Sirionó

Family
Tupian
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
srq
Location
-15.53°, -63.97°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Key, Mary Ritchie. 2007. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/. Priest, Anne and Priest, Perry N. 1985. Diccionario sirionó y castellano. Cochabamba: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ibate ibate inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
and y e grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tata-ba; ekusubu tata-ba; ekusubu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location je he See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
back espalda costas body ekite ekite inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality maða-da we; ate; eɨcuã, echarõ (P85) maða-da we; ate; eɨkuã, etʃarõ (P85) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body erie, eyabukʸa; eči̯ã erie, eyabukʸa; eči̯ã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ibi kiti; -ki re ibi kiti; -ki re inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
big grande grande quality ekʷasu, eri̯ša ekʷasu, eri̯ša inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
black negro preto colour ero'nei̯; sone; eišõ ero'nei̯; sone; eišõ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body eruki eruki unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body maeasi maeasi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body ekʸaŋe ekʸaŋe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body ekiã ekiã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human ei̯tãkeĩ; kiã ~ ekiã; mia riirĩ; eriirĩ ei̯tãkeĩ; kiã ~ ekiã; mia riirĩ; eriirĩ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment ibeišĩ (ibei means sky, ešĩ means white)) ibeišĩ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality serui (P85); wina-da serui (P85); wina-da inheritance loan into Shipibo-Conibo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality boc̷epi boc̷epi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
day día dia time ɲaašĩ̯; tena ɲaašĩ̯; tena unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality ači; aði-da ači; aði-da unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality ei̯ru; esi̯i̯; etuba; eči̯mama ei̯ru; esi̯i̯; etuba; eči̯mama unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment etuba; ekui̯i̯ etuba; ekui̯i̯ See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body eisa eisa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment ibi ibi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna eči̯a eči̯a doubtful loan Arawak; cf. Waura ii¢ai See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body eresa eresa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality mũmiri; i̯šo mũmiri; i̯šo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body ekira; i̯eĩ̯kira; mae kira ekira; i̯eĩ̯kira; mae kira inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship paba; e-ru paba; e-ru doubtful loan Portuguese See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna erake; eheo erake; eheo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment tata; erata tata; erata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment euti euti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment si̯mo si̯mo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora ea ea inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality eturã eturã unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ea, era (head); maera, eri̯bi̯ču (body) ea, era (head); maera, eri̯bi̯ču (body) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hand mano mão body eo eo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ae ae inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body eãkĩ eãkĩ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality eusi eusi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
how? como como grammar kʷaha; kʷa ni da kʷaha; kʷa ni da unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar se se inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
if si se grammar awa...so awa...so See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ye; rie; hie ye; rie; hie inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body eči̯i̯ke eči̯i̯ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment ama ni̯ša ama ni̯ša unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment ero; iraro ero; iraro inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body equiatocutiã (left hand) ekiatocutiã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body etimã; ekʷi etimã; ekʷi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment pi̯ri̯rã pi̯ri̯rã i̯ pi̯ri̯rã pi̯ri̯rã i̯ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body eya eya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality eoko eoko inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ki; eki ki; eki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human erãkʷẽ; acuanɨndu (younɡ man), ameɨ (old man) (P85) erãkʷẽ; acuanɨndu (younɡ man), ameɨ (old man) (P85) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna soo; eroo soo; eroo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment ɲasi ɲasi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship tãĩ; esi tãĩ; esi unique; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body ečuru ečuru inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
name nombre nome human ere ere inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality rɨɨ̃; aɨčɨ; ehii rɨɨ̃; aɨčɨ; ehii unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body eato; eati eato; eati See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body ečosoi; eaču; eato; eati ečosoi; eaču; eato; eati inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality eyasu; eaki eyasu; eaki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
night noche noite time isa; itonaru isa; itonaru unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar tei; eã (negative) (P85) tei; eã unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality eimã; eai̯; esi̯ŋa eimã; eai̯; esi̯ŋa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
