Yokuts Yawelmani

Family
Unknown North America
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
Location
0.00°, 0.00°
Notes
Features
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
none


Cultural Vocabulary (105)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food t'e:pin acorn mush inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Yawdanchi tipin 'acorn-bread' Kroeber 1907:236' according to Merriam, t'e:pin is 'acorn soup' and acorn mush is te-wit te-pin (44:193) derived verbal noun in -n Newman 1944 Jane Hill
ball game food k'aTliwT retranscribed shinney game unknown derived surely a verbal noun Harrington Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress cux headdress (ceremonial) inheritance *chux Proto-Yokuts Palewyami cux (Gamble 1991:75); also sām'-mah 'headband for dancing only' simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool t'ujos arrow inheritance *t'ujos Proto-Nim-Yokuts talap Kroeber 284 (looks like 'bow') derived see t'uyu 'to shoot' Golla1964 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other wiS-a:c' arrow-straightener unknown derived *we:Si 'straighten' Newman 1944 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material k'oywos bowl for pounding acorns unknown simplex and Newman 218 Berman 2002 Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material t'e:wiCh C is c subdot basket (large) inheritance *t'e:wiTh Proto-Nim-Yokuts Callaghan 1997:35 gives as Pyv only; chaw>t 'large cooking bowl, twined' Merriam 44:189, ahn-ash 'large pack basket' simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material tā-witch small mush or soup bowl (twined) inheritance *t'e:wiTh Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Merriam 44:189 Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material shōm-lā-lā basket hat worn by women loan Spanish poo-kah'-kah in Porterville Merriam 44:447 and Yawl 44:521, 531 simplex Merriam 44:181 Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material lil-nah beads unknown Porterville simplex Merriam 44:449 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool ne:k'i to draw a bow inheritance *nek'- Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport missing missing Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool ts'uno:7lus carrying net unknown to'-noi 'any net' CHM 44:189 derived instrumental -lis Harrington Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation ahCH,ah>ts bottle unknown note o'-sah 'urn or bottleneck' Numic loan simplex Merriam 44:189, 531 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tiy'a7 leader, captain inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawdanchi di:ya7 'chief' and Palewyami te'-yah derived from *de:-yi 'take the lead' Newman 156 Berman 2002 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress trawt'-tim kin'-nep breech cloth, lit. skin dress unknown phrase Merriam 44:521 Jane Hill
cook food food hiSi cook inheritance *hish- Proto-Yokutsan see Palew form simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
corpse food tow'-trŏ yo'-kut corpse inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Palewyami tawta 'dead' phrase dead person' Merriam 44:537 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology ha:tham dance inheritance *ha:tham Proto-Nim-Yokuts perhaps Yokutian: Callaghan 2001:339 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Thiphni7 supernatural being inheritance *Thiphni7, *chhiphni7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool to-lo'-we digging stick unknown also ah'-tsĕ, of mountain mahogany simplex Merriam 44:529 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7anaTh-wal dream inheritance *7anaTh Proto-Yokuts Whistler & Golla 356; I think may be related to Chumashan 7antap derived Golla 1964 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tam-bool yo-koi drum loan Spanish loan blend, yokoi is 'pot' WW %tambor phrase yo-koi is 'pot' Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation 7O:we:7ic' chicken, rooster semantic shift must be name for some other bird, shifted derived one who is crowing' (modern 7O:7o:we:(7)-ic') with agentive -ic' Newman 1944 Jane Hill
earring other pō' ear pendant (usually a feather 4-5" long) inheritance simplex Merriam 44:523 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hiT'wa:yu7 Evil One inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam confirms 44:197; also at Porterville Merriam 44:459; note Yawdanchi hitcwaiu 'ghost' Kroeber 275 derived Newman 1944 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool wahl'-li fire drill unknown simplex Merriam 44:527 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other hOtO:ne:ls-i fireplace (obj.) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan derived *hOt'O:ne: 'build a fire' Newman 1944 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other hides wood (for fire) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts hidesh in Chaw? Gash? In Newman before p. 134, search; Harrington has Yawl hit'es 'post, leña' 2,97,0009 derived this is verbal noun derived by truncation; *hide:s 'gahter wood' (where * is 'root', not proto) Newman 154 Newman 1944 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food gaht-lă-ho fish with hook and line unknown derived extra syllable must mean derivation Merriam 44:573 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool t'uk'oj' fish gig, harpoon (2,97,0296) unknown note Proto-N-Yukian t'uk' 'fish gig, spear' simplex might be truncated verbal noun but I can't find the verb Harrington Jane Hill
acorn bread food sah-sah acorn bread inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts note Yawd. caca-ñitc acorn bread cooked in hole (Kroeber 1907); also pow-num-too-yă; ki-is 'meal baked on hot stones' Merriam 44:531 WW %saw simplex Merriam 44:195 Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other that'-se-ah should be ah but Excel insists on 'that' 10 sticks to throw down unknown also ki'-es, 2 short and long to hold in hand, also he-pesh 'the counters' at Porterville (44:451) derived probably the -a7 suffix Merriam 44:603 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hitwaia-n ghost (objective) inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived verbal noun in -a(7)?? Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology poCH grave in ground unknown also kahn'-leu (Merriam 44:537; luk'o:l-uwo:l 'cemetery, place for burying one another' Newman 1944:167; loo-ko-loo'-sĕl 'grave in ground' Porterville Merriam 44:459 simplex *luk'ul 'bury' Merriam 44:197 Jane Hill
alcohol food missing missing Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics tañai Jimsonweed inheritance ta:naj JPH 2,97,0179 WW %tanai simplex Kroeber 1907 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology 7anThuw shaman inheritance *7angThiw Proto--Yokuts Chumashan loan into PY? Whistler & Golla p. 356 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food miye:l bee, honey loan Spanish simplex Newman 1944 Jane Hill
house other Thi7 house inheritance *Thi7 Proto-Yokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Gollal 1964 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food hoy'-le: hunt inheritance *xoy- Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived xoy 'deer' Golla 1964 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material no-kotch'-ă knife inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see 'obsidian' other complex k'ac' obsidian Merriam 44:185 Jane Hill
mat culture-material tin-ne tule mat inheritance Proto-Yokutsan also woi-yo-hon-nah where hon-nah is 'brakded' simplex Merriam 44:525 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool k'oiwoc portable mortar inheritance Proto-General Yokuts derived probably -ac' suffix Kroeber 1962 Jane Hill
necklace other walaTh necklace, neck ornament, any ornament worn around the neck including necktie' inheritance ProtoYokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool p'a:w'ukh awl inheritance *p'aw'ukh Proto-Yokutsan see Palewyami form simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport i-yi boat pole inheritance Proto-Nim-Yokuts see Yawd form simplex Merriam 44:529 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pholwoy pestle for pounding corn inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Newman 1944:154 has O…O WW %polwa simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
pinole food missing missing Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other pah'-mung-ti pipe inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Merriam sook'-mi 44:187 pipe of manzanita WW %pa7mo other complex root is just &pamun Berman 2002 Jane Hill
pitch food sa:xal pitch inheritance *sa:xal Proto-Nim-Yokuts Merriam says this is 'native asphalt' and pitch, resin is trah<nul 44:529 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool kā'-wis vessel for cooking, of baked clay, some a foot across unknown see Yawelmani 'bowl for cooking acorns, stone bowl above simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool mo-got? quiver inheritance Proto-Yokutsan same as 'bag or sack'; also maybe tim-mah-hah; see Central Numic 'bag' and 'quiver' words; part of the 'antelope' set?? WW %mok simplex Merriam 44:525 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology san'ac' rattle (cocoon) inheritance *san'- Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived probably -ac' suffix Golla 1964 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology ho7jiw red paint inheritance Proto-Yokutsan CHM 44:523 has only literal trans of English simplex Harrington Jane Hill
salt sal sal food khuyu7 salt inheritance *khuyu7 Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool hah'-li seed paddle unknown also Porterville Merriam 44:447, also wut-koo-yut 44:531 simplex Merriam 44:189 Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing missing there is a word for 'belongings', find Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool T'alaph bow (2) inheritance *T'alaph Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material kin'-nip, choo'-nish? 'front apron of deerskin' unknown tso'-nis is 'old-time garment' Merriam 44:521 simplex Merriam 44:181 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool powon'ey trap (general) inheritance Proto-Yokutsan see Yawd, Palew forms derived po:won 'set a trap' Berman 2002 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology 7ilik- a song (noun theme) inheritance *7ilik Proto-Nim-Yokuts Probably Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:27; note Yawdanchi 7üdük 'sing' Kroeber 1907:218; merriam 44:199 wĕ-pil 'a song' simplex Newman 1944 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food ke-wek'-wi-e stirring stick unknown derived Merriam 44:529 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture c'ikey string inheritance *ch'ik- Proto-Nim-Yokuts derived Golla 1964 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material mo:qutH bag or sack inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Palew mo-ket; Yowl NOT same as antelope which is soi-yal WW %mok simplex Harrington Jane Hill
string of shell money other k'e:xa7 money loan into protolanguage *k'e:xa7 Proto-Nim-Yokuts Takic WW %kys simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
sweathouse other moS sweathouse inheritance *mosh Proto-Nim-Yokuts WW %mosh simplex Golla 1964 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology ho:li7 to tell a story unknown Merriam confirms to-so 'tell a story' 44:587; Newman has doso at 1944:140 simplex Harrington Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics so:k'on tobacco inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:41 WW %sokon simplex Harrington Jane Hill
tule boat transport 7owon boat (bundle of tules) inheritance *7ow'in (?) Proto-Yokutsan Callaghan 2001:322; also oo-loi Merriam 44:529 (there are 2 types -- one where man sits, other for shallow water where he pushes it ahead) other complex vowelharmony shows derivation has occurred Harrington Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology qoSrots' white earth (for paint) unknown Merriam 44:523 has only literal translation from eng derived qoSr 'to paint with white earth' Harrington Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material chop'-pit, tsap'-pit circular winnower unknown hah'-li is coarse scoop-shaped tray of openwork Merriam 44:601 simplex Merriam 44:189, 531 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress tam'ay sandal inheritance Proto-Yokutsan Merriam 44:181 has lah'-hiCH 'moccasin'; Merriam 44:339 Yawdanchi tam-mi' 'moccasins for men' ; and CHM's Palewyami tom-mi 'moccasins' gives Py form simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics t'oyox medicine inheritance *t'uyox Proto-Nim-Yokuts simplex note t'uyu 'shoot'; Newman p. 15 t'Oyx- 'give medicine' Golla 1964 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material wac'as cradle unknown Merriam confirms 44:189; also Porterville 44:447 simplex Berman 2002 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation tHawTHal soldado semantic shift Proto-Yokutsan not Sp., means "killer", must be related to the tawta 'die' words derived Harrington Jane Hill
corn food masse: corn loan Spanish "probably" says Newman WW %maiz simplex Newman 1944 Jane Hill
beans food missing missing Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation ga:do: cat loan Spanish WW %gato simplex Newman 1944 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress missing missing probably same loan as 'basketry cap' Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill