Maidu

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
nmu
Location
40.41°, -120.64°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7epi/n inheritance Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar be/jbym inheritance Jane Hill
all todo todos other 7ype/k'ani\ inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar ka/n “and, and then”, k'an inheritance Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pa/jkulu\ inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body k'owo/ inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment p'idu/si inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -dik unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ki\wi/ inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality wasa/ loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body k'a\mi/ unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 7oby/nno unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality tete/ unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body do/ inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour si/wsi\w loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body sede/ inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body by/ inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body py\ni/ inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body by\mi/ inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mi\ni/ inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body ho/nwe\j inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment ty/ (intr, not of fire) unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body c'awa/j unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human te/ inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion ly/kdoj unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment ja/ inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality du/pe-ti unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 7yje/ inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact k'a/pti inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality hapa/ “of course, precisely” unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental he/mma\k unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental wa/k inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact wyk'y/s, wyk'y/t unknown Jane Hill
day día dia time 7e\ki/ inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state wo/no inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact ba/ unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna heli/jene\ inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality 7o/jc'ej inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental nedi/ inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body mo../ inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality p'ik'a/l inheritance? Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality t'o/kmen unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment k'a/wdusi\ inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body bono/ inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment k'a\wi/ inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body pe../ inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna pa/kpaka\ inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body hi\ni/ inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body pi\t'i/ inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion woda/ inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality hada/ unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body hy\t'i/ unknown Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship be/k'y unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental jyhe/p, jehe/p inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna je/ inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment sa/ inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna mako/ unknown Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion hi/nk'oj inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment jo/ inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion je/j inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment t'i/wkiti unknown Jane Hill
foot pie body pa\ji/ inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora hu/lup'i\t'i “berry” unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality jaha/ inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state di/ unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body 7ono/m butu/ (of head) inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body ma/ inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar my/ inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body 7ono/ inheritance Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental pi/n inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality hehe/kpe unknown Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion kyle/ (a thing) unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wo/dato inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other me/nu, inheritance Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hesa/sa unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ni/ inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location 7i\n7i/nno “interior, within” unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body pi/tkolo\lo unknown Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body wimu/ unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact wo/noti inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ma/kkit inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment mo/mda\ni inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental nu/k unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment boto/ unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body daku/ inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body to\li/ unknown Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion t'yjkit unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wip'i/li inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ho/nwe inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body ky/lla inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality la/mpe inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna di/ (head); inheritance Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body huhu/ inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human je\p'i/ inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna wa/\k' inheritance Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment kulu/m po\k'o/ “dark luminary” inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ne/ inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body si\mi/ inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ja/, ja../ inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality hede/n inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body k'u\ji/ inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality be/jdik'i “young” < “now” inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time po/ inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar wi/jje unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body hi/ky inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality ke/ji (things) unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number sy/tti loan Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other pu/l inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar c'a\ji/ 'other one' inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body 7i/tu “hurt, ache, give pain; pain” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ma/jdy inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact jo/k inheritance Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment k'adi/ki unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour la/kla\kpe inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ji/mdyk'y\ inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture bo/ inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora pi\wi/ inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality t'y/npe (as animal matter) unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment bymy/ky unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ma/\j unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact c'y/wak inheritance Jane Hill
see ver ver mental c'e../, c'eno (for e.g.; c'e... is an IP) inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality t'o/k inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact my/, mu/- loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
short corto curto quality t'e/s unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body dada/ka unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental c'ese/m “shy” unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state bydo/j; bydo/jkinu unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body posa/la, posa/li inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment missing Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body tu/j inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality tibi/ unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment su\k'u/ inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hi/ inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body t'u/p' Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact wijy/t inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact k'i/tap inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact sypo/lno “thrust something into something” inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ty/s unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment lyly/ loan direction unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other peda/ unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora c'a/ inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment 7o/ inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body du/\t unknown Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body ly/pkit unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body pu/ inheritance Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion pyje/to inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body bu\ku/ inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar my:- inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar mym bomo “those (plural)” unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ko/wwil (solid) unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality t'o/tt'o\t (in dimension) unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental hu/we\je unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar my/ inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi/ inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number sa/p'y inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body k'u/jlulu\mi “swallow-tube” inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact wydy/m, wady/m unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment wity/mty\m, unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact jodo/tpaj “tie up” unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7e\ni/ inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body c'i\k'i/ inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wy/n unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number pe/ne inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body we/ inheritance Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion 7yno/ inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment mo\mi/ inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar nisa/m (du), nise/m (pl) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality de/k unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar he\si/ inheritance Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar hesa/nteni inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar homo/ndi inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour da/lda\l unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar homo/ni inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship kyle/ inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment by/wo inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body je/mba (of bird), je/ (of insect) inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human kyle/ inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawa/l loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body ha/jujum inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour c'ula/lak inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi/; mi/ncy “you all”, mi/nc'e “you two” inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. posála shell of shellfish, hide, skin unique There are a bunch of shell words with /po/, bear investigation other complex po.- “skin” Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae pyc'y/, pyc'y/mi ant inheritance Maiduan Nisenan pyc'y” underived Shipley 1963 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana kama antelope unique underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus jánta, hóhla badger unique from Penutian “dig” words? underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus bo-po-să bald eagle unique other complex note bo- also in red-tailed hawk Merriam 57:41 1 bald eagle and golden eagle are Eagle Brothers, live together CHM 57:41 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata hah'-nim band-tail pigeon inheritance Maiduan Nisenan hanhan other complex what is -im? Merriam 57:41 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp pótc'ode bat unique phrase meaning of elements unknown Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor too'-pen-de beaver unique relative clause t'u-- “dam” -- remainder probably from verb, unidentified Merriam 57:5 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp sájnem kàpí beetle sp, “bottleneck” unique phrase X insect Shipley 1963 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus kúpky round green tule unique other complex -ky is suffix Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis wàj7ó skunk unique underived Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus helíjenè wolf unique Callaghan 2001 thinks might go with 7ole “coyote” forms but seems unlikely underived must be complex etymologically but Shipley 1961:23 lists are rare root type Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis awm'-sā-mim bighorn unique other complex -im suffix Merriam 57:37 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna k'útt'yt'y\ y\ is grave accent on /y/ in Shipley bird (general) unique other complex k'ut “creature”, t'yt'y “non-productive plural suffix” (Elmendorf & Shepherd 1991:221 citing a P.C. from Shipley in 1998) Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger poo-koo'-le-soo small stinking black ant unique phrase meaning unknown Merriam 57:51 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus 7inánasi bear (general term) unique berry-eater? From Miwokan berry word?? other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus c'ím k'ùt'í jackrabbit (CHM confirms as blac-tail) unique phrase black creature; wékkesi is general word for rabbit Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus síwsìwpem húlup'ìt'i blackberry unique neologistic loan translation? phrase black berry Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? hy/kwo grouse inheritance *hyk' Maiduan Ultan 1964:363 #87 underived Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus 7ínsepi wildcat unique other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera kápuslelè butterfly unique other complex kapus is a root Shipley 1963 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus mol-lo'-ko California condor loan Miwok This form is also Proto-Wintun; Whistler (1977) thought it was of Miwokan origin. Word is in Mil and Mip, Misn, etc. WW %moloko underived 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? kàjhísky California bluejay loan unknown This looks more like the “Crested Jay” k'aj word WW %kaj derived fly-X Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? pan-nă-kah California woodpecker loan into protolanguage Maiduan unknown WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. wísla small chipmunk (CHM confirms as Eutamias) unique underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota kómp'ic'ìlip'i barnswallow, swallow unique other complex -i is stem former; Shpley 1961:23 lists the rest as root! Must be complex etymologically Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana bos'-toi coot unique underived Merriam 57:47 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii téloli cottontail unique other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. wilílim c'á cottonwood unique reduplicated tree that flutters Shipley 1963 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7oléli coyote inheritance *7ole:(l) Maiduan Ultan 1964:368 #308; Miwokan *7ole- Callaghan 1971:1997:58; 2001:325 suggests “deep borrowing” -- why “deep” if exact match?? Why not recent? other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos k'ákk'a, 7á7a crow loan unknown both are widespread areal forms underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus sy\mí deer unique other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana towánim c'á digger pine inheritance *towán Maiduan Ultan 1964:367 #267 phrase X tree Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris sy/ dog, pet unique underived Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura 7él7èspújka dove unique Note PW *puluq Shepherd 2005; Ultan 1964 thinks goes with Nisenan pulba; I don't. underived must be complex etymologically but listed as rare root type by Shipley 1961:23 Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae wátky duck (Merriam confirms “all kinds”) loan Miwokan Pmiw *wat, also in Yokutsan, Callaghan 1997:60 WW %wat underived wat- may be separable; it appears in “clap” Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus lòkóm hìní elderberry unique phrase many seeds Shipley 1963 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus kah'-mum elk (antelope w/ genitive?) unique other complex -m/-im suffix Merriam 57:37 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna máko fish (general) unique underived Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera tyk'y/si flea inheritance *t'yk'ys Maiduan Callaghan 2001:327; Nisenan toon'-koos; took-koos; tŭ-koos'; Note Miwokan *ky:ky$ other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. c'it'út'i red-shafted flicker (Merriam confirms; also has wul'-lo-luk-ko) loan Wintun Proto-Wintun *č'i ... Shepherd 2005 (W. ch'ilew) other complex -i is a stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera p'ic'ík'uk'ù fly loan Wintun Miwok? Serrano? FIND AND MAP reduplicated widespread form, presumably etymologically complex Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon hàwí fox loan into protolanguage *haw Maiduan unknown Ultan 1964:363 # 59 WW %kaw other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna wélk'et'ì frog (general) unique odd take on areal forms in wakat, watak, waraq, etc. WW %wakat other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos kák'a eagle unique other complex -a is a stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. jyhémi wild gooseberry inheritance Maiduan Nisenan yū-hem (CHM) other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer yep-po'-nim hoos'-kum gopher or bull snake unique second element is probably same as “snake” word in 53 phrase X snake Merriam 57:49 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) sop'ó grass unique underived Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ty\lí grasshopper unique other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. hiló ground squirrel (CHM confirms Citellus beecheyi) inheritance Maiduan Ultan 1964:368 #332 no reconstruction proposed underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. sáwwali gray squirrel (CHM confirms S. fossor) unique other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus my/kkyly\si owl (general) (CHM confirms as greathorned owl) unique underived must be complex etymologically Shipley 1963 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis páno grizzly bear loan unknown WW %paha underived Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ly/kt'akym sy/, kawáju horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae húmp'ilìsto hummingbird unique Note Yuki hoo'-mŭl; Costanoan *(h)umu:ña underived must be complex etymologically but Shipley 1961:23 lists are rare root type Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. pàní tobacco loan into protolanguage *pan Maiduan Sierra Miwok Ultan 1964:365 #197 WW %pa7mo other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic kàpí insect, vermin unique broader (“a general class term for unpleasant creatures”) other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp tě-tě'-kum Junco unique reduplicated Merriam 57:45 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica tah'-pah Juniper unique underived Merriam 57:53 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera head louse inheritance *di Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 #49; Note yana Zi underived Shipley 1963 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos o-boo-no mallard unique underived Merriam 57:47 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. 7ékpy large bushy manzanita (in 2 binomials also; also tótto w/ 3 binomials) unique Callaghan 2001:324 notes Pyokuts *7apTHuw “manzanita”, so a possible “Penutian” form underived Shipley 1963 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa poom. om'-poo broad-leaf milkweed inheritance Maiduan Nisenan poo', aw'-poo; note Mins pop:o- other complex -m (same as -im suffix) Merriam 57:59 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera syhy/li mosquito unique Note Miwokan *7yjy:ky$?? other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera yo'-met'-soo-soo Sphynx moth unique phrase butterfly owl Merriam 57:51 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor pekúni mountain lion inheritance *pekun Maiduan Callaghan 2001:333 other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus júhju California quail (CHM says is mountain quail) unique underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. ko-do'-ko-ki freshwater mussels unique reduplicated head-grasp (I suspect is same word as “clam”) Merriam 57:37 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? i-yak pinyon jay (Cyanocephalus) unique underived Not in Shipley; presumably 7ajak or 7ajak' but many possibilities 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum 7odóko freshwater clam unique relative clause head-grasp Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys hemé gopher inheritance *hemej Maiduan Shipley 1961:51 underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum c'it'ók'o small kind of poison oak ( CHM has) inheritance *c'itók' Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 # 32 other complex -o is stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. catátak'a rattlesnake unique derived rattle - X Shipley 1963 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus c'akát'i blackbird loan unknown Note Mie cak... forms; a widespread areal form WW %chak other complex -i is a stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis bōk-luk'-kah red-tailed hawk unique other complex note bo- also in bald eagle Merriam57:41 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica múnmùni wormwood unique reduplicated -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss májhi, mahí salmon inheritance *maj-(hi) Maiduan Ultan 1964:364 #158 underived Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? 7óm píccak'a lizard (Merriam confirms) inheritance *pít-c'ak' Maiduan Ultan 1964:366:208 phrase rock lizard.sp. Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna um-pe'-til-lil-lă small brown lizard, Uta loan Miwokan Pmiw *pet:el:li, Mip pit:e:le-, etc. (Callaghan 1971:24 and Bodega Dic give no Mi reconstruction) WW %petel phrase rock lizard.sp. Merriam 57:49 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna húsky snake (general) unique underived Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum hā-gā'-kum-sam soaproot unique phrase but unanalyzable Merriam 57:61 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata seléwwa bush sp. with red inedible berries unique underived Shipley 1963 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco ke'-lik-lik'-kim sparrow hawk loan Northern Sierra Miwok areal form in Miwokan, PUA, Salinan, PW *k'ililuk, etc. (imitates bird's cry) WW %kili reduplicated -im suffix Merriam 57:41 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae makát'i spider unique Callaghan 2001:327 Pyn *me:cha- “spider” “matches” other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis chip-pĕ-lĕ, tip'-pil-lim little spotted skunk unique other complex -im suffix Merriam 57:37 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae ah-wah'-nim toad unique other complex -im Merriam 57:49 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) c'á tree inheritance *c'ah Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 # 23 underived Shipley 1963 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura mìní7ùsí, mìníhùsí buzzard; vulture loan into protolanguage *hy:s Maiduan Miwokan But - Note Pmis hu:$u- and Pmie *chy:$y-;PW *hu:s, PM *hy:s, *hu:s Callaghan 2001:326; an areal word also in Yukian JHH CHECK WW %hus other complex must be complex etymologically, since husi is vulture word (presumably -i is the stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7ó 7opánoky turtle unique relative clause one who carries rock on the back Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia hámsin c'á black oak unique phrase X tree Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata lòwím c'á, wáksapem hámsin c'á valley oak, white oak unique phrase X tree Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica soo-soo Valley quail (not here; is lower down CHM) unique reduplicated Merriam 57:41 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis ló, wild goose sp. (Merriamconfirms Canada Goose) inheritance Maiduan Nisenan lo:; Note Sierra Miwok low:ot-u- underived Shipley 1963 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos ā-ho'-mim White pelican unique Note Chumashan hew but proto-form is *sew, so probably not source WW %hew other complex what is -im? Nothing in Shipley 1961! Merriam 57:41 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica pímmili wild grape inheritance Maiduan Shipley 1961:51 no reconstruction proposed (Nisenan pi:men) other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica c'y/lc'ykym jó wild rose unique phrase X? flower Shipley 1963 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. c'ùp'í willow inheritance *c'up' Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 # 38 other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. 7óm sàpa woodrat unique phrase rock X Shipley 1963 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) -tum'-tum kah-peem hairy caterpillar (thunder worm unique phrase X insect Shipley 1963 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper wah-kah' smooth caterpillar inheritance Maiduan Nisenan wa-kaj (< *k'aj(-)) underived Merriam 57:51 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. 7epéni yellowjacket inheritance *7e:pén Maiduan Ultan 1964:368 #300 other complex -i is stem former Shipley 1963 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia muk-ked'-de-wow'-we yellowbird (Astragalinus) unique phrase must be phrasal, but untranslatable Merriam 57:45 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna pyc'y/ inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna k'u/tt'yt'y\ inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna p'ic'i/k'uk'u\ loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna sy/ inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna sop'o/ unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna sy\mi/ unknown Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna hu/sky (does not appear alone) unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna maka/t'i loan direction unknown Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food si-yahm' acorn mush inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH; probably same as Nisenan c'o:ja (m is a suffix) simplex Merriam 41:283 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress pálak' headstall, charateristically made of quills and yellowhammer feathers loan unknown this is the very widespread name of the yellowhammer, although not identical to Maidu pan-nă-kah 'acorn woodpecker' (CHM) WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool nôk' arrow, bullet inheritance *nók' Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:365; Callaghan 2001:322 notes Proto-Wintun *no7 'arrow' simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pedú bait unique simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation jawítikym hybó schoolhouse unique phrase jawí 'read', jawíti 'teach school, jawítiky 'teacher' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material loló container, basket inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material k'újlam loló/patá trinket basket unique *lolo is PM (JHH); lul-lo'-bĕh small mush or soup bowl Merriam 41:279 phrase Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material ol-lem' woman's basket hat inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH; see Nisenan other complex has -im suffix Merriam 41:271 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material wókkolò small sea shell punched with a hole, acquired by trading inheritance *…wók' Proto-Maiduan unknown Ultan 1964:368; Merriam has boom-yi'-yah, Dentalium 41:271, boom-yo'-yo 41:349 WW %waku derived Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology lahk-lahk-pe red earth inheritance *lak Proto-Maiduan Nisenan lak 'red' reduplicated Merriam 41:349 Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool pándak' bow, rifle inheritance *pandak Proto-Maiduan Shipley 1961:50; Callaghan 2001:330 says 'may be a kenning term' (from *pan 'roll string on leg" and *dak' 'stick or glue something' simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport yah-gah' jak'á 'bridge' dugout canoe unique simplex Merriam 41:277 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool pul-lahm' carrying net inheritance Proto-Maiduan Nisenan p'2la.. 'basket type' other complex has -im suffix Merriam 41:277 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papél paper, write loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology jepóni, jopóni important man, head man,"captain" inheritance *jep 'man' Proto-Maiduan derived jep 'man' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress pi-tel'-lo breechcloth (of buckskin) loan Spanish Shipley says means 'trousers' (pajtolo) WW %pantalon simplex Merriam 41:269 Jane Hill
cook food food k'ápti cook (things) inheritance *k'áp' 'ripe' Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:364 derived k'âp 'ripe, get ripe, completely cooked, done Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
corpse food wónowono corpse inheritance *wono 'die' Proto-Maiduan Shipley 1961:51; us-wal'-loo-loo' Merriam 41:285 reduplicated Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology wetém dance unique Callaghan 2001:223 says matches PY *wotHij other complex has -im suffix Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology k'ódojape Earthmaker, the creator of Maidu mythology unique derived k'ódo 'district, country, area, place, time, year Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool she-wim' digging stick inheritance Proto-Maiduan m is suffix; see Nisenan other complex has -im suffix Merriam 41:275 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nedí dream inheritance *nedíh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:365 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology sòlím wóky drum unique ke-lem'-me drum of hollow log beaten with feet Merriam 41:287 phrase sôl 'sing, song' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cikín chicken loan English WW %chicken simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
earring other he'-koo ho-no'-pe ear pendant of bone unique phrase Merriam 41:349 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology by/dem májdy evil spirit, diet of snakes only unique phrase byde 'evil, bad, weird, criminal'; májdy 'person' bear??? Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool sawó fire drill, buckeye inheritance *sa:-wó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:366 derived sa 'fire' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other k'àwím sá fireplace unique Merriam sahm'-mo 41:273 phrase Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other c'á tree, wood, stik of wood inheritance *c'áh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food lumít to fish inheritance *lumit Proto-Maiduan Konkow lu/mit (Ultan 1967:42); note Pmis *hume:- derived lûm 'fishhook' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool lûm fish hook inheritance Proto-Maiduan simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
acorn bread food maháti acorn bread unique note protowintun *ma:La 'bake' Shepherd 2006:125; better, note maskala in Mins, Mip -- could this be from that?? derived mahát make bread Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology jálulù elderberry flute loan Sierra Miwok JHH, but widespread, may be onomatopoeia other complex ja-tube (ja no meaning) Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other helám c'á sticks used as counters in the grass game inheritance *héla Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:363; and also *c'a; Merriam 41:289 gives names of each of 2 sticks phrase helá gambling, game, grass game Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kulúm májdy spirit person, ghost; lit. "darkness person" unique ŭs-ki-im spirit after leaving body Merriam 41:287. ŭs-wal-loo-loo phrase Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool dàk'á glue unique derived dâk' 'stick, get stuck' (full noun form only on Englilsh side) Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology wónowonòm májdy támky burial ground unique tam 'bury' Shipley 1961:50 phrase Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
alcohol food hútum sudáka whiskey (lit. crazy sugar) unique loan blend? phrase hutu 'crazy', Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology jómi shaman, doctor loan unknown loan into PM; Ultan 1964:364 lists as PM; very widespread, see also Callaghan 2001:56 WW %jom simplex jôm practice shamanism Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food hàné honey loan English WW %honey simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
house other hybó standard small conical house, any residence inheritance *hy Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:363 other complex hy- plus non-productive something Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hûn hunt inheritance Proto-Maiduan JHH simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology jy/pym sòlí girls' puberty ceremony unique also mâk, the elegant expression phrase jy/py 'have first menstrual period' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material c'ámmi knife inheritance Proto-Maiduan Konkow c'a/mmit Ultan 1967:38 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
mat culture-material we-tā-we tule mat unique simplex Merriam 41:349 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool jókkym 7ó mortar, lit. pounder rock unique note PM *jok 'pound' *Ultan 1964:363); Merriam ōm'-lul-lo 41:275 phrase jôk 'pound dry material' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
necklace other k'újla necklace inheritance *k'új 'neck' Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:364 derived k'ûj 'neck' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool pyjéky needle unique Merriam bŭ-mim' 41:277 bone awl derived pyjé 'sew' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport yahk-woi'-kum paddle unique see 'stirring stick' phrase has jak 'boat, bridge' Merriam 41:277 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool suné pestle unique simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other pan'-nim no'-lo pipe (straight) inheritance Proto-Maiduan Nisenan panmo 'to smoke' phrase Merriam 41:277 Jane Hill
pitch food c'akám pitch, resin, gum, wax unique derived c'a- 'tree' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool buhúpjjoky quiver (for arrows) unique Merriam no-kah' 41:275 derived buhúpjo 'stick several things in' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sok'oti rattle (cocoon) loan Miwokan very widespread; note Wintun sokok forms, WW %soko simplex sok'ót 'Attacus cocoon' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology heem red paint unique possibly *he:m 'coal'??? simplex Merriam 41:271 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food bám wasása salt inheritance *ba Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362; bahm Merriam 41:285 phrase wasása 'things, stuff, material, ingredients' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool wo'-kum bat'-tah' seed paddle inheritance Proto-Maiduan see Nisenan phrase Merriam 41:279 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology c'í clothing, put on inheritance *c'íh Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material 7ínk'yl waist, bark skirt, skirt inheritance *7ink'yl Proto-Maiduan identical in Nisenan; wah-sahm' Merriam 41:347 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool k'èní trap inheritance *k'en Proto-Maiduan too'-yĕ 'snare' Merriam 41:351 derived kên 'to trap' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology sôl sing, song inheritance *sól Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:366 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool she'-bo-sŏ spear for war inheritance *bosó Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:362; yah'-kah fishing spear other complex ši- probably 'perform action with hand' Merriam 41:275 Jane Hill
stirring stick food woi-ā'-koo stirring stick unique see 'oar, paddle' derived same element as in 'paddle' Merriam 41:277 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture k'ùk'ú rope, string, twine inheritance *k'úk' Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:364; poom 'milkweed thread' Merriam 41:277 simple Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material wadápi sack unique also dúki 'small bag with drawstring' simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
string of shell money other shŭ-lip'-pim wampum of Washington Clam unique other complex has -im suffix Merriam 41:273 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation sudák sugar, sweet semantic shift Shipley 1961:51 does not reconstruct simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
sweathouse other k'ùmhy/ sweathouse: "hole house" inheritance *k'úm 'roundhouse Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:364; Merriam has tang'-ko-min 41:273 phrase Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology tújwèj tell stories of long ago, preach inheritance Proto-Maiduan see Nisenan wejda:; betéj 'tell stories' < 'ancient' Ultan 1964:362 other complex tu- is unproductive, probably instrumental prefix Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology tŏ'-te-dah cremation unique Nisenan t'a 'burn' derived ty- 'burn (of an object)' Merriam 41:287 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics pân tobacco inheritance *pan Proto-Maiduan Ultan 1964:365 simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
tule boat transport neum (nŭm) raft loan Wintu note Proto-Wintun *nuh (Shepherd 2006:134); noted by Callagan 2001:322 as resemblant seeming to suggest a "Penutian" cognate??? Also Konkow ny: 'raft' (Ultan 1967:16) WW %nuh simplex Merriam 41:353 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology dal-dal'-pim heem white paint unique see red paint phrase Merriam 41:271 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material walétky winnowing basket unique see Bankalachi; bot'-koo Merriam 41:279 circular winnower derived walét 'to winnow' Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress bolók'o shoe, footgear loan Sierra Miwok also soló 'shoe, footprint' WW %moko simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics wené medicine inheritance *wené Proto-Maiduan Miwokan Ultan 1964:367; note that this word is also all over Miwokan, a Wanderwoerter??? WW %wene simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material tyty/ cradle basket unique reduplicated Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
corn food kóni corn loan English WW %corn simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
beans food binis beans loan English WW %beans simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation k'ík'i cat loan English also k'éti from 'cat' WW %kitty simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress 7olé man's knitted cap, of netting, any hat inheritance Proto-Maiduan See 7o:lu 'basketry hat' in Nisenan; Merriam says this is woman's basket hat; man's hat is we-kah' simplex Shipley 1963 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation wah-dah-to'-kum wah-te'-kum elder clapper sticks unique phrase my guess is a phrase, has -kum element Merriam 41:357 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture k'uk'u/ inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture jo/kkym 7o/ “mortar” inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool sy/k “dig plants with digging stick” inheritance Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture wale/t unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture sune/ “pestle” unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool pa/ndak'a\, pandakto “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool no\k'o/ loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Jane Hill
house other hybo/ inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG medium sedentary no