, xámõ unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology pochiiña potʃiiɲa unique multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology oruubi orɯɯbi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics toonravójo, vucaráávojo tõõraβóho, βɯkarááβoho See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
knife cuchillo faca culture-material murááboya mɯrááboja doubtful loan - WW %marije See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
machete machete facão culture-material muráábojo mɯrááboho unique from 'knife' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool fuuxo ɸɯɯxo unique especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool oudyátsahso, oudyáátya oɯdʲátsaʔso, oɯdʲáátʲa unique hunting, warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
spear lanza lança subsistence tool oudyáátya oɯdʲáátʲa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bow arco arco subsistence tool tsipóxatya tsipóxatʲa loan Bora arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paddle/oar remo remo transport monhsodyáávojo mõʔsodʲááβoho unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
plate plato prato culture-material ñoxóóvojo ɲoxóóβoho unique inheritance root; cf. 'pot' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool fuxóóhtyo ɸɯxóóʔtʲo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material ñoxóóhxafu (ñoxóó- 'clay vessel') ɲoxóóʔxaɸɯ (ɲoxóó- 'clay vessel') unique inheritance root; cf. 'pot' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool taháánhfi taʔã́ã́ʔɸi unique agriculture? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology toonhfu tõõʔɸɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ajiin, juvocára ahĩĩ, huβokára unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
honey miel mel food úm̈oonju,um̈óónyaju ɯ́mõõhɯ,ɯmṍṍjahɯ loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Boran only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material gotúúhxo {generic stone} gotɯ́ɯ́ʔxo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ñííʔoɸe, mõãʔšaʔóɸe ɲííʔoɸɛ, mõãʔšaʔóɸɛ unknown; doubtful loan, direction unknown Kokama puatsa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ayíívi (thatched roof) ajííβi (thatched roof) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology tyafóóro (feather) tʸaɸóóro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
school escuela escola acculturation tyohóvuhxo (from 'book') tjoʔóβɯʔxo (from 'book') See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottle botella garrafa acculturation fuxóóhcona ɸuxóóʔkona See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
paper papel papel acculturation tyohoovu tjoʔooβɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nohxáállo noʔxáádʒo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chicken gallina galinha acculturation átyava átjaβa loan - WW %atawalpa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tyaráhfo tjaráʔɸo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other tyohoo juhxoráshidsa tjoʔoo hɯʔxoráʃidsa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ñaamúra ('sugar cane') ɲaamúra See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material an̈aanhfuca an:ããʔɸɯka unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
shoes zapatos sapatos dress uhyóbuca ɯʔjóbɯka See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation caráávina; dsahííhcona karááβina; dsaʔííʔkona loan; unknown Spanish carabina See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hat sombero chapéu dress ohfóóxora oʔɸóóxora unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology farááhfum̈a ɸarááʔɸum:a unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool dyacoovo (from dyaa 'stick') djakooβo (from djaa 'stick') See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
salt sal sal food jááidya hááidja unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ñomunhxa ádsa ɲomũʔxa ádsa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool fajííhxatya ɸahííʔxatʲa unique currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool cóvoohxo kóβooʔxo hunting and warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool venhvedyáávojo βẽʔβedʲááβoho doubtful loan cf. Carib, Bora, Yagua, other pepet- forms esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food feehxo ɸeeʔxo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food aadsi aadzi doubtful loan, direction unknown cf. Cavineña atsa See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
hunt cazar caçar food juunno, juuhta hɯ̃ɯ̃no, hɯɯʔta See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool coróóthyo koróótʔjo unknown; loan - WW %koto/matoko See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool togávuca {made of bark}, togaaxó {made of metal} togáβɯka {made of bark}, togaaxó {made of metal} inheritance esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool dsióódsivo, xoyíídsivo dzióódziβo, xojíídziβo unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture bajojóóru, ahtihyóju bahohóór, aʔtiʔjóhɯ unique; unknown from 'manioc' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food bióóhxa bióóʔxa unique from 'manioc'? agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food juuxá, nucóó hɯɯxá, nukóó unique; unique usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food booyááxo boojááxo unique from 'manioc'? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food bóócho bóótʃo unique from 'manioc'? agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food xohááhfu xoʔááʔɸɯ unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool uhtooga ɯʔtooga unknown hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool janhtidsáán̈u, anm̈íxan̈u hãʔtidzáán:ɯ, ãm:íxan:ɯ unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool agïïma, ï̃ï̃ko, hïdzaako agɯɯma, ɯ̃ɯ̃ko, hɯdzaako can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool johxóótsoro hoʔxóótsoro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
house other foo, foojo ɸoo, ɸooho inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE