Murui Witoto

Family
Witotoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
huu
Location
-1.14°, -73.83°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Aschmann, R. P. 1993. Proto Witotoan. SIL and University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 114. Dallas: SIL and University of Texas at Arlington. Burtch, Shirlɛy. 1983. Diccionario Huitoto Murui, Linguistic Institute of Verano, Yarinacocha, Pucallpa, Peru.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location a a (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
and y e grammar See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment huθeɸo huθɛɸo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
at en, a em, a location -mo -mo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
back espalda costas body emodo ɛmodo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bad mal mal quality maraiñe-de maraiɲɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
belly barriga barriga body hέbe, ɸenaï hέbɛ, ɸenaɯ loan Muinane xέɛbɨɨ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ana ana (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
big grande grande quality aiǰu.e aidʒu.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
black negro preto colour hitï-re-de hitɯ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blood sangre sangue body dï.e, dïru.e dɯ.ɛ, dɯru.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body taìsɨbaìro taìθɯbaìro (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bone hueso osso body iǰaikï idʒaikɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body hogobe, woman's breast: monoï hogobɛ, woman's breast: monoɯ inheritance similar to Bora form See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
child niño, niña criança human uru.e uru.ɛ doubtful loan Yanomami See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment naɨ̀rie naɯ̀riɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cold frío frio quality roθi-re-de roθi-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality mare marɛ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
day día dia time aremona arɛmona inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality jeare hɛarɛ (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dry seco seco quality θaɸe-re-de θaɸɛ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality jaìnide haìnidɛ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment imuìcɨ, hi.ora imuìkɨ, hi.ora See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ear oreja orelha body heɸo hɛɸo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment enïru.e ɛnɯru.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna hïgï hɯgɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eye ojo olho body u.i-θï u.i-θɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
far lejos longe quality are; jɨca arɛ; hɯka (B83) inheritance; loan, direction unknown Yukuna See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ɸare ɸarɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship mo.o mo.o inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna iɸoro iɸoro inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment irai irai inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flower flor flor environment θaɸi.a θaɸi.a inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment uidʒ.e, hïdʒeru.e uidʒ.ɛ, hɯdʒeru.ɛ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora riara, llɨsilla riara, dʒɯθidʒa (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
good bueno bom quality mare marɛ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ïɸo-tïraï ɯɸo-tɯraɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hand mano mão body ono-ǰï, onoï ono-dʒɯ, onoɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar he: imɯ.e; she: iñaiño, maiñaiño; it: i.e he: imɯ.ɛ; she: iɲaiɲo, maiɲaiɲo; it: i.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body ïɸo-gï ɯɸo-gɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality me-re-de mɛ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
how? como como grammar nɨese, nɨe nɯɛθɛ, nɯɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar kue, ku.e kuɛ, ku.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
if si se grammar -dena, -na -dɛna, -na See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ero, eromo, fo, jeraìmo ɛro, ɛromo, ɸo, hɛraìmo (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body eroicuaɨ́ (B83), hebe.o ɛroikuaɯ́ (B83), hɛbɛ.o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lake lago lago environment joraì horaì (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment rabe rabɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body jarɨfebeji jarɨɸɛbɛji inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body ɨdacaìro ɯdakaìro (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ameo, bori-de amɛo, bori-dɛ inheritance; unknown cf. Ocaina 'thunder' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
liver hígado figado body bano.i bano.i inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality are arɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ïboma ɯboma inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
man/male hombre homem human ï.i-ma ɯ.i-ma inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ǰïkï-θi, ï.e-θï dʒɯkɯ-θi, ɯ.ɛ-θɯ doubtful loan, direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
moon luna lua environment ɸïβui ɸɯβui inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship e.i ɛ.i inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mouth boca boca body ɸu.e ɸu.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
name nombre nome human mamekï mamɛkɯ loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality llaɨ́te, ianori dʒaɯ́tɛ, janori (B83) unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body kïmagoï kɯmagoɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body cɨmaɨ́go kɯmaɯ́go (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
new nuevo novo quality komu.e komu.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
night noche noite time naï.o(na) naɯ.o(na) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
no/not no não grammar dama dama (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
nose nariz nariz body doɸo doɸo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
old viejo velho quality hakaï.e hakaɯ.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
one uno um number dahe, da.e dahɛ, da.ɛ doubtful loan (into protolanguage?), direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
other otro outro grammar jɨaɨ́ hɯaɯ́ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body duidɨmɨe duidɯmɯɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human komïnï {people} komɯnɯ {people} inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment nocɨ nokɯ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour hi.aï-re-de hi.aɯ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body nabeji nabɛji inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture na.ïθo na.ɯθo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
root raíz raiz flora haina.o haina.o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality θabi-de, rïɸai-de θabi-dɛ, rɯɸai-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sand arena areia environment koniǰï.e konidʒɯ.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jaìrede haìrɛdɛ (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
short corto curto quality ianore ianorɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body fecanico; rocafaì, ɸeka-dʒaidu ɸɛkaniko, rokaɸaì (B83); ɸɛka-dʒaidu inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental meidaìte mɛidaìtɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skin piel pele body igoï igoɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sky cielo céu environment mona mona inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality hano-re-de hano-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment uiǰï.e uidʒɯ.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
star estrella estrela environment ukudu ukudu inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora amena, rada, radoθi amɛna, rada, radoθi inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment noɸï-kï noɸɯ-kɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body omakaï omakaɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar bai.e bai.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar i-makï {pl}, i.a-ma.i.aï {m.d.}, i.aï-ñu.aï {f.d.} i-makɯ {pl}, i.a-ma.i.aɯ {m.d.}, i.aɯ-ɲu.aɯ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality jedacɨede hɛdakɯɛdɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thin delgado fino quality llɨbire, janore, janogaìda dʒɯbirɛ, hanorɛ, hanogaìda (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
this este/esta este grammar bi.e bi.ɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar o o inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throat garganta garganta body uurago, guìraɨ́ò, guturao uurago, gìraɯ́ò, guturao (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
three tres tres number da(h)e ama-ni da(h)ɛ ama-ni inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment guru-de guru-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bite morder morder body aïni-de aɯni-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blow soplar soprar body ɸuri-de, hï.ï-de (witchcraft); ɸirai-de (etc), θaïrïri=de,betari-de ɸuri-dɛ, hɯ.ɯ-dɛ (witchcraft); ɸirai-dɛ (etc), θaɯrɯri=dɛ,bɛtari-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment bo.o-de bo.o-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body aɨde, aɨrite aɯdɛ, aɯritɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
climb subir subir motion llɨode dʒɯode (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
come venir vir motion bí-te bí-tɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact rocode rokode (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
count contar contar mental facadote ɸakadotɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental eede ɛɛdɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tɨede, haita-de, kota-de tɯɛdɛ (B83), haita-dɛ, kota-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state ɸi.odai-te ɸi.odai-tɛ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact jaɨ́bede, raï-te haɨɯ́bɛdɛ (B83), raɯ-tɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental nɨcaɨ́rite nɯkaɯ́ritɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body hiro-de hiro-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
eat comer comer body rï-te {meat}, ǰi-te {fruit}, gui-te rɯ-tɛ {meat}, dʒi-tɛ {fruit}, gui-tɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fall caer cair motion uaìde, caìde uaìdɛ, kaìdɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fear miedo medo mental hakïnai-te hakɯnai-tɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion tote (el rio or agua en canal), dɨrue tiode (sangre) totɛ (el rio or agua en canal), dɯruɛ tiodɛ (sangre) (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fly volar voar motion ɸe.e-de ɸɛ.ɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grow crecer crescer state monaìte, comuìde monaìtɛ, komuìdɛ (B83) inheritance; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental kaka-de kaka-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion reide, raìdode rɛidɛ, raìdodɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact cuàɨ́; bu-ta-de, ɸaro-de kuàɯ́ (B83); bu-ta-dɛ, ɸaro-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other moside, dubade moθidɛ, dubadɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
kill matar matar impact meine-te mɛinɛ-tɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental u.iño-te u.iɲo-tɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
laugh reír rir mental jaɨsite haɯθitɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bɨide bɯidɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ite itɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other tuide, cuaranote tuidɛ, kuaranotɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact doberite, donede (comestibles); guàte (golpeando) dobɛritɛ, donɛdɛ (comestibles); guàtɛ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
say decir dizer mental missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact jiiruite, jiitade hiiruitɛ, hiitadɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
see ver ver mental kï.o-de kɯ.o-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact doritate (con escopeta) doritatɛ (con escopeta) (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state ana ráï.i-de ana ráɯ.i-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body ïnï-de ɯnɯ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hadʒe-de (intr) hadʒɛ-dɛ (intr) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body tuade tuadɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact taɨ́node, taɨillude taɯ́nodɛ, taɯidʒudɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ɨduìde, omɨde. lliguède, cɨmaɨ́de ɯduìdɛ, omɯdɛ. dʒiguέdɛ, kɯmaɯ́dɛ (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact jaìtade, jaìrude haìtadɛ, haìrudɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state naida.i-de naida.i-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
steal robar roubar other fɨɨde; aɨ́ɨfuerite, merɨde (DME) ɸɯɯdɛ; aɯ́ɯɸuɛritɛ, mɛrɯdɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
suck chupar chupar body jarode (rapidamente), jaconote (lentamente), dʒiba-de (fruit) harodɛ (rapidamɛntɛ), hakonotɛ (lɛntamɛntɛ), dʒiba-dɛ (fruit) (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body sɨride θɯridɛ (B83) loan, direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion ï.ï-de ɯ.ɯ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
think pensar pensar mental komέkï ɸaká-de (heart measure) komέkɯ ɸaká-dɛ (heart measure) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact nitade, bï-ta-de, kuaï-ta-de nitadɛ (B83), bɯ-ta-dɛ, kuaɯ-ta-d unknown; inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact maɨite, cuìnade maɯitɛ, kuìnadɛ (B83) unique; unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other gɨrerioìde gɯrɛrioìdɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body cɨcuède kɯkuèdɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion macarite makaritɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other maɨ́jɨde maɯ́hɯdɛ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body afarite aɸaritɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body i.ïɸe i.ɯɸɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tooth diente dente body iθi-do iθi-do inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
two dos dois number mena mɛna inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
water agua agua environment hïnui hɯnui inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar kaï {pl}, koko {m.d.}, kaiñaï {f.d.} kaɯ {pl}, koko {m.d.}, kaiɲaɯ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality ïno-re-de ɯno-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar bu.e bu.ɛ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar nɨrui, nɨruido nɯrui, nɯruido (B83) inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
where? donde onde grammar nï-no, nï-ne nɯ-no nɯ-nɛ inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white blanco branco colour uθe-re-de uθɛ-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar bu bu inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship a.ï a.ɯ inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wind viento vento environment aɨ́fɨ́; jaìrifo (DME) aɨ́ɸɨ́; jaìriɸo (DME) unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wing ala asa body iaìco iaìko inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human rï-ño rɯ-ɲo inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour bora-re-de bora-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar omoï {pl}, omï-ko {m.d.}, omï-ñoï {f.d.} omoɯ {pl}, omɯ-ko {m.d.}, omɯ-ɲoɯ {f.d.} inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
foot pie body e.ï-ǰï ɛ.ɯ-dʒɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar abɨdo abɯdo (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
all todo todos other nana nana inheritance/Witotoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body taìsɨcoño taìθɨkoɲo (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body rocafaì ana rokaɸaì ana (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body nemuìe nɛmuìɛ (B83) loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body jasacɨ,jasallɨ (DME) haθakɯ, haθadʒɯ (DME) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body rɨonaìte rɯonaìtɛ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body jiraɨe hiraɯɛ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bark corteza casca environment igora.ï igora.ɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fingernail uña unha body ono-kaï ono-kaɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
heart corazón coração body komekï komɛkɯ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sun sol sol time hitoma hitoma inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment a-ne-du, i-du a-nɛ-du, i-du unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