one uno um number mi̯i̯; ko-mi̯i̯ mi̯i̯; ko-mi̯i̯ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar emo, enongue (P85) emo, enongue inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ɲi̯masi; erasi; tasi; tomo ɲi̯masi; erasi; tasi; tomo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human mia; aba mo; emo mia; aba mo; emo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment ama; ɲaaki ama; ɲaaki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour ei̯reĩ̯ ei̯reĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body equiato cuti (right hand) ekiato kuti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture ei̯ča ei̯ča unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora erao erao inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality eai̯; ereĩ; emano; eroorẽ (emano refers to rotten rice or manioc; eroorẽ refers to rotten meat) eai̯; ereĩ; emano; eroorẽ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment i̯ta ki̯i̯šĩ̯ i̯ta ki̯i̯šĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality erĩ̯me erĩ̯me inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
short corto curto quality ehua; eakʷa ehua; eakʷa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body ečihii ečihii inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental eɨreɨ~ (embarassment) eɨreɨ~ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
skin piel pele body ei̯re; ei̯ ei̯re; ei̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment ibei ibei unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality eɲetẽ; ekʷake; eɲohõ eɲetẽ; ekʷake; eɲohõ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment tata-šĩ tata-šĩ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment ɲasi tata (Literally "moon fire" (ɲasi means moon, tata means fire)) ɲasi tata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ira ira inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment si̯ta ~ hi̯ta ~ i̯ta; si̯ta kʷasu si̯ta ~ hi̯ta ~ i̯ta; si̯ta kʷasu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body e'rokoi̯ e'rokoi̯ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar aque, quɨ (P85) ake, kɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ae; ukĩ̯ ~ ũkĩ̯ ae; ukĩ̯ ~ ũkĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ɲãnã ɲãnã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality emi̯rĩ̯; ei̯re; eanamea; eitere emi̯rĩ̯; ei̯re; eanamea; eitere unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar a, co (P85) a, ko inheritance; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar ne ne inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body ečosoi ečosoi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
three tres tres number ɲeremo ɲeremo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment si̯eu; eri̯eu; ama ni̯eu; amã ɲẽẽ (the former is the verb, the rest are the noun) si̯eu; eri̯eu; ama ni̯eu; amã ɲẽẽ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bite morder morder body ši̯u ši̯u inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body i̯ču i̯ču unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body iabu iabu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment mẽni; mučuuta; uča; sei, seni; ɲuuta; okei̯ (the first four are the transitive verb, the last three are intransitive) mẽni; mučuuta; uča; sei, seni; ɲuuta; okei̯ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body i̯kʸa; ši̯ĩ̯ i̯kʸa; ši̯ĩ̯ unknown; semantic shift bite See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion ɲui̯ ɲui̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
come venir vir motion tu; ŋaẽ tu; ŋaẽ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact muči; uči muči; uči inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental ɲeseo (P85) ɲeseo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ɲisia; kʸišĩ̯; ɲui̯ ɲisia; kʸišĩ̯; ɲui̯ unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state mano; eraake; ečimama mano; eraake; ečimama inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact si̯bi̯koi̯; tia si̯bi̯koi̯; tia inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental eke; ekerei̯kʷã ~ ekerai̯kʷã eke; ekerei̯kʷã ~ ekerai̯kʷã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body mei; iu (the latter form is for specifically drinking water) mei; iu unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
eat comer comer body u (eat), quiaru (eat X) u, kiaru inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion ŋoɨ; ukɨ; põ ɨ ŋoɨ; ukɨ; põ ɨ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental esikiče esikiče inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion mebe mebe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state siri; mebo; tiarõ siri; mebo; tiarõ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental ɲanu; eisakʷa ɲanu; eisakʷa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion mbuchemɨ, maa (P85) mbutʃemɨ, maa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kurukʷa; iruã nua; ukʷa kurukʷa; iruã nua; ukʷa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other querecoquiatu, saarõ, nyoco (P85) kerekokiatu, saarõ, nyoko unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact i̯kia; mutiã i̯kia; mutiã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental i̯kʷa i̯kʷa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental i̯kʸa ~ hi̯kʸa (P85) i̯kʸa ~ hi̯kʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion nyaara (P85) nyaara unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ereko; siki ereko; siki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other eekia hi eekia hi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact kurukʷa; iruã nua; ukʷa (P85) kurukʷa; iruã nua; ukʷa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental po-; i̯; hueereko (P85) i̯; hue (P85) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact quiareɨ~, iʃã (aɨʃã) (P85) kiareɨ~, iʃã (aɨʃã) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
