Mojave

Family
Yuman
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
mov
Location
34.89°, -114.60°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location 7amay inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar maadaw! chanyoo= “do again” unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other myakuupay, pay inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar missing Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body iime qarawees (ankle joint) unique Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body iisalyasupo, iisalyupo, iiyasalyupo inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ham'uuly inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location vidiily “at this place” unknown Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
back espalda costas body imak inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7alay= “be bad, be ugly”, loan direction unknown Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body iito inheritance Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location 7amat inheritance etc. Jane Hill
big grande grande quality valytay=m, valytee=k inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body chakyoo= inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour luup i= unknown Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body nyahwat inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body chavuthuy= (blow thru one's lips) inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body 7amat kap'iithoy chuuvaw unique Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body nyasak inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body nyama inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body uuyey= inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment ipoom= (intr), tapoom= (tr), inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body chamunye= inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human humar, ith'aw inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion akuuly= inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7iikwe inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality hachuur, inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion idii=, ivaa= inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact alyuuly= inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality 7ahot= “good, correct”, chava'oor= “right, correct”, kuva'or= “right, correct” Jane Hill
count contar contar mental achaa= unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental imii= inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact akyet= (into slices) inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time 7anya inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state ipuy= inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact ahwely= inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna hukthar (coyote) inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality 7amat= “dirty, muddy”, hapel= “unwashed” inheritance Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental sumaa= loan Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body ithii= inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality iroo= “dry, chapped” inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ipath= unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment 7amapoot inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body ismalyk inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment 7amat inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7ich ama= inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna ith'aw inheritance Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body iido inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body icherq inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion alyaaqv= (of a person), inheritance Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality 7amiich= unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body 7amusay inheritance Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship nakut (of a man), na'ay (of a woman inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental masdey= inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna siviily inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment 7a'aw inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna 7achii inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion helhel i= “flow gently” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment 7ichipaq unknown Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion iyer= inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment muhoy unknown Jane Hill
foot pie body iime (= leg), iime kutharap inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality 7ahan inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state apay= (of corn), 7akuuch- “grow up” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body mukor unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body iisaly inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar vidach inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body chuksa unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental a'av= inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality ineeh= inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion 7ave aduuly=, aaduuly= inheritance Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact a'an= (with stick, etc., not hand), aarem= (slingshot), atav= (strike, as fire, w/ hammer), chaqam= (fight), chu'an=(w open hand), ta'an=,(w something crooked like hoe), tacher= (against a hard object) unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tahpaly= “hold onto”, kavaly'uk “hold a handful”, kacheq= “hold between legs”, etc. unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar 7inyech inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location aaduuly=, haly uvaa= unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body vahaa inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body thulyathuly=, duradur i= unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact tapuy= inheritance Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental suupaw= inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment hanyo inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental chakavar= inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment hamaly unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kuuthar inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body iime inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion aavav= (not close together, of two people), upaa= (lie down), upam= (fall to ground and lie down tired) unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment huulas, huurav inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body pi'ipay=, wa 'ipay= inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body chavuthii inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality 7akyuuly=, inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nyi'iily (head) unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body chakwathath unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7iipa inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7ichathoo, kwiikway (latter esp. “beef”) unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment haly'a inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship intay inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body iiya inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human imuuly inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body chukyes, malyaqe imak inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality ipan= unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body malyaqe inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality mapiith=, wa 'ipay= “be fresh, new” is secondary here unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time