green verde verde quality moko-re-de moko-rɛ-dɛ inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hot caliente quente quality uθi-re-de uθi-rɛ-dɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ǰïni(θï), hïdokuiño dʒɯni(θɯ), hɯdokuiɲo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna θijˇi, oɸukuiño θidʒi, oɸukuiɲo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. aɨ̀focɨ aɯ̀ɸokɯ (B83) inheritance See Language page Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nokaido nokaido inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans bacɨta bakɯta (B83) unique See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. muidokaï muidokaɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae llotoro, ofoma dʒotoro, oɸoma (B83) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ɸiθido ɸiθido inheritance loan into Andoke, or possibly A > Proto-W See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes monuiθï monuiθɯ inheritance See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. eɸa eɸa doubtful loan into protolg - WW? %arara See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica θarokï θarokɯ unknown cf. %awaro See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae fɨcɨri, jɨrarigɨ, ucugɨ, uicoño, fɨcaɨ́ño ɸɯkɯri, hɯrarigɯ, ukugɯ, uikoɲo, ɸ̵ɯkaɯ́ɲo (B83, all species of dove) inheritance, loan uku form prob. via Yucuna/Tanimuca See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae nuìcɨ nuìkɯ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ino ino inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family noco noko (B83) inheritance loan into Bora? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba juma, amenocaìdo huma, amenokaìdo (B83) unique See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae amederaɨma amederaɯma (B83; see also various species) unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris hïko hɯko semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ereño ɛrɛɲo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ñenïño ɲɛnɯɲo inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. llaìño dʒaìɲo (B83) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. naɯma, θɯkɯnaɯma (H&R92) naɯma, θɯkɯnaɯma (H&R92) doubtful loan, direction unknown Waorani nõma See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus too too (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ǰïkï.aï dʒɯkɯ.aɯ unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. nooño nooɲo See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ïmïño ɯmɯɲo loan Tukanoan, e.g. Tanimuca bũ'jũ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. bagɨco bagɯko (B83, 'cunchi') See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. inaɨ̀da inaɯ̀da (B83) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura noɸaïño, herokï noɸaɯɲo, hɛrokɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. kuema kuɛma inheritance/Witoto See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata jocosoma, turacɨ, jitomagɨ, lleserocota, sio, conagɨ́, mabɨ hokosoma, turakɯ, jitomagɨ, dʒɛsɛrokota, sio, konagɯ́, mabɯ (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. coreño koreɲo (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura ɨcojɨ, jeecaño ɯkohɯ, hɛɛkaɲo (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes nu.i.o nu.i.o See Language page Widespread Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae nocaìo nokaìo (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hai.o hai.o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox rattlesnake: raïdï {matches Muinane Huitoto 'coral snake'} rattlesnake: raɯdɯ {matches Muinane Huitoto 'coral snake'} See Language page Widespread South America Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria meniño mɛniɲo inheritance See Language page Widespread Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis amana amana (B83) loan - WW See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. neere nɛɛrɛ (B83) doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Saliban? cf. Piaroa neʔneʔa See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa cɨnena kɨnɛna (B83) inheritance See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana cuareìreì kuarɛìrɛì (B83) See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea fegona ɸɛgona (B83) unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes oɸego-ǰï oɸɛgo-dʒɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua comaìjɨ komaìhɯ (B83) See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca hi.ibe hi.ibɛ loan, direction unknown - WW %hibie See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) haikï.e haikɯ.ɛ loan, direction unknown Boran; prob original meaning kapok See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra jaìcɨna haìkɯna (B83) See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens hiɸi-hï {fruit}, hiɸi-rai {plant} hiɸi-hɯ {fruit}, hiɸi-rai {plant} inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea masacado maθakado (B83) See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus rotidorai rotidorai (B83) unique See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum θïkï-kaï θɯkɯ-kaɯ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. o.ogo-do o.ogo-do loan Tukanoan oo See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. boroto boroto loan Quechua (via Spanish?) See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) raitïkïñ̵o raitïkïñ̵o inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays beǰa bɛdʒa loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %bea See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum dï.o-na dɯ.o-na inheritance See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna amena amɛna inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana nono-kï nono-kɯ inheritance cf. Bora, Yanomami See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana nomedo nomɛdo (B83) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala jɨrɨfe hɯrɯɸɛ (B83) See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] ifacɨdo iɸakɯdo (B83) See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana jidoroda, jigɨraì hidoroda, higɯraì (B83) unknown See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. jitɨrai hitɯrai (B83) See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia jɨrɨkona hɯrɯkona unknown See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta huhï {tuber}, huθi.e {plant} huhɯ {tuber}, huθi.