Yokuts Yawelmani

North America
ISO 639-3
35.56°, -119.07°
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources

Cultural Vocabulary (105)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source
acorn mush food t'e:pin acorn mush inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Yawdanchi tipin 'acorn-bread' Kroeber 1907:236' according to Merriam, t'e:pin is 'acorn soup' and acorn mush is te-wit te-pin (44:193) derived verbal noun in -n Newman 1944
ball game food k'aTliwT retranscribed shinney game unknown derived surely a verbal noun Harrington
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing
feather headband dress cux headdress (ceremonial) inheritance *chux Proto-Yokuts Palewyami cux (Gamble 1991:75); also sām'-mah 'headband for dancing only' simplex Golla 1964
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool t'ujos arrow inheritance *t'ujos Proto-Nim-Yokuts talap Kroeber 284 (looks like 'bow') derived see t'uyu 'to shoot' Golla1964
arrow straightener other wiS-a:c' arrow-straightener unknown derived *we:Si 'straighten' Newman 1944
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing
stone bowl culture-material k'oywos bowl for pounding acorns unknown simplex and Newman 218 Berman 2002
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material t'e:wiCh C is c subdot basket (large) inheritance *t'e:wiTh Proto-Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:35 gives as Pyv only; chaw>t 'large cooking bowl, twined' Merriam 44:189, ahn-ash 'large pack basket' simplex Golla 1964
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material tā-witch small mush or soup bowl (twined) inheritance *t'e:wiTh Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Merriam 44:189
basketry hat culture-material shōm-lā-lā basket hat worn by women loan Spanish poo-kah'-kah in Porterville Merriam 44:447 and Yawl 44:521, 531 simplex Merriam 44:181
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material lil-nah beads unknown Porterville simplex Merriam 44:449
ochre culture-mythology missing missing
bow arco arco subsistence tool ne:k'i to draw a bow inheritance *nek'- Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing
carrying net subsistence tool ts'uno:7lus carrying net unknown to'-noi 'any net' CHM 44:189 derived instrumental -lis Harrington
bottle botella garrafa acculturation ahCH,ah>ts bottle unknown note o'-sah 'urn or bottleneck' Numic loan simplex Merriam 44:189, 531
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tiy'a7 leader, captain inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawdanchi di:ya7 'chief' and Palewyami te'-yah derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress trawt'-tim kin'-nep breech cloth, lit. skin dress unknown phrase Merriam 44:521
cook food food hiSi cook inheritance *hish- Proto-Yokutsan see Palew form simplex Golla 1964
corpse food tow'-trŏ yo'-kut corpse inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Palewyami tawta 'dead' phrase dead person' Merriam 44:537
dance (generic) culture-mythology ha:tham dance inheritance *ha:tham Proto-Nim-Yokuts perhaps Yokutian: Callaghan 2001:339 simplex Golla 1964
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Thiphni7 supernatural being inheritance *Thiphni7, *chhiphni7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964
digging stick subsistence tool to-lo'-we digging stick unknown also ah'-tsĕ, of mountain mahogany simplex Merriam 44:529
dipper subsistence tool missing missing
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7anaTh-wal dream inheritance *7anaTh Proto-Yokuts Whistler & Golla 356; I think may be related to Chumashan 7antap derived Golla 1964
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tam-bool yo-koi drum loan Spanish WW %tambor loan blend, yokoi is 'pot' phrase yo-koi is 'pot'
chicken gallina galinha acculturation 7O:we:7ic' chicken, rooster semantic shift must be name for some other bird, shifted derived one who is crowing' (modern 7O:7o:we:(7)-ic') with agentive -ic' Newman 1944
earring other pō' ear pendant (usually a feather 4-5" long) inheritance simplex Merriam 44:523
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hiT'wa:yu7 Evil One inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam confirms 44:197; also at Porterville Merriam 44:459; note Yawdanchi hitcwaiu 'ghost' Kroeber 275 derived Newman 1944
fire drill subsistence tool wahl'-li fire drill unknown simplex Merriam 44:527