tiinyam= inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar kavaaptch, kavaark, kavaarptch, kava/ata, va/ata, va/atka/ kavaar unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body iihu inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality ilelv= (old, ragged), inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number seto inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other itaq=(of door or box w/ hinge, intr), tataq=,(by pulling apart, often w/ noise) inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar kanyuumii unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body irav= inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human pi'pa inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact saveq=(mash, pound, squish insect), tadiily=,(something hard, usually to about 1/2 former size), talaath= (pound corn to crack a little), talyes= (pound lightly), atoot=(meat, corn, etc.), katoo= (mesquite beans) unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment kuv'aw inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour 7ahwat= inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body 7ahan inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture 7av'unye inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora sama inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality isah= inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment 7amat saly'ay unique Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental i'ii=, i= inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact saqwaq= (as cat) loan direction unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental iyuu= inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality iidoyv= inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact akyaa= (gun) inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality 7atawen=, it'aw=, ta'wen=, wenawen= unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body iivi inheritance Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental thanyoh= “be shy, be ashamed” unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state iva= inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body chathkwil, iimaat chathkwil inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment 7amay inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body isma=, thav'oor= (be sleepy, special verb) inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality ich'aw=, inch'aw-(of a baby or young child), ish'aw- (too small for x), natqoly- (song word w/ plural subj. only), nishquly= (plur subj only) unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment 7ahwaa unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ahwee= (tr), unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body chayoq= unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact sadap=(tr., wood for e.g.), tadap= (tr., same) (NOTE: redup from tap in Cocopa; UA *tapi??), tamkyelk=(something like a pumpkin, tr), taqan= (by accident), tavadoo= (part in hair), imkyelk= (intr) inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact lyavthee=, tavuthee=(drain, squeeze boil), uchpiks=(boil or pimple) unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact uusa= inheritance Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state iv'aw=, paly'oon= (stick up, stand) inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment 7am'use, hamuse inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other kuchiich= inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora 7a'ii inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment avii inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body apith= loan Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body 7ahalyisuuch inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body qwalaoy i= unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 7ahaly a'oop=, uu'oop=(dive, swim) unknown Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body ii'ar unknown Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar nyah, nyany, nyav inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar vidaachvch inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality imaat=, imtes= unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality 7uuh'aar= (skinny) unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental aly'ii= inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar vidach, vidany inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar manych inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number hamok inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body inyaalyq inheritance Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact atapm=, etc. inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment huulas inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact sakhav=, takuulyhe=, anyiik= (a horse), ahtav= (a bundle) unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body iipaly inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body iidoo, iidoo 7ich amany inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other aakwin=, inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number havik inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body iyoq= loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion iv'aa=, ivaa= inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment 7aha, 7ahavir inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar 7inyeechvch inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7inyeechvch inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality 7ahay= inheritance Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar kuuch unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar kanyaduum inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar makii inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour nyamasav= inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar makach, makany inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship nyaha'aak inheritance Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment mataha inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body iiviily inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human thinya'aak inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tarvahaar= loan Spanish Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body chahkwak= inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour 7aqwath= inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar manych, many inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. kosov abalone, hip joint loan Takic Takic *qos- “shell, money” and Cupan *sa(w)pV “shell sp.” WW %kys same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae chamaduuly word appears in several terms for “ants” inheritance Proto-Yuman Yuma cam?adhulyc “the ant (dh is delta) Halpern1: 27 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana ɂaqwaq karawii antelope (story word) unique same phrase deer ? Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus mahwa badger inheritance Proto-Yuman IA mehwaa, C. mxwa; Kiliwa mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus ɂaspa 'achii kwachtha type of eagle that eats fish inheritance Colorado River Yuman Yuma as-spah'-et-se'-kwit-sah' same phrase ɂaspa 'achii kwachtha eagle fish ? Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata huskivata pigeon inheritance Colorado River Yuman Yuma hwis-ke'-av (Merriam) same phrase dove-big Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp qampanyq bat inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai qà(·)păɲqa; Yuma kwampa/nyq Halpern 1:28 same (as per source, but I'll bet it's a kind of bat) underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor ɂapen beaver inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa āp-pin'; and note Resemblant C. kpiny same underived a beaver clan Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp ɂamat kathwaan type of beetle unique same phrase amat is “earth” Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus ɂahpily tule inheritance IA ɂepilly “cattail, tule” (Merriam says is Typha) same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis ɂilyhwe skunk inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco1978:96 (Langdon 1976:873 Metath) same underived Note iihwii= “smell, have bad odor” (derived synchronically as they suggest? Unlikely) Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus missing missing Maricopa hatkult Gordon 151 missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis ɂamo mountain sheep; part of the constellation Orion inheritance *?-mu(w) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:80, 91 ; Yuma 7amo/ Halpern 1:30 WW %mo: same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ɂichayer bird inheritance Colorado River Yuman Maricopa chyer Gordon 197 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger chamaduuly ɂavii type of black ant unique narrower (a species of black ant) phrase chamaduuly ɂavii ant mountain/rock Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus mahwat bear inheritance Proto-Yuman badger-big (see badger); Maricopa mәxwәt same phrase from mahwa - ɂatay badger big Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus ɂakɂuuly jackrabbit inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa kɂuły; Yavapai (ɂ)kúla, Yuma 7ak7u/ly Halpern 3:209 same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? talypo roadrunner inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:873 Metath; Yuma talypo/ Halpern 1:31 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus nuume wildcat inheritance *nymi- Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91; Yuma name/ Halpern 1:30 same underived Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera hunapnap butterfly unique Note IA mes-halyaap; C.şxmalyáp ; Yuma xan7a.vlye/p Halpern 3:208 same phrase iihu napanap nose flattened Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? ɂisɂuun woodpecker inheritance Proto-Yuman Note C šcɂu·ny; Yuma kwakxó· “woodpecker” Halpern1:26 same other complex 7 + sa'uun “fork” ?? Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota hamkyee swallow inheritance Proto-Yuman Yuma Note Co. xmka; Yuma xamkye/ Halpern 3:208; kamto/.shq “swallow” Halpern 1:28 same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana hanyiwily, ɂahanyiiwily mudhen unique same phrase ha- “water” Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii halyɂaw cottontail rabbit inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai hló, Kiliwa xa?law; Yuma xaly7a/w “rabbit” Halpern 3:205 same underived They don't note it -- but note halyɂa “moon” and recall that there is a rabbit on the moon's face Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. ɂahɂa cottonwood inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. xɂa, Yavapai ɂhá(·); Yuma 7ax7a/. Halpern 1:30 same underived Munro et al.1992 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans hukthar coyote inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kθár “dog”; also related to word for “left” (direction); Yuma xatalwe/ Halpern 1:27; in Maricopa the hatalywe is an animal “akin to coyote” in stories same underived a metathesis of kuuthar “left (direction)” Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos ɂaqaaq crow inheritance Proto-Yuman Sound-imitative but probably good as *qaaq same onomatopoeic Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii ɂamalykatu jimsonweed doubtful loan Hokan Note Cocopa şmál ka·pí·ţ, Yavapai smá·lkktū· same underived old compound -- they speculate ismalyk iito “ear stomach”, seems unlikely; I think it's from old grass word; Munro et al.1992 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus ɂaqwaq deer inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa kwak xntil; IA ɂekwak; Maricopa qwaaq same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana huwaaly pine tree, board inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai hwá(:)l, ?? Kiliwa ?+xaal ?? broader (tree and lumber) underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris hatchoq dog inheritance *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:83 (this has some kind of post-increment); Maricopa hat same underived diachronically complex, but “choq” only in this item Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura huskiv mourning dove unique Contains *k-wi(?) DOVE Mixco 1978:84 narrower (a kind of dove) underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hanamo duck inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai qnmó: ; Maricopa hnmo “chicken” Gordon 85; Yuma xanamo/. “duck” same phrase ha- “water” Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ɂachii fish inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH; Yuma 7aci/. Halpern 1:30 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera ɂichipay kuurems flea unique same phrase bug ? Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera thily'ahmo type of fly (word appears in “fly swatter” so presumably includes houseflies) inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa şxlʸmu; Yuma xaly7asmo/ Halpern 3:208 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei vaanat type of yucca whose roots are used to make shampoo loan Cupan Cupan *panaa- is a better resemblance than Yuman forms like Yavapai Note Yavapai mnāt same underived final -t MIGHT be “big” but Munro et al. don't say so Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon marho gray fox inheritance *p-rxa·w/m-rxa·w Proto-Yuman Langdon's 1976 FOX, Find again same underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna hanye frog inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG; Yuma xanyk7o/ “bullfrog” broader (frogs and toads) phrase ha- “water” Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ɂaspa eagle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. špa same underived Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer ɂave thii gopher snake inheritance Colorado River Yuman Contains P-Y snake word; note Yuma ah-vā-se' same phrase snake drink Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) ɂichɂivily grass, green plant, field unique Note Yavapai ɂìwīla broader (really means “herbaceous plant”) underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera yamkuka grasshopper unique narrower (according to Merriam 55:151, a large grasshopper) phrase from iiya “mouth” + mkuka ?? Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ɂatiis ground squirrel, gopher inheritance Proto-Yuman C. ci·š same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. humɂiir squirrel, ground squirrel inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai hmíra “chipmunk” same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus kataruyruy horned owl unique Maricopa mmdii “owl” Gordon 38 same other complex perhaps kw+taruyny, or kw _ tara'uy? “be nice, good”?? Munro et al.1992 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis mahwat bear unique broader (any bear) phrase ditto Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae ɂamat koqviithk horned toad unique same phrase ɂamat “earth”; koqviithk only in this name Munro et al.1992 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ɂahat (vaɂóolve) horse semantic shift *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman as “dog” Mixco 1978:83 ; Maricoa qwaqt; (vaɂóolve) is from Spanish “el burro” same phrase pet (dog) el.burro Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae nyinyen hummingbird inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave, Cocopa JHH; Yuma nexni/.x Halpern 3:207 same reduplicated possibly from anyen “have sexual intercourse with” Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ɂaɂuuv tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown IA ɂup; C