ɛ {plant} inheritance/Witoto See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ma.ika, fareca ma.ika, ɸareka (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas reɸi-hï rɛɸi-hɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. reɸi-hɯ (H&R92), jacaìjɨ reɸi-hɯ (H&R92), hakaìhɯ (B83) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. hakai-hï hakai-hɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) emokï ɛmokɯ See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page plant Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. kɨrɨo, jiruruaɨ kɯrɯo, hiruruaɯ (B83) See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. fuìao, nucuo ɸuìao, nukuo (B83) unique See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi una.o una.o inheritance See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae rakɯɲo (H&R92) rakɯɲo (H&R92) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata omocɨ omokɯ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. jiragɨcɨño, illɨfuìsa hiragɯcɯɲo, idʒɯɸuìsa unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hirakïño hirakɯɲo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria canareño kanarɛɲo (B83) doubtful loan, direction unknown Koreguaje koʔroro See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae ebiño, llacudu ɛbiɲo, dʒakudu (B83) unique, doubtful loan - WW %kute? cf. Quechua kuru See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tɨtɨbe tɨtɨbɛ (small sp., B83) loan Bora; see also Achagua, Cubeo/Wanano See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera janaturuño hanaturuɲo (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora cuio kuio (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda feresio ɸɛrɛsio (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones acaìdo akaìdo (B83) inheritance loan into Achagua akétoo? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea lliaìcɨ dʒiaìkɯ (B83) doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW onomatopoeic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ɸaïrada, ɸaïrado ɸaɯrada, ɸaɯrado unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ïnikï ɯnikɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae fiodo ɸiodo (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. fecoda, nonocɨ ɸɛkoda, nonokɯ (B83) unknown; inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. uidodo uidodo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera karakïño, igïdïkïño karakɯɲo, igɯdɯkɯɲo unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea ɨsɛño ɯsɛɲo (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita unema, unecɨ unɛma, unɛkɯ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda llodogɨ, burugɨ, llodocoño dʒodogɯ, burugɯ, dʒodokoɲo (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae hebekïño hɛbɛkɯɲo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca hanaǰari, hïko {ocelot} hanadʒari, hɯko {ocelot} loan, direction unknown Boran See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha jemɨ hemɯ (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] i.u i.u loan, direction unknown shared Muinane See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella jitɨjoma; homa (H&R92) hitɯhoma (B83); homa (H&R92) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons usejoma usɛhoma (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus guamï guamɯ loan, direction unknown Bora kʰɯɯ́mɯ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae jimenacɨ; tuìro jimɛnakɨ; tuìro unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ïɸu.e, jitorocɨño (B83) ɯɸu.ɛ, hitorokɯɲo (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu mero mɛro doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Boran mɛέni See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari e.imo ɛ.imo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae juuco huuko (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua nɨmaìdo nɯmaìdo (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mïgui, ɸïdo, okaina mɯgui, ɸɯdo, okaina inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris ɸerehaiño ɸɛrɛhaiɲo inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) ïme ɯmɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus okohï okohɯ unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae nofi, cɨcɨño, ɨicɨño noɸi, kɯkɯɲo, ɯikɯɲo (B83) loan, direction unknown; doubtful loan (into protolg?); unique Bora; Western Tukanoan See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris θuruma, hïgadïma θuruma, hɯgadɯma unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kïto kɯto inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material cɨrɨgaɨ́ (grande) kɯrɯgaɯ̀ (grande) (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material cɨrɨlliraɨ̀ (small basket) kɯrɯdʒiraɯ̀ See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material sirio (woman's necklace) θirio (woman's necklace; B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material ïnï-ra, bï-ira ɯnɯ-ra, bɯ-ira inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kïnai kɯnai inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material raï-ra-ko raɯ-ra-ko inheritance/Witoto from 'sit' See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport noka.e noka.ɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture juaɨ huaɯ (B83) inheritance/Witoto Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology aìma aìma (B83) inheritance/Witoto In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology aima aima (B83) Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material reɨsacɨ rɛɯsakɯ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ɨniroì, ɨnicuìro ɯniroì, ɯnikuìro (B83) inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other iaɨ́reì, ianoride iaɯ̀rɛì, ianoridɛ (B83) inheritance? may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
firewood leña lenha other re.ï-ai rɛ.ɯ-ai unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology joreño (soul), dusisiño (spirit of dead) horɛɲo (soul), duθiθiɲo (spirit of dead) (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Jusiñamuì (God, creator) husiɲamuì (God, creator, B83) unknown In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology figo (small), gagɨcaɨ̀ (large) ɸigo (small), gagɯkaɯ̀ (large) unique multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology fillabacuì, reribacuì ɸillabakuì, reribakuì See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ǰo.etïraï dʒo.ɛtɯraɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material lloefaì, lloebɨ́ lloema dʒoɛɸaì, dʒoɛbɯ̀, dʒoema (B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool hata hata doubtful loan Spanish hacha especially for clearing fields See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool dukï-ra-θï dukɯ-ra-θɯ semantic shift from spear hunting, warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool dukï-ra-θï dukɯ-ra-θɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool θïkui-ra θɯkui-ra inheritance/Witoto arco See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport haïra-be haɯra-bɛ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material ucube ukubɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool nogo nogo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material julleco; guàrago hudʒɛko (B83); guàrago (B83) doubtful loan; unknown Bora See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool sibe θibe (B83) unknown agriculture? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ɸiriθai ɸiriθai unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool bɨrillafecɨ, jemecɨ (for canoes) bɯridʒaɸecɯ, hemecɯ (for canoes) (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
wax cera cera other cɨicɨ (beeswax) kɯikɯ (beeswax, B83) unknown See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
honey miel mel food emocɨ ɛmokɯ (B83) loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Boran only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture igaɨ, rao igaɯ, rao (B83) inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ereji, erei ɛrɛhi, ɛrɛi (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology ifaìgɨ, nuìcɨraì iɸaìgɯ, nuìkɯraì (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology bɨra, jiraìegɨ bɯra, hiraìɛgɯ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation escuela escuela (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation rabe rabɛ ('leaf, paper') (B83) semantic shift leaf See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ɨnɨaɨ̀cɨ ɯnɯaɯ̀kɯ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation katá-βa katá-βa loan - WW %kara, but looks like possible merge with %atawalpa; shared Muinane See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation gononaɨ̀gɨ ('sugar cane') gononaɯ̀gɯ ('sugar cane') (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material moìfecuìro moìɸekuìro (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress eɨllɨ ico ('foot-sole ?') ɛɯdʒɯ iko ('foot-sole ?') (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation mííʃi mííʃi loan - WW %miʃi See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation cobeta (Sp.) kobeta (Sp.) (B83) loan Spanish escopeta See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress ɨfogɨ ico ('head ?') ɯɸogɯ iko ('head ?') (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology illaɨ̀ idʒaɯ̀ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool gáiʔuɨdaaʔe gáiʔuɯdaaʔe See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
salt sal sal food ɯ.aiθaɯ ɯ.aiθaɯ inheritance/Witoto See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology rua rua (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool obi-ǰakaï obi-dʒakaɯ inheritance/Witoto currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool uìbaìraɨ́ uìbaìraɯ́ (B83) hunting and warfare See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool berabe bɛrabɛ (B83) unknown esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food facode ɸakodɛ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food coede, coesɨte koɛdɛ, koɛsɨtɛ (B83) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food rao-te rao-tɛ (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food suufue, aìcanaìllafue θuuɸuɛ, aìkanaìdʒaɸuɛ (B83) unknown Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool julleco, emokï hudʒɛko (B83), ɛmokɯ unique; unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool tɨafaì tɯaɸaì (B83) inheritance loan into Muinane esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jucuì, haïga-bï hukuì (B83), haɯga-bɯ inheritance/Witoto prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food aìrɨjɨ, aìrɨda aìrɯhɯ, aìrɯda (B83) unique usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food core (de yuca) korɛ (de yuca) unique See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food jaɨ̀gabɨ haɯ̀gabɯ (B83) sem shift? see 'chicha' agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food ɨnaraco ɯnarako (B83) unknown word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool isirafe isiraɸɛ (B83) unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool aïgïro, aïkï aɯgɯro, aɯkɯ can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool secɨ, muìcɨ, ɨrɨgɨ, dorɨco sekɯ, muìkɯ, ɯrɯgɯ, dorɯko (B83) See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE
house other hoɸo hoɸo inheritance See Language page Leslie Smith, Sarah Kuntz, PLE