see ver ver mental mae (erese); tea mae (erese); tea inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ɲio (specifically with bow and arrow) ɲio unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state ŋoi ŋoi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body uke uke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body setõ (P85) setõ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body ɲinimu; ereni ɲinimu; ereni inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact momo; ɲisia momo; ɲisia inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact titia, uquia, nyitia (P85) titia, ukia, nyitia unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state huã; ɲumui; ɲuruã huã; ɲumui; ɲuruã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other mukʸačã; sirõ; moo (P85) mukʸačã; sirõ; moo unknown; doubtful loan; inheritance Tacanan čiri See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body kiamu; siite kiamu; siite unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body ñimbirõ, eruru, ñimatã, sobobo ñimbirõ, eruru, ñimatã, sobobo inheritance; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion ita ita inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental piba- piba- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact momo; ɲučã momo; ɲučã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact ɲukʷa; musã ɲukʷa; musã inheritance, inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other uquia, uma (P85) ukia, uma unique; unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body ɲemo ~ ɲomo ɲemo ~ ɲomo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion ŋata ŋata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other ki̯ei̯ ki̯ei̯; taba taba i̯ ki̯ei̯ ki̯ei̯; taba taba i̯ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body ɲurui̯ra ɲurui̯ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body eekõ eekõ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body erẽĩ̯ erẽĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
two dos dois number ɲeremo ɲeremo unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
water agua agua environment i; ama i; ama inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar nane nane inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ure ure inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality eya; emia hi eya; emia hi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar mae; ma (P85) mae; ma inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar manose (P85) manose inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar mã; mãŋe (P85) mã; mãŋe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour ešĩ ešĩ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar aba (P85) aba inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship enĩnĩsi; kuɲa; ememi enĩnĩsi; kuɲa; ememi inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment ki̯ri̯ri̯ã ki̯ri̯ri̯ã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wing ala asa body eheo eheo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human kuɲa; erẽĩ kuɲa; erẽĩ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ečo; eču ečo; eču inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar hẽ hẽ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
foot pie body ei ei inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -be; hi̯; no -be; hi̯; no unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
all todo todos other ha ha unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body eičuã eičuã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body erobobo erobobo unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body eruusɨ eruusɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body ečĩ̯ã mebi̯ (Literally "heart light (weight)"; (ečĩ̯ã mean heart)) ečĩ̯ã mebi̯ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment eeke; ehe; eya eeke; ehe; eya unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body eo ãĩ; eaĩ eo ãĩ; eaĩ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body ečĩ̯ã ečĩ̯ã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sun sol sol time tena tena doubtful loan cf. Movima tinno See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ibi ibate (Literally "earth high"; (ibi means earth)) ibi ibate inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
green verde verde quality erubi erubi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality maku; ɲue; iaku; eraku; erasi; eɨrɨ'eɨ maku; ɲue; iaku; eraku; erasi; eɨrɨ'eɨ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (135)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus tikʷasu (P85) tikʷasu See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. mui̯; mui̯ rusu (the latter is "vampire bat") mui̯; mui̯ rusu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ŋireĩ̯ ŋireĩ̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing See Language page Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. quiãcuã (P85) kiãkuã unique See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. nyacu (P85) njaku inheritance See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae nambu (P85) nambu inheritance See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ñunumbi (P85) ñunumbi inheritance See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae nyɨtasɨ, rɨsha (P85) njɨtasɨˌ rɨʃa unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ɲekerea (generic owl) ɲekerea inheritance See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ɲuru; si̯ ɲuru; si̯ inheritance See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ɲurusi̯; ɲurusi̯ kʷasu ɲurusi̯; ɲurusi̯ kʷasu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ŋira ŋira unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae urubu urubu inheritance See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family yei jei unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba nɡuarɨshĩ (P85) nɡuarɨʃĩ unique See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris nyacua, ñaoñao (P85) njakuaˌ ñaoñao semantic shift jaguar See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ãtã mbucha (P85) ãtã mbutʃa unique See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tatu (P85) tatu inheritance See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɲi̯kʸare; ɲi̯kʸarete (P85) ɲi̯kʸare; ɲi̯kʸarete inheritance See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus sarao ri̯ša (P85) sarao ri̯ša unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna si̯ra; hi̯ra si̯ra; hi̯ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae sẽɨe (P85) sẽɨe unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ninyia (P85) ninjia See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. sɨra quibi, rara je, sɨra cuasa (P85) sɨra kibiˌ rara heˌ sɨra kuasa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura nyuɨ (P85) njuɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. tuchuara, sɨraquiei (P85) tutʃuaraˌ sɨrakiei unknown See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ɲi̯kʸare; tučuara kʷasu (generic lizard) ɲi̯kʸare; tuǩuara kʷasu semantic shift from 'caiman' See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. hi̯rae ~ si̯rae hi̯rae ~ si̯rae unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura isa (P85) isa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes missing See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae mbeɨ chusu (P85) mbeɨ tʃusu inheritance? snake-big' See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mei̯; mei̯ kʷaču mei̯; mei̯ kʷaǩu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox mbeɨ (P85) mbeɨ See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria quereerẽ, nɡuasu, conombe (P85) kereerẽˌ nɡuasuˌ konombe inheritance See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis sɨrabu (P85) sɨrabu unknown See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) urue; uruete urue; uruete inheritance See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba siri; ɲiisui; soãtã he (refers specifically to Juania australis) (P85) siri; ɲiisui; soãtã he See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. tibaerã (P85) tibaerã unknown See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea saúchie (P85) saútʃie unknown See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes siríba (Smith2014) siríba (Smith2014) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ɲiɲu (P85) ɲiɲu inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra missing See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kiamarɨ (P85) kiamarɨ inheritance See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus kurukwata (Mello 2000) kurukwata (Mello 2000) unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. missing See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ira ruri; kʸata ira ruri; kʸata unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ibaši̯; abači̯ ibaši̯; abači̯ inheritance See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum ero ero unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ira ira inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. missing See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. ira isi (P85) ira isi See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta nioi; manio (generic manioc) nioi; manio inheritance See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas ɲiti ɲiti inheritance See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ñiti (P85) ñiti See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) ia ia See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. ibamo ibamo unknown See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. isio isio See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. isioro, irateɨri (P85) isioroˌ irateɨri unknown See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tasi tasi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis iraonu iraonu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria tatu tatu unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae nɡã (P85) nɡã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera anã; ana musu anã; ana musu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora eruitashĩ (P85) eruitaʃĩ unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda mua mua See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones kiraẽ kiraẽ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera eki; ki eki; ki unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera meru; aču meru; aču inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae tucu (P85) tuku unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae mbaeasicha (P85) mbaeasitʃa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ɲi̯si̯õ ɲi̯si̯õ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tebu (P85) tebu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita kia; amaŋia kia; amaŋia inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda urukʷa; urukʷa rama urukʷa; urukʷa rama inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ɲunusi̯ ɲunusi̯ inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tʃakwa (Mello 2000) tʃakwa (Mello 2000) inheritance cf. Arawak, Tukanoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha eruba (P85) eruba unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] tendi (male), quiracha (female) (P85) tendi (male)ˌ kiratʃa (female) unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus nɡuɨ (male), isaa (female) (P85) nɡuɨ (male)ˌ isaa (female) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae mbicu (P85) mbiku inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae cuandu (P85) kuandu inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua seache (P85) seatʃe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. itaicu (P85) itaiku unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus sikiča; ɲaaši̯ sikiǩa; ɲaaši̯ unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae quishɨcoɨ (P85) kiʃɨkoɨ doubtful loan Arawak, e.g. Baure koʃas