Maihiki

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ore
Location
-2.86°, -72.49°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Velie, Daniel and Velie Virginia. 2008 (second edition). Vocabulario orejon. Serie Lingüística Peruana No. 16. Yarinacocha, ILV.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ɨmɨjai ja ɨmɨxai xa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
all todo todos other manisaoyi manisaoji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
and y e grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
ankle tobillo tornozelo body jatoga ja xatoga xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tata yacu ja tãta jaku xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment missing See Language page Daniel Valle
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Daniel Valle
back espalda costas body jetedada ja xetedada xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
belly barriga barriga body ɨtabɨ ja ɨ̃tabɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
below abajo, debajo abaixo location uibɨ ja uibɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
big grande grande quality jai xai inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
bite morder morder body cuiyi kũĩji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
black negro preto colour nea nea inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
blood sangre sangue body majaye ja maxabe xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
blow soplar soprar body jujuyi xuxuji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
bone hueso osso body tadabɨ ja tadabɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
breast pecho, seno peito body cotibɨ ja kotibɨ xã inheritance compare Arawak kuta forms, e.g. Resigaro, Tariana See Language page Daniel Valle
breathe respirar respirar body yieyi jieji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
burn quemar queimar environment ɨoyi ɨoji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body naquiyi nakiji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
child niño, niña criança human ñitu aguɨ (male)/ñitu ago (female) ɲitu agɨ / ɲitu ago unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
climb subir subir motion mɨiyi mɨiji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
cloud nube nuvem environment bico ja biko xa unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
cold frío frio quality sɨsɨjɨ (to be cold) sɨsɨxɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
come venir vir motion daiyi daiji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
cook cocinar cozinhar impact cuacoyi kuakoji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality iti ja ĩti xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
count contar contar mental cuecueyi kũẽkũẽji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
cry llorar chorar mental oiyi oiji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
cut/hack cortar cortar impact titoyi, jɨyeyi titoji, xɨjeji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
day día dia time mianu ja mianu xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
die/be dead morir morrer state juiyi (1st person singular) xũı̃ji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
dig cavar cavar impact uiyi ũĩji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
dingo/wolf fauna atacami ago ãtakami ago unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
dirty sucio sujo quality doquɨ ja dokɨ jã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
dream soñar sonhar mental ua buo caiyi ua buo kãĩji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
drink beber, tomar beber body ucuyi (1st person singular) ũkuji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
dry seco seco quality cuenase ja kuenase xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
dust polvo poeira environment saɨ ja saɨ xa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
ear oreja orelha body ajodo ja ãxõdo xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
earth/soil tierra terra environment yao ja yao xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
eat comer comer body aiyi (1st person singular) ãı̃ji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
egg huevo ovo fauna yia ja jia xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
eye ojo olho body ñacoa ja ɲakoa xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body badiyi (to defecate) badiji unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
fall caer cair motion taiyi, tomeyi tãĩji, tomeji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
far lejos longe quality so ja so xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
fat/grease grasa gordura body ba ba unique See Language page Daniel Valle
father padre, papá pai kinship jaquɨ aguɨ xakɨ agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
fear miedo medo mental bihɨi ja bihɨi xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
feather pluma pena fauna jajɨca ja xaxɨka xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fire fuego fogo environment toa ja toa xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
fish xx xx fauna yadibai ago jadibai ago inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion missing See Language page Daniel Valle
flower flor flor environment jada ja xada xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
fly volar voar motion tuduco (1st person singular) tuduko unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment bico ja biko xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
