Cocopa

Family
Yuman
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
coc
Location
32.38°, -114.85°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ma:, ma:k, ma:Ly, ma:m, ma:y inheritance Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar -i:, -iy, -ya unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other kwiny, ma:m “to be all” unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar kaka:p “and then” unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body SwaL, 7iSwa/L unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment xm7uL inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location -i, -pi, -Si, -y unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body Lama/k, 7ima/k inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality xcaq, xca:q “to be” unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body 7icu/ “stomach” inheritance Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location maTk inheritance Jane Hill
big grande grande quality ptay, pta:y, ptays, 7iny inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body Sa:, Saw, Sa:w unknown Jane Hill
black negro preto colour nyi:Ly, nyiLy “to be black” inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body nyxwaT inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body xpSu: (with the mouth) inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body xuLy “pimple” Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body nyya:k, ya:k inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body nymay, 7imay inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body ya:S, 7i:ya/:S inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment Lymar, ..., 7i:7a:/ (tr) Lyminy “burn up” unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body smnyay “chew food” inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human kwanyu/k “child about age 3” unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion kuLy inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment kwi: inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality xsu:r “to be” inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion yi:, nyyiw, yi:s, yiw inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact kuk, nyawi:/ rar, shiLy (over fire), unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality nyxany “truly” inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental sa:w unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental mi, mis inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact cuka/T, 7u:ka/T inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time nya inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state mSpa, 7i:m (spl) unknown Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact xwaLy inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna Txpa, xTpa “coyote” inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality 7i:ma/T inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental shma:p, shcmas (dpl) inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body Si, Si:p (multiple) inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality S7ar, S7a:r “to be dry” inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality xlqay “to be dull” mriny “to look dull” unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment mi:pu/T inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body shma:l inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment maT, ma\Tkwr7u/r inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body nyawi:/ ma “in general” inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna xma Su7a/p, xma\Su7a/p unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body 7iyu/ inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion SiLy “several to fall” inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality ma\Txmi:/rLy “far-away place” unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body shay inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship ny7a: (female speaking), nyaLy (man speaking) a na- word -- Not in IA inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental mshya: inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna shawa/l inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7a7a:/ inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna si'i/Ly inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion kup, raw unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment supa/ny, Smal su:pa/ny unknown Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion man inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment Sa inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body 7imi:/ inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora xpaLy (of ironwood -- a legume- 7a: “mesquite bean”) unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality mi:xa:/n, xany, xa:ny inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state xmi: unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body lmiS (body), mxwaL (head) unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body 7isha:Ly inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar animate subj: a:-, aw-, u-, u:-, 7aw-, 7u-; non-subject p- unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body mkur unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental 7i:7i:/p inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality nyix, nyi:x inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion kw7aL unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact 7u:xa/m (w/ long object), cu (w/ thrown or held object), 7u:xwa/sh (with whip), sTu (with fist), ptax (with hand), shuku/p (with knuckles) unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other shawi/n unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar km7ap “how can it be? unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar subject nya:c (and various prefixes) inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar ny-, nya- unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location Ly-, -Ly- (“in”), kway “the inside, interior” unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body nypxa, pxa inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body SaqSaq 7i (body part to itch, to feel itchy), or ciqciq 7i “to feel itchy” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact nak unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 7u:ya:/ inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment xawiLy, xnyu inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental 7u:Sa/y inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment wal unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kSark (direction) inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body 7imi:/ inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion paT unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment cu:la/m, su:la/m “lightning to flash” inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body 7i:pa/T; ci:pa/y (human) inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body cpuSu/, nycpuSu/ inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kuLy, ku:ly “to be long” inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body nymya:S unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7apa/, 7apa:s inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7ima:c unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment xLya7 inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship nyca:, nycal (living) inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7iya/ inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human muLy inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body mpuk inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality xrpay, xrpa:y “to be near” inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body missing Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality xany, xa:ny “to be new” inheritance Jane Hill
night noche noite time cnyam “to be night” inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar la, mm, 7a~/7a~ “No”, lax “to be not” inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body 7ixu/ inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality lu:lp, lu:l 7i, inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number shiT inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other cuma/n, 7u:ku/p unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar missing Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body rap, ra:p “to be in pain, of body” inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human capa/y, capa:/y inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact kucu/, kusu/l; cuya/Ly (when wet) unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment p7ay inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour xwaT “to be red” inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body kxanyk “right (direction)” inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture wanya/ inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora kwshama/, kwshma, shma inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality shax “to be rotten” inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment lysh7a:, ma\TLysh7a:/, ma\Tsh7a:/, sh7a: unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7i: inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact Lyqshaq; Sxwany (an itch) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental wi: unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ya:p “to be sharp”, lyaqlyaq “to be sharp-pointed” inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact shTip “shoot at”, Tim “shoot and hit” inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality xly7uT, xly7u:T “to be short” inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body Spi:r unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental mryu:, mrcyup, mryus inheritance Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state wa inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body nykw7aL inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment ma:, ma:Ly inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body shma: inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality lycash, 7ilyca/sh “to be small” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment xyay unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body xwi inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body lxa unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact cuTap (trs), Tap (intrs) inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact LkwiS “squeeze juice”, inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact 7u:sha/ inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state p7a:, wayk, ya:w inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment kwLyap inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other wali/sh unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 7i: inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment wi:, xur inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body sucu/k; pily, piS (baby); Su:x (a straw) loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body Lyxsus unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body skwa unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion nu:p unknown Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body shyuLy inheritance Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar pu:, pu:c, pu:ny, 7upu:/, inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar animate subj: a:-, aw-, u-, u:-, 7aw-, 7u-; unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality Smuck, shmuck (like boar), kwi:sh (like gravy) unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality rSa:w, S7i:T “to be thin” unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental Lyyu:m unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar pi:, -pic, -piny, pi:ny unknown Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar m, mapu/ inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number xmuk, xmu:k “to be three” inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body 7inya/Ly inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact cap (small obj); sa (collecionof objs), waT (a few objs), wa:p (a long obj) unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment shu:ki/r inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact xir inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body mpaLy inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body 7iya/, 7iaya\wi: inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other kwany “turn around” unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number xwak “to be two” inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body yu:q loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion p7aw inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment xa inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar nya:c inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar nya:c; see “I” inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality xay inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar lu:ny, lu:p unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar knyayu/m inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar missing Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour xma:Ly inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar lu:ny, lu:p unknown Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship wa\sway unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment cxa inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body 7irwi/r, 7isha:Ly inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human s7ak inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other rar loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body xkwa:k, 7iya/ xkwa:k inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour qwaS “to be yellow” inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar see “thou” inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. şxkwi.l seashell unique Note 'Iipay Aa kwellyhiiw “money” broader (although I suspect Haliotis or Glycimeris is prototype) underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae šmuyúły ant inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mo. chamaduuly, Co. šmuyúły, Yavapai čmyúl same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana mɂu·ł antelope inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai mɂūl; Does this contain *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep”?? with metath? Probably. WW %mo: same underived ; may have diachronic complexity Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus mxwa badger inheritance Proto-Yuman Mo. mahwa, 'Iipay Aa mehwa, Kiliwa mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq; Yavapi Yavapai mhwá·, same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp kwalynyaɂí· Western pipistrelle bat unique narrower (one kind of bat) underived must be complex but no analysis in source, complexity not synchronic? Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor kpiny beaver unique Resemblant M. ɂapen same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp şxmnan pinacate beetle (Eleodes sp.) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai čk/qnāna, 'Iipay Aa mes hanan same underived Crawford 1989 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus xca reed inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 (Metath); Mojave hatav'iily same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis łyxwi·w skunk inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:96 (Langdon 1976:873 Metath) same underived Crawford notes xwi “smell, stink” (p. 114) Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis mu łyayák bighorn sheep inheritance *?-mu(w) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:80, 91 (has increment) WW %mo: same phrase sheep that.which.is.wild (a nice marking reversal) Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ša bird inheritance *č-sa Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger šmuyúły nyi·ły black ant unique no info phrase ant black (calque?) Crawford 1989 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus ɂu·s bear loan Spanish WW %oso same underived Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus kɂuły jackrabbit inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai (ɂ)kúla, M. ɂakɂuuly same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus nymi bobcat inheritance *nymi- Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same underived Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera şxmalyáp butterfly inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa mes-halyaap same underived no analysis in Crawford, but Iipay Aa mes-halyaap suggests diachronic complexity Crawford 1989 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? šcɂu·ny Gila woodpecker inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave ɂisɂuun same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota xmka swallow, purple Martin inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave hamkyee same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii xłyɂa· desert cottontail inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xa?law same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. xɂa cottonwood (Populus fremontii) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave ɂahɂa, Yavapai ɂhá(·) same underived Crawford 1989 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans ţxpa, xţpa coyote inheritance Delta-California contains metathesized *(č)-xat “dog”; note 'Iipay Aa hattepaa same underived -pa element separable diachronically Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos qa·q crow inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound-imitative but probably good as *qaaq same onomatopoeic but cognate Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii şmál ka·pí·ţ jimsonweed doubtful loan Hokan Note Yavapai smá·lkktū·, Mojave ɂamalykatu; loan direction unknown although Yuma es'-mi-kă-peet' is clearly from Cocopa same phrase şmál “grass”, ka·pí·ţ “not reduced from şmál kwa·pí·ţ” whichwould yield “crazy grass” Crawford 280) Crawford 1989 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus kwak xntil mule deer inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave ɂaqwaq, 'Iipay Aa 'ekwak, Yavapai (ɂ)kʷ/qʷá:qa; this is a loan blend with xntil from Spanish gentil “wild” same phrase deer wild Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris xaţ dog inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura li·kú·, lku· western mourning dove inheritance *k-wi(?) Proto-Yuman Metath not noted by Langdon 1976; Mixco 1978:84 same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae nyimí· láplá·p any duck unique same phrase ny-imí· láplá·p its-foot flat Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus xsa·wk elderberry (Sambucus mexicana) unique same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna siɂíły fish inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH, also contains the ?-?il WORM word same underived diachronically fish-worm Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera şxlʸmu fly, housefly (Musa domestica) inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave thily'ahmo same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon màţkawá· gray fox inheritance *p-rxa·w/m-rxa·w Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FOX same phrase màţ is “earth”; kawá· appears only in this word Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna xanyá frog inheritance Proto-Yuman resemblant M. hanye -- probably cognate but I'm not sure same underived Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos špa eagle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave M. ɂaspa same underived Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) şmal grass, hay, shrub, bush inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa ɂesemay broader (see definition) underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera łxmpaţ grasshopper, horse lubber (Taeniopoda eques) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kąpámka, Kiliwa xnkpaap, Yuma >hīk-ahm-putk' narrower (defined as a species -- but I'll bet it's generic) underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ci·š roundtail ground squirrel (Citellus tereticaudus) inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave ɂatiis same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus cu·pí·c great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) unique same underived no analysis in Crawford Crawford 1989 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae cxnyaş horned toad unique same underived Crawford 1989 A Cocopa totem (Crawford) 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus qwaqš horse unique Could this possibly be ultimately from caballo?? same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae nyírnyír hummingbird inheritance Proto-Yuman Inheritance (Arcilocus costae?) Mojave, Cocopa, 'Iipay Aa narrower (defined as a species -- but I'll bet it's generic) reduplicated possibly sound-imitative but cognate Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ɂu·p tobacco, cigarette loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown Mojave 'a'uuv, etc. This must be a very old loan from "Hokan"-level antiquity, or perhaps substratal, cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi (a Campbell "Pan-Americanism" but in fact only in California, I think) WW %7u:p broader (includes cigarette) underived Crawford 1989 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic no generic unique unknown 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ɂiɂíÍłʸ headlice semantic shift *?-?il Proto-Yuman Resemblant Yavapai hɂél but not cognate?; from WORM (really VERMIN, VARMINT) same underived Crawford 1989 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos šàkwi·lá· mockingbird inheritance *č-sa -kwila Proto-Yuman Contains *č-sa “bird”; this combo in Yav., Cocopa same underived no analysis in Crawford Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera šxmpu·l mosquito inheritance *smpul Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FLY (*smpul “mosquito”) same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor nymca· mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same underived diachronically bobcat-big Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kuka·k Gambel quail loan Takic widespread kaka, kakata, takata, etc. forms in California WW %kaka same underived reduced from xmàkuka·k (xma “chicken”)_ Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla ɂi·xwí· pine (and pine nuts) inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+khiiw; ?+xiw “pine nuts” broader (includes pine nuts) underived Crawford 1989 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum swi· clam shell, clam unique same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys ţkši pocket gopher inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:872 metath same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ɂawí rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? broader (any snake) underived Crawford 1989 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp šmuyúły ɂaxwáţ red ant unique no info phrase ant red (calque?) Crawford 1989 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus şqway qlucá·w redwinged blackbird inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa hah-se-kwi' (Merriam) same phrase blackbird ?(element appearing only in this expression) Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis xma pkwya·w western red-tailed hawk inheritance Delta-California Note 'Iipay Aa pā'-kwahlCH; ep'-kwahCH same phrase chicken hawk (a neologism??) Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus clpu roadrunner loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Takic Langdon 1976:873 Metath; "carrier" possibly folk etymology on %pu:??? WW %pu: same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ɂawí appears in other snake names, always in phrase inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? same underived Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco mspily sparrow hawk or American kestrel (Falco sparviverus) inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa mespily same underived first element cognate with 'Iipay Aa mes-, separable in a number of words, no clear meaning Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae xłycuc spider inheritance Proto-Yuman IA hellytutt “black widow spider”, Mojave halytot same underived Crawford 1989 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) ɂayá· tree, willow semantic shift Proto-Yuman Only case I know where “willow” is prototypical tree same underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura šayí· buzzard inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai sé·, Mojave ?ase, Kiliwa sii same underived Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines xnya·r turtle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa xnaal; Yuma axnaraxna/r Halpern 3:207 same underived Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia snya· oak, acorn inheritance Delta-California Iipay Aa ɂesnyaaw broader (includes acorn) underived Crawford 1989 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis ya·lák wild goose loan into protolanguage unknown M. yaalak must be a loan from Cocopa; Words with this general structure very widespread in western NAM, probably sound-imitative originally WW %lala ~ %lak broader (any wild goose, apparently) underived Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus xàlšɂá·ţ whale, possibly porpoise unique broader (perhaps whales and porpoises -- “Cetacean”) underived no analysis in Crawford; however note xàlqwcá·c “name of a personage in a myth, called variously dragon, whale, and water snake” Crawford p. 341) Crawford 1989 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos knyɂuy a gray and white bird, possibly a pelican unique Note M. iiya kwinyiihuly same underived no analysis in Crawford Crawford 1989 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) nya supány sunflower unique same phrase nya supány sun flower (calque?) Crawford 1989 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ɂayá· tree, willow inheritance with *-yaaw Proto-Yuman JHH Langdon mentions somewhere with no recon broader (generic for tree) underived Crawford 1989 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ɂamíły wood rat inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa ?+maql, Yavapai (ɂ)mālka;, 'Iipay Aa ɂemallk; Yuma ah-mi'-ĕk?? same underived Crawford 1989 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) nyawí· lmiş hairy caterpillar unique no info phrase nyawí· lmiş thing hairy Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper maɂí·ły worm, maggot, rice unique Contains *?-?il, WORM (Proto-Yuman), Langdon 1979:639 broader (see gloss) underived no analysis in Crawford, but diachronically complex Crawford 1989 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. şxmpa· yellowjacket inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa cpaaw, 'Iipay Aa metpaaw, Mojave thaampo, Yuma mes-paw' unknown Crawford 1989 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna shmuyu/Ly inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna sha inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Sxlymu inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna xaT, xa:T (plural) inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna Smal inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna kwak inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7awi/ “rattlesnake” inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna xLycuc inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food šu:wi: mush, gravy made with corn and white beans inheritance Proto-Yuman see Kiliwa s-wiy derived but I don'tknow how it works, not -a- here Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
ball game food kaxa:l kickball unknown derived ka- is IP for 'with the foot' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology màTkWşapú the land of the dead unique compound maT 'land', şapú ;one who is dead, deceased relative' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
feather headband dress kupu:r headband, kerchief (not the same as the California feather headband) inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave makupuur 'hat'; might be a loan, of course derived k- Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7i:pá arrow, bullet, cartridge inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation 7awnYúr 7usá:w Caps are superscript in Crawford 1989 school unique phrase (sa:w 'read' 7awnYur 'writing') Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material knYxu basket, canoe unknown derived k- Crawford 1986 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing Missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing Missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material şak7ú:l beads inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing Missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7i:cim(ayá:) bow (and arrow) inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex 7ayá: 'willow' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport knYxu basket, canoe (probably not dugout, I don't know style of boats) unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool 7uyúLY carrying net, net for hanging clothes in unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation lmet bottle loan Spanish also xLY7u WW %limida simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papí:l paper, letter, book loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology kWmšyaráy chairman, captain, leader unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool LaxWá:y war club unknown simplex xWa 'soldier, warrior' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food nYawí: rar work for (someone), be occupied with, be at work on, cook, prepare (food to eat) inheritance *wi Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
corpse food mşapás someone recently dead, a corpse unknown derived mşpa 'die' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology 7i:má to dance inheritance *ma(7) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology kùkmá:T a Cocopa, and probably pan-Yuman, deity unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool şmál nYmawpú:n digging hoe unique phrase grass/weed. To.hoe Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool xa nYmšunYá:y dipper unique phrase xa 'water' šnYa: to dip Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology šma:p to dream inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH always from 'sleep' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology waxá:m drum unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation xma chicken semantic shift Proto-Yuman probably from Gambel's Quail; note Kiliwa has same shift (with a marking reversal) simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
earring other šma:l şakWí:nY earrings inheritance *$mal(k) 'ear' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 phrase ear to.wear.earrings (şkWinY) Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology lxwacáq nYšuLY s7uLY devil unknown phrase ghost tail arrow Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool 7u:ká to make fire with fire drill inheritance Delta-Californian I A ko-katch 'fire drill' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology kWLYamá:r firemaker unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7i: wood inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food si7ílY pwac I am fishing (sitting for fish) unique phrase Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool si7ílY (nY)mpuwá:w fishing pole and line unique phrase Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool muLYcác barrel cactus, fish hook unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food nYpa: xa:nY white man's wheat semantic shift Proto-Yuman Kiliwa has same word phrase Distichlis palmeri plus be.new Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology wílwí(:)l flute inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave wilawil 'musical instrument' reduplicated Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology lxwacáq ghost, television unknown derived xcaq 'be bad' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool cxpiL glue inheritance Proto-Yuman see Kiliwa 'pitch' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology (mşapás) LypawnYá:r grave unique phrase 7u:nyár 'to bury' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
alcohol food xa rap, xaráp liquor, whiskey, any beverage w/ high alcoholic content semantic shift compound water, body.to.hurt Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics şmál ka:pít Jimson weed (Datura discolor) inheritance shares smaly root phrase NOT 'crazy Kwa:pi:t)grass', but close Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology şkWi:yá: doctor, shaman, medicine man, witch unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food nYi:l honey loan Spanish WW %miel simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
house other wa house, home, homeland,room inheritance *wa(7) Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food nYay hunt, search or look for inheritance Delta-Californian simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wi: metal, knife, rock, mountain inheritance Proto-Yuman Mo 7avii 'mountain' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool xmu mortar (said to be made of cottonwood or mesquite) inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
necklace other xanYá:k necklace inheritance Proto-Yuman WW derived xnYak put on or wear a necklace; derivation with infix -a- Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool šwakWí:LY needle unknown derived šukWíLY to sew; derivation with infix -a- Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool xmu:ká: pestle inheritance Proto-Yuman xmu: is the 'mortar' word simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
pinole food pinó:l pinole, ground roasted wheat (and possibly corn) loan Spanish WW %pinole simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other (7u:p) mukWínY pipe for smoking tobacco inheritance Delta-Californian phrase Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool LYu:más cooking pot inheritance Proto-Yuman Lyu: 'cook' in Mojave simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool kupíT quiver (for arrows) loan direction unknown Mojave simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology kwak nYcaşíl deer hoof rattle unknown phrase deer its-rattle Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food ş7ir salt inheritance *7iR < s-7iR Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:95 simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology nYu7á:l clothes unknown derived from 'wear'?? Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material šayú:l kánkán skirt inheritance Delta-Californian See 'Iipay Aa heyul phrase dress ? Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool pcu:pí:T trap unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology suyáw song, that which one sings inheritance Delta-Californian root is -yaaw in IA?? derived sya: 'sing' Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool nYša7úr spear unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
stirring stick food 7ará:s mca:wá:r fire poker, stick for stirring coals unique phrase 7ara:s coals, coal, charcoal; cawa:r, šwa:r 'stir' (coals)?? Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture xkWa: string used in making blankets unknown simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material kmi sack, bag inheritance Proto-Yuman see Kiliwa simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 7asúkr sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology maLY cremate, burn a corpse inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa maal root in 'burn', 'flame' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics 7u:p tobacco, cigarette loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Hokan JHH WW %7u:p simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
tule boat transport ku:páp raft (made of tule or bullrushes) unknown derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress xmanyáw shoes (unpossessed) inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics m(i)rsín medicine loan Spanish WW %medecina simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material kWanyúk 7uyák cradlebasket frame unknown phrase baby lie Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation capáy kWaxí:r policeman unknown phrase person catch Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation xWa army, soldier, fighter, warrior semantic shift Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xwa 'warrior, enemy' simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
corn food xca:s corn unique simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
beans food mri:k beans loan unknown very widespread loan WW %mun simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation kíri cat loan English WW %kitty simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 7i:cim gun, rifle, bow semantic shift Proto-Yuman simplex Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress (nY)şpu:l hat semantic shift Proto-Yuman note Kiliwa m+puul 'basketry hat' derived Crawford 1989 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture yu7a/r inheritance Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material xanya:/r, xa:nya/:r “domed roof”, wa ya:l, way wal “roof of a ramada” unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture xpi inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool Smal nymawpu:/n “digging hoe” unique Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture xpusa/ loan Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7i:ci/m, 7i:ci\maya:/ “bow (and arrow)” unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool nysha7u/r unknown Jane Hill
house other nywa, wa, wa:s inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large AG dense sedentary no