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing
fireplace hogar lareira other hOtO:ne:ls-i fireplace (obj.) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived *hOt'O:ne: 'build a fire' Newman 1944
firewood leña lenha other hides wood (for fire) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts hidesh in Chaw? Gash? In Newman before p. 134, search; Harrington has Yawl hit'es 'post, leña' 2,97,0009 derived this is verbal noun derived by truncation; *hide:s 'gahter wood' (where * is 'root', not proto) Newman 154 Newman 1944
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food gaht-lă-ho fish with hook and line unknown derived extra syllable must mean derivation Merriam 44:573
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing
fish hook subsistence tool t'uk'oj' fish gig, harpoon (2,97,0296) unknown note Proto-N-Yukian t'uk' 'fish gig, spear' simplex might be truncated verbal noun but I can't find the verb Harrington
acorn bread food sah-sah acorn bread inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts WW %saw note Yawd. caca-ñitc acorn bread cooked in hole (Kroeber 1907); also pow-num-too-yă; ki-is 'meal baked on hot stones' Merriam 44:531 simplex Merriam 44:195
wheat food missing missing
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing
gambling sticks other that'-se-ah should be ah but Excel insists on 'that' 10 sticks to throw down unknown also ki'-es, 2 short and long to hold in hand, also he-pesh 'the counters' at Porterville (44:451) derived probably the -a7 suffix Merriam 44:603
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hitwaia-n ghost (objective) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived verbal noun in -a(7)?? Kroeber 1907
glue subsistence tool missing missing
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology poCH grave in ground unknown also kahn'-leu (Merriam 44:537; luk'o:l-uwo:l 'cemetery, place for burying one another' Newman 1944:167; loo-ko-loo'-sĕl 'grave in ground' Porterville Merriam 44:459 simplex *luk'ul 'bury' Merriam 44:197
alcohol food missing missing
Datura wrightii narcotics tañai Jimsonweed inheritance WW %tanai ta:naj JPH 2,97,0179 simplex Kroeber 1907
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology 7anThuw shaman inheritance *7angThiw Proto--Yokuts Chumashan loan into PY? Whistler & Golla p. 356 simplex Golla 1964
honey miel mel food miye:l bee, honey loan Spanish simplex Newman 1944
house other Thi7 house inheritance *Thi7 Proto-Yokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Gollal 1964
hunt cazar caçar food hoy'-le: hunt inheritance *xoy- Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived xoy 'deer' Golla 1964
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing
knife cuchillo faca culture-material no-kotch'-ă knife inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see 'obsidian' other complex k'ac' obsidian Merriam 44:185
mat culture-material tin-ne tule mat inheritance Proto-Yokutsan also woi-yo-hon-nah where hon-nah is 'brakded' simplex Merriam 44:525
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool k'oiwoc portable mortar inheritance Proto-General Yokuts derived probably -ac' suffix Kroeber 1962
necklace other walaTh necklace, neck ornament, any ornament worn around the neck including necktie' inheritance ProtoYokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Berman 2002
needle/awl subsistence tool p'a:w'ukh awl inheritance *p'aw'ukh Proto-Yokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Golla 1964
paddle/oar remo remo transport i-yi boat pole inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts see Yawd form simplex Merriam 44:529
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pholwoy pestle for pounding corn inheritance Proto-Yokutsan WW %polwa Newman 1944:154 has O…O simplex Berman 2002
pinole food missing missing
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other pah'-mung-ti pipe inheritance Proto-Yokutsan WW %pa7mo Merriam sook'-mi 44:187 pipe of manzanita other complex root is just &pamun Berman 2002
pitch food sa:xal pitch inheritance *sa:xal Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam says this is 'native asphalt' and pitch, resin is trah<nul 44:529 simplex Golla 1964
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kā'-wis vessel for cooking, of baked clay, some a foot across unknown see Yawelmani 'bowl for cooking acorns, stone bowl above simplex Berman 2002
quiver subsistence tool mo-got? quiver inheritance Proto-Yokutsan WW %mok same as 'bag or sack'; also maybe tim-mah-hah; see Central Numic 'bag' and 'quiver' words; part of the 'antelope' set?? simplex Merriam 44:525
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology san'ac' rattle (cocoon) inheritance *san'- Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived probably -ac' suffix Golla 1964
red paint culture-mythology ho7jiw red paint inheritance Proto-Yokutsan CHM 44:523 has only literal trans of English simplex Harrington
salt sal sal food khuyu7 salt inheritance *khuyu7 Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Golla 1964
seed beater subsistence tool hah'-li seed paddle unknown also Porterville Merriam 44:447, also wut-koo-yut 44:531 simplex Merriam 44:189
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing there is a word for 'belongings', find
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool T'alaph bow (2) inheritance *T'alaph Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material kin'-nip, choo'-nish? 'front apron of deerskin' unknown tso'-nis is 'old-time garment' Merriam 44:521 simplex Merriam 44:181
snare subsistence tool powon'ey trap (general) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawd, Palew forms derived po:won 'set a trap' Berman 2002
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7ilik- a song (noun theme) inheritance *7ilik Proto-Nim-Yokuts Probably Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:27; note Yawdanchi 7üdük 'sing' Kroeber 1907:218; merriam 44:199 wĕ-pil 'a song' simplex Newman 1944
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing
stirring stick food ke-wek'-wi-e stirring stick unknown derived Merriam 44:529
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture c'ikey string inheritance *ch'ik- Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived Golla 1964
bag, sack culture-material mo:qutH bag or sack inheritance Proto-Yokutsan WW %mok Palew mo-ket; Yowl NOT same as antelope which is soi-yal simplex Harrington
string of shell money other k'e:xa7 money loan into protolanguage *k'e:xa7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts Takic WW %kys simplex Golla 1964
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing
sweathouse other moS sweathouse inheritance *mosh Proto-Nim-Yokuts WW %mosh simplex Golla 1964
tell history culture-mythology ho:li7 to tell a story unknown Merriam confirms to-so 'tell a story' 44:587; Newman has doso at 1944:140 simplex Harrington
cremate culture-mythology missing missing
tobacco (native) narcotics so:k'on tobacco inheritance Yok-Utian WW %sokon Callaghan 1997:41 simplex Harrington
tule boat transport 7owon boat (bundle of tules) inheritance *7ow'in (?) Proto-Yokutsan Callaghan 2001:322; also oo-loi Merriam 44:529 (there are 2 types -- one where man sits, other for shallow water where he pushes it ahead) other complex vowelharmony shows derivation has occurred Harrington
white paint culture-mythology qoSrots' white earth (for paint) unknown Merriam 44:523 has only literal translation from eng derived qoSr 'to paint with white earth' Harrington
winnowing basket culture-material chop'-pit, tsap'-pit circular winnower unknown hah'-li is coarse scoop-shaped tray of openwork Merriam 44:601 simplex Merriam 44:189, 531
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tam'ay sandal inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Merriam 44:181 has lah'-hiCH 'moccasin'; Merriam 44:339 Yawdanchi tam-mi' 'moccasins for men' ; and CHM's Palewyami tom-mi 'moccasins' gives Py form simplex Berman 2002
medicine narcotics t'oyox medicine inheritance *t'uyox Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex note t'uyu 'shoot'; Newman p. 15 t'Oyx- 'give medicine' Golla 1964
cradleboard culture-material wac'as cradle unknown Merriam confirms 44:189; also Porterville 44:447 simplex Berman 2002
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tHawTHal soldado semantic shift Proto-Yokutsan not Sp., means "killer", must be related to the tawta 'die' words derived Harrington
corn food masse: corn loan Spanish WW %maiz "probably" says Newman simplex Newman 1944
beans food missing missing
cat gato gato acculturation ga:do: cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Newman 1944
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing probably same loan as 'basketry cap'
clapper acculturation missing missing