foot pie body ɨopɨ ja ɨ̃õpi xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
fruit fruta fruta flora acue ja akue xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
good bueno bom quality deida ja deida xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
grow crecer crescer state etajɨ etaxɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body cabayu ago (Spanish loan) kabaju ago loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
hand mano mão body jɨtɨ ja xɨtɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
head cabeza cabeça body chiobɨ ja tʃiobɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
hear oír ouvir mental asayi (1st person singular) asaji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
heavy pesado pesado quality dɨkɨ-hɨ̃ dɨkɨ-hɨ̃ missing See Language page Daniel Valle
hide esconder esconder motion yabeyi jabeji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
hit golpear, pegar bater impact baiyi baiji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other coayi kõãji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
how? como como grammar iyi iji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
if si se grammar missing See Language page Daniel Valle
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location sanu sanu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
intestines intestinos intestinos body bai tɨo ja bai tɨo xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body maquineojɨ makineoxɨ̃ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
kill matar matar impact mánijoyi (1st person singular) manixoji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
lake lago lago environment chitada ja tʃitada xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
laugh reír rir mental ayi ãji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf hoja folha environment jao ja xao xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body cuacoti ja kuakoti xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion uiyi ũĩji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mɨja yebejɨ mɨxa jebexɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body baiyi baiji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
liver hígado figado body nemebɨ ja nemebɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
long largo comprido, longo quality doa doa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ɨ ago ɨ̃ ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
lung pulmón pulmão body maɨbɨ ja maɨbɨ xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
meat/flesh carne carne fauna bai ja bai xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
moon luna lua environment ñamihaquɨ aguɨ ɲamihakɨ agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship jaco ago xako ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
mouth boca boca body yobɨ ja jobɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
name nombre nome human mami ja mami xã loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Boran, Witotoan, Tukanoan See Language page Daniel Valle
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
near/close cerca de perto quality ɨajigo ɨajigo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
neck cuello pescoço body ñajetɨca ja ɲaxetɨka xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
new nuevo novo quality mama ja mama xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
night noche noite time ñami ja ɲami xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
no/not no não grammar beo-hɨ̃ beo-hɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
nose nariz nariz body ucebɨ ja ũkebɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
old viejo velho quality ai ai inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
one uno um number te ja te xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Daniel Valle
other otro outro grammar yequɨ aguɨ (animate masculine), yeco ago (animate feminine),yeque ja (inanimate) jekɨ̃ agɨ, jeko ago, jeke xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body juiquɨ aguɨ xũĩkɨ agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
person/human being persona pessoa human mai aguɨ mai agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle
rain lluvia chuva environment oco ja (vb.) oko xã (vb.) inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
red rojo vermelho colour ma ma inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
right/right hand derecha direita location/body ɨtaji ja ɨtaxi xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
road/path camino caminho manufacture ma ja ma xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
root raíz raiz flora seu ja, bichibɨ ja seu xã, bitʃibɨ xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
rotten podrido podre quality pɨ̃ka-hĩ pɨ̃ka-hĩ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
sand arena areia environment meja ja mexa xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
say decir dizer mental quɨayi, iyi, jɨcayi kɨaji, ĩji, xɨ̃kaji inheritance? See Language page Daniel Valle
scratch rascar rasgar impact sasuyi sasuji unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
see ver ver mental ñiayi (1st person singular) ɲiayi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality jɨsɨjɨ xɨ̃sɨxɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Daniel Valle
short corto curto quality missing See Language page Daniel Valle
shoulder hombro ombro body missing See Language page Daniel Valle
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental biquɨ aguɨ bigɨ agɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
sit sentar(se) sentar state jaduyi xaduji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
skin piel pele body anibɨ ja anibɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
sky cielo céu environment aibese ja aibese xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
sleep dormir dormir body caiyi (1st person singular) kãı̃ji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
small pequeño pequeno quality yadi, ɨja jadi, ɨxa unique See Language page Daniel Valle
smoke humo fumaça environment bico ja biko xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body yieyi jieji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
spit escupir cuspir body neseyi neseji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact batoyi, joayi batoji, xoaji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact sudiyi sudiji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact quiudɨ baiyi kiudɨ baiji unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state nɨcayi nɨkaji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
star estrella estrela environment tucu aguɨ tuku agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
steal robar roubar other ñayi ɲaji inheritance Baniwa See Language page Daniel Valle
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora masoyo ja masojo xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
stone piedra pedra environment ata ja (small stone), ɨno ago (big stone) ata xã, ɨno ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
suck chupar chupar body nucuyi nukuji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
sweat sudar suor, suar body cuaduyi kuaduji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
swell hincharse inchar body bogojɨ bogoxɨ̃ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
swim nadar nadar motion biyayi (1st person singular) bijaji unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
tail cola, rabo rabo body jɨcobɨ ja xɨ̃kobɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
that ese/esa esse grammar ca, quede kã, kede inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality dɨi-hɨ̃ dɨi-hɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
thin delgado fino quality a besɨ aguɨ ã besɨ agɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
think pensar pensar mental basayi basaji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
this este/esta este grammar iye ije inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
2sg xx xx grammar inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
three tres tres number bababɨ ja bababɨ xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
throat garganta garganta body adoga ja adoga xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact jeoyi xẽõji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
thunder truenos trovão environment mɨja bichi ja mɨ̃xa bitʃi xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact eoyi eõyi inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
tongue lengua lingua body nemetoyo ja nemetojo xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
tooth diente dente body uji ja ũxı̃ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other aniyi aniji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
two dos dois number tepe ja tepe xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
vomit vomitar vomitar body chisoyi tʃisoji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
walk caminar, andar andar motion daoyi (1st person singular) daoji unique See Language page Daniel Valle
water agua agua environment oco ja oko xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
wet mojado molhado quality oco baijɨ (to be wet) oko baixɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
what? que, qué que grammar iye ije inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
when? cuando quando grammar quenu kenu inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
where? donde onde grammar cado kado unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
white blanco branco colour bo- (it is a prefix inseparable) bo inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
who? quien, quién quem grammar nebɨ nebɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
wife esposa esposa kinship nɨjo ago nɨxõ ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
wind viento vento environment tutu ja tutu xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
wing ala asa body jajɨpe ja xaxɨpe xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
woman/female mujer mulher human nomio ago nomio ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
work trabajar trabalhar other yoyi joji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
yawn bostezar bocejar body bɨo yayi bɨo jaji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
yellow amarillo amarelo colour sɨñojaitɨ sɨɲoxaitɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
bad mal mal quality ua ja ua xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ñi aguɨ (male)/ñio ago (female) ɲi agɨ, ɲio ago inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
1sg yo eu grammar yi ji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
leg/foot pierna perna body ɨsotada ja ɨ̃sotada xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
man/male hombre homem human jɨ aquɨ xɨ akɨ unique See Language page Daniel Valle
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar que juna ja (male) (juna=animated beings)/ñiona ja (female) ke xuna xã / ɲiona xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental asayi (1st person singular) asaji inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mai ja mai xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar jikɨ jikɨ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mɨsa mɨsa inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
bark corteza casca environment missing See Language page Daniel Valle
fingernail uña unha body cou ja kou xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
heart corazón coração body abɨ ja ãbɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
sun sol sol time mai aguɨ mai agɨ unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ɨmɨ tɨtɨ ja (ɨmɨ=high) ɨmɨ tɨ̃tɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
green verde verde quality bodi ja bodi xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
hot caliente quente quality achi ujɨ (to be hot) atʃi uxɨ̃ inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bosa ja (ja marks neuter gender) bosa xa inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. yiaya mene ja jiaja mene xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. codome ago (ago is a copular enclitic which marks female gender), moñeteaco ago, maiteaco ago korome ago, moɲeteako ago maiteako ago unique Also moɲeteako maiteako uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ñucabɨ ago jũka-bɨ, ɲukabɨ ago inheritance uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis bɨbɨ ago bɨbɨ ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus nacochi aguɨ nakotʃi agɨ doubtful loan, direction unknown Quechua ukutʃa uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes jai aña aguɨ (aguɨ marks male gender) xai aɲa agɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora bachi aguɨ batʃi agɨ inheritance uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae bẽã bẽã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) aimano ago aibãdõ, aimano ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri totohaquɨ aguɨ, ichi totohaqui aguɨ toto a-gɨ, totohakɨ agɨ, itʃi totohakɨ agɨ loan TG tatu Also itʃi totohakɨ uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ãtɨ ãtɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. o ja o xã semantic shift? Proto-Tukanoan Chacon 2013: markedness shift from sororoca Likely family-wide semantic shift from 'bastard plantain' (wild banana look-alike) uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. oyo aguɨ, mai oyo aguɨ ojo, ojo agɨ, mai ojo agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also mai ojo uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis oa aguɨ, agudo aguɨ (Spanish loan) oa agɨ, oa, agudo agɨ inheritance West Tukanoan Also agudo (Spanish loan) uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bĩjã bĩjã inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha náso aguɨ naso agɨ inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata ñata aguɨ, bai aguɨ, yabio ago ɲata agɨ, bai agɨ, jabio ago inheritance West Tukanoan Also bai, jabio uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera mɨmɨ ago mɨmɨ ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris yuada ago juara ago, juada doubtful loan Carib, e.g. Makiritare jɨwɨ:dɨ Makiritare jɨwɨ:dɨ uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda coña ago, ate aguɨ koɲa ago, ãte agɨ unique Also ãte agɨ uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea naichieco ago, oconini ago, ueguɨ aguɨ naitʃieko ago, okonini ago, uegɨ agɨ unknown cf. %tʃijai Possibly cognate Cubeo; May be onomatopoeic. Also okonini, uegɨ uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. yajime ja jaxime xã unique uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria bedio ago bedio ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu caocoa aguɨ, yau aguɨ kaokõa agɨ, jau agɨ, jau unique; inheritance Also jau uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua chichibɨ aguɨ tʃitʃibɨ agɨ inheritance cf. Chacon Quechua chuchuchu uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yɨi ja yɨi xã, jɨi semantic shift West Tukanoan original meaning kapok uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura cami ago kami ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae macatiti ago, musu ago, beguɨ aguɨ makatiti ago, musu ago, bagɨ agɨ unique Northern Embera ĩŋgánana. Also musu, begɨ uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ɨjebɨ aguɨ ɨ̃xebi agɨ, ɨ̃hẽbɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus bosa aguɨ bosa, bosa agɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yai joyi aguɨ (yai=tigre) jai hoji, jai xoji agɨ semantic shift/calque West Tukanoan domesticated jaguar' Or may be common innovation compound jaguar + ? agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis yeso ago (wild dog), coque ago jeso ago, kõke ago unique Also kõke uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae becotu ago bekotu ago doubtful loan - WW Unknown %motkuku uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family patu ago (Spanish loan) patu ago loan Spanish WW %patu uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. nebɨhaquɨ ago nebɨhakɨ ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus doaquɨ aguɨ doakɨ agɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna yadibai ago jadibai ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas dodu dodu unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. eo ja eo xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera ɨ ago ɨ̃ ago, sa ɨ̃ (H&R) unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera gana ago gana ago unknown cf. Northern Emberá Also bati uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) taja taja inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans tɨtɨ ago tɨ̃tɨ ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba jɨoquɨ ago xɨokɨ ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti quɨña ago, maso ago kɨɲa ago, maso ago unique Also maso uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. timɨ ago timɨ ago, uhe (H&R) inheritance West Tukanoan Also uhe (H&R) uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi yaye ja jaje xã, jájé, jéhé loan (into protolanguage?) - WW West Tukanoan %jahe Wanderwort in western languages; e.g. Carib-Carijona ja'he. Jivaro-Aguaruna yáji, etc. WW %jahe uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae bibe aguɨ bibe agɨ̃ inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bía bía inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] jaiquɨ aguɨ xaikɨ agɨ doubtful loan TG akikɨ, but cf E.Tuk ukɨ forms Cocama aquɨquɨ uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mimi aguɨ mimi agɨ, bĩ́bĩ̀ (H&R) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak, e.g. Baniwa pími uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. mɨigɨ ago mɨigɨ ago, bɨ̃ɨ̃-bɨ unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca jai yai aguɨ, jai mɨmɨdi aguɨ xai jai agɨ, xai mɨmɨdi agɨ, jai doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Arawak (Chacon reconstructs); cf. TG *jawar Compare similar Arawak forms. Also xai mɨmɨdi uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra jai suqui ñi ja (jai=grande) xai sũki ɲi xã unique phrase xai = 'big' xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. imi boe ja imi boe xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Shared Cubeo uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. bajo ja baxõ xã unique uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae baitoto aco ago baitoto ako ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. meca aguɨ meka agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Means generic 'ant' in many ET languages uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Guahiban Proto-Guahiban; e.g. Macaguan máha uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays bea ja bea xã doubtful loan into protolanguage - WW Proto-Tukanoan %bea Possible Wanderwort? Northern Embera: bée; Witoto: beja. Reconstructs to WT and also appears in Cubeo. WW %be uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. oco daca vaca ago (oco=agua), daca (liquido), (vaca is a Spanish loan) oko daka baka ago loan Spanish Partial loan, Spanish vaca 'cow' phrase oco=water, daca=liquido, vaca=cow (Sp.) ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. chidiyo aguɨ tʃirijo agɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kɨi kɨi inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Compare Arawak forms w/ ka uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta jaso ja xãso xã inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa ne ñi ja ne ɲi xa inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. totohaquɨ dɨdɨ aguɨ (mosquito), mɨte aguɨ (zancudo) totohaɨ dɨdɨ agɨ, mɨ̃te agɨ, bɨ̃́tè (H&R) unknown; inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also totohaɨ dɨdɨ uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera bɨjo ago bɨxo ago inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis yao ago jao ago inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ugu ago ugu ago, ugu doubtful loan into protolg - WW? onomatopoeic? West Tukanoan %murukutu / kurukutu uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) bai ago, seme ago bai ago, seme ago, sẽbẽ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also bai uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. bɨebɨtiaco ago bɨebɨtiako ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana mɨi ñi ja mɨi ɲi xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica beco aguɨ, todi aguɨ beko, beko agɨ, todi agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also beko, todi agɨ uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea jɨico ñi ja xɨiko ɲi xã unique uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨne ñi ja ine ɲi xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ichi ja, bichi ja itʃi xã, bitʃi xã semantic shift? Proto-Tukanoan from caraua? Attested WT and Cubeo only uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae uji aco ago uxi ako ago, ũhĩ ako (H&R) unique H&R have ũhĩ ako uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae toto ago toto ago inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum jaquɨ aguɨ xakɨ agɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. chidiga ñi ja (Portuguese loan) tʃı̃rı̃ga ɲi xã loan Spanish From Spanish siringa 'rubber' uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones mɨni ago mɨni ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan from centipede? Some East Tuk languages appear to have undergone shift scorpion > centipede; but the reverse direction could also have applied. uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua bosa ñi ja bosa ɲi xã unique uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. badobɨ ago badobɨ ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata chido ago tʃido ago unique uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda a ago a ago unknown uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna aña aguɨ aɲa agɨ, ãjã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox yiayacoti aña aguɨ (yiaya=crecer el río; aña=culebra) jiajakoti aɲa agɨ unique compound yiaya=river rise; aña=snake agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae jɨjɨ ago jɨ̃jɨ̃ ago, hɨ̃hɨ̃ inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae sɨsɨco ago sɨsɨko ago inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas yají ja jaxi xã inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris bequɨ aguɨ békɨ́, bekɨ agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera yuyu aguɨ juju agɨ, jújú inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea code ago kode ago inheritance West Tukanoan uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae biyo aguɨ, bɨ aguɨ bijo agɨ, bɨ agɨ unique uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura dobɨ ago, magudo ago dobɨ ago, maguro ago, hóhó (H&R) unique Also maguro, hóhó (H&R) uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum mɨto ja mɨto xã, bɨ̃to inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria meniyo ago bẽdĩjo, menijo ago loan Witoto See e.g. Murui mɛniɲo uncoded ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ñase aguɨ, pidu aguɨ ɲase agɨ, pidu agɨ; jãse (H&R) doubtful loan into protolanguage Proto-Tukanoan North Arawak See e.g. Mandawaka da:se, Baniwa dzatte. Also pidu agɨ uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ñi ja ɲi xã, sṹkí inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also ɲi (V&V08); inheritance a bit unclear b/c most initial j corresponds to j. uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella tãke tãke inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Broader (cebus monkey) uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae pɨpɨdɨ aguɨ pɨpɨdɨ agɨ inheritance West Tukanoan But compare Tupí-Karitiana pɨpɨ̃ɾĩ (hawk) uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita uti aguɨ uti agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons bo taque ago (bo=white color) bo tãke ago inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Broader (cebus monkey) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing ago ago = feminine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari bai aguɨ, bɨdɨ aguɨ bai agɨ, bɨdɨ agɨ, sẽse unique; inheritance Also/or? bɨdɨ, sẽse uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ede ja edei xã unique uncoded xã xã (orth. ja) = inanimate See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae cone aguɨ kone agɨ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded agɨ agɨ = masculine animate See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. jãhõ jãhõ inheritance Proto-Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yai joyi aguɨ (yai=tigre) jai xoji agɨ inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna bosa aguɨ bosa agɨ unique See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (106)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool uiñaca ja uiɲaka xã unknown hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool dɨo ago dɨo ago unique Simplex ago= feminine noun classifier especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material jɨisotete ja, toto deo ja (metal bowl) xɨsotete xã, toto deo xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material dodu Unknown Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material bɨonanu ja bɨonanu xã doubtful loan Witotoan eg: Nɨpode Huitoto bɯ́.i-ra-dʒu See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ñui pede ja ɲui pede xã inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ju ja xu xã inheritance May derive from 'blow' Simplex currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation yacutada ja jakutada xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool toe aqu ja tõẽ aku xã inheritance aku could be loan from Spanish arco arco See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material sayibɨ ja sajibi xã inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport you ja jou xã inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan Simplex agɨ/ago M/F animate CL See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation michi aguɨ mitʃi agɨ loan - WW %miʃi Quechua source? mishi; Bora míichi; Yucuna, michi; Resígaro, miishí; Eсepa,miǩi; Makiritari, mēši; Orejon, michi agu; Yanomami mishi, Sikuani mitsi WW %miʃi Simplex agɨ/ago M/F animate CL See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation cuda ago kuda ago loan - WW %kara Simplex agɨ/ago M/F animate CL See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ñi debɨ aguɨ, ñiacaiquɨ aguɨ ɲi debɨ agɨ, ɲiakaikɨ agɨ unknown Also: ɲiakaikɨ agɨ Derived ñi= 3sg; debɨ= legitimate; agɨ= masculine noun classifier See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food kuako- inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology bati ago bati ago unknown agɨ/ago M/F animate CL malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
dance (generic) culture-mythology ono ote- Unique Also: oteji Compound ono= drink(noun); oteyi= to dance See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool jaso a ja xãso a xã unknown Other complex hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology ua bɨo cani ñiase ja ua bɨo kani ñiase xã unknown Phrase See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tɨcatada ja tɨkatada xã unique See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other jeca ja xeka xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food eoeyi (1st person, singular) eoe-ji semantic shift Proto-West Tukanoan from 'timbo' Derived from 'fish poison'? Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food noguiyi nogi-ji unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool eo inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool bai taɲu tudi xã bai taɲu tudi xã trap (general) inheritance Proto-Tukanoan tudi component found in ET Other complex bai= a species of rat; taɲu=??; turi= enclosed See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food ao ise ja ãõ ı̃se xã unknown Compound manioc-? agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology juibɨ ja xuibɨ xã unknown multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool jɨsotete ja xɨsotete xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool ɨdɨ (grate, v.) ɨdɨ (grate, v.) grate (v.) unknown esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tãĩ dadi jã, tãse tɨ̃tɨ ja tai dari xã, tãse tɨ̃tɨ xã unknown Also: tãse tɨ̃tɨ xã Other complex tãĩ=??; dadi=place, site. See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool bai yadio ja (bai=paca; yadio=emponado) bai jadio xã unknown Compound yadio (palmwood strips?) See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation jasu ja, yadi jasu ja xasu xã, jadi xãsu xã unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material jaɨdɨ ja xãı̃dɨ xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress mado ja mado xã unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology dabɨ aguɨ dabɨ agɨ unique Also: dabɨ agɨ Derived dabɨ=healer; tɨnoquɨ=to cure by touching In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics tou ja tou xã missing See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food oa daca ja oa daka xã unique Other complex oa=??; daca= liquid only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food baí, jasoyi (1st person singular) bai, xasoji unique Phrase animal shoot See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material quiudɨ ja kiudɨ xã knife, machete unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material quiudɨ ja kiudɨ xã knife, machete unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool tou tou inheritance? cf. Arawak, other toka terms Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other ɨayigo ja ɨajigo xã unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation toya jao ja toja xao xã unknown Compound toja 'write' See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool tou bati ja tou bati xã unknown Some similar forms in Puinave, Hoti, Cubeo; may be onomatopoeic. Compound tou 'mortar' See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material toto deo ja toto deo xã inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan Also found Koreguaje Other complex toto= ?; deo= fine, good. See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool cuacodo ja, quiudo ja (metal pot) kuakodo xã, kiudo xã inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan Also: kiuro xã See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool maja ja maxa xã loan + semantic shift from beeswax (Arawak/Quechua loan?) See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology missing See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food cachi ja katʃi xã loan Quechua Simplex xã= neuter noun classifier See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation toya quɨa ue ja toja kɨa ue xã Calque Other complex toja=write; kia=(with 'write' means 'study'); ue= house See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress ɨojo ja ɨoxo xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material quɨoto ja kɨ̃õto xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology uja dai ja uxa dai xã inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Also found Cubeo See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ui ui loan Tupi-Guarani 'arrow' See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation yoco ja joko xã unknown Simplex See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food judu ja xudu xã unknown Simplex agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material edi ñi ja edi ɲi xã unknown Murui Witoto See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food ao eobɨ ja (ao=foot; eobɨ=??) ãõ eobɨ̃ xã unknown Other complex ao=foot; eobɨ=?? word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tobacco (native) narcotics mɨto inheritance Proto-Tukanoan Simplex See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool missing agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool bia ja, eo ja bia xã, eo xã sem shift? (or incorrect meaning?) Proto-West Tukanoan fish-poison Simplex hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other missing See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool jijebɨ ja xixebɨ xã inheritance Proto-West Tukanoan Also found Siona. Also: bia xã agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material dodu ja dodu xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology dabɨ tɨnoquɨ aguɨ (dabɨ=healer; tɨnoquɨ=to cure by touching) dabɨ tɨnokɨ agɨ unique Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology to ja to xã unknown See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology aico ago (demon) aiko ago unique See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport comedɨ ja komedɨ xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture bichibɨ jã, deca ja bitʃibɨ xã, dekã xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology toteyi (v.) toteyi loan Spanish See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jaso ono ja (jaso=yuca; ono=bebida) xaso ono xa inheritance/sem shift? manioc drink' prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture ata ja, ɨno ago ata xã, ɨno ago unknown if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Daniel Valle
house other ue ja ue xã inheritance See Language page Daniel Valle


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
300 medium AG medium sedentary