See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris eãcuãtoi (P85) eãkuãtoi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kiikʷã; kiikʷã nusu kiikʷã; kiikʷã nusu unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material iru; hinakõ ~ irakõ iru; hinakõ ~ irakõ unknown; doubtful loan into protolg, direction unknown - WW %panaku See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tiqui je (P85) tiki he unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material erua erua unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kisa (P85) kisa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material erenda (P85) erenda unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport kanõã (P85) kanõã loan - WW %kanawa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology hememe hememe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology mao mao unknown In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material tiisa; tiikʸa tiisa; tiikʸa inheritance cf. Quechua piʃana See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tiru; ei̯rao tiru; ei̯rao inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other etarõsa etarõsa doubtful loan, direction unknown Baure etʃosoe may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other ɲea ɲea inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology aba čekʷayã i̯kʷã (Literally "person invisible bad") aba ǩekʷajã i̯kʷã unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology [dioso] [dioso] loan Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology moi (also means 'throat'). Also large flute, made of bamboo, [pinkilʸo], from Quechua 'pinkuyllu'. Also [kena], from Quechua 'qena'. moi (also means 'throat'). Also large flute, made of bamboo, [pinkilʸo], from Quechua 'pinkuyllu'. Also [kena], from Quechua 'qena'. semantic shift; loan Quechua multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material tikise tikise inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool siniɲa; eita siniɲa; eita unknown especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool eruu; uu; uuba (P85); pisa eruu; uu; uuba (P85); pisa inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool eðoto-hi; eď̶akʷa-hi eðoto-hi; eď̶akʷa-hi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool ŋiraa; eraa (P85); pisa-c̷oe ŋiraa; eraa (P85); pisa-c̷oe inheritance arco See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport amã i̯bukʸa amã i̯bukʸa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material echɨu riruˌ equiarusa (P85) etʃɨu riruˌ ekiarusa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ɲĩõ; iračaẽ ɲĩõ; iraǩaẽ inheritance; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool mbae reisa (P85) mbae reisa unknown agriculture? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology raka-raka raka-raka doubtful loan (into protolg?), direction unknown Carib maraka See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool ira isiˌ eisi (P85) ira isiˌ eisi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wax cera cera other irao rɨmitãˌ tɨmitã (bee wax) irao rɨmitãˌ tɨmitã (bee wax) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
honey miel mel food irao irao inheritance only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture esã esã inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology tatu (P85) tatu See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material kiata; tai ~ tei; tai kiite (the former is "thatch", the other two are "roof") kiata; tai ~ tei; tai kiite unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology ecuaquia (P85) ekuakia See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology boepa (also 'sky') boepa (also 'sky') See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation kirika (Quechua) kirika (Quechua) loan Quechua See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology eke; ekerei̯kʷã ~ ekerai̯kʷã eke; ekerei̯kʷã ~ ekerai̯kʷã See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation nɡuira (P85) nɡuira unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation takʷa reẽ ~ takʷa reĩ takʷa reẽ ~ takʷa reĩ See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress eiyao eijao See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation ɲakʷa ɲakʷa unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation [ama]; eruu; uu (P85) [ama]; eruu; uu loan; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress eite suča ("roof for the head"?) eite suǩa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology e-čoa pohi; ekʷai e-čoa pohi; ekʷai unknown; inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool ðohe ðohe See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other suchaˌ erecuaˌ tuchua (p85) sutʃaˌ erekuaˌ tutʃua See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
salt sal sal food emikesa (Literally that which gives flavor) emikesa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology sac̷o- sačo- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool teekʷa teekʷa inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food aseaseti- aseaseti- See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food soo (Mello2000) soo (Mello2000) semantic shift from 'bite' Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ia ia inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool erabɨsa (P85) erabɨsa unknown esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool mua mua inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture quiacuĩ (P85) kiakuĩ inheritance prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food nioi kui̯i̯ nioi kui̯i̯ inheritance agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food manio manio semantic shift from 'manioc' usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool missing agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool ekiši̯ma; kiši̯ma (P85) ekiši̯ma; kiši̯ma See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
house other tučua; suča tučua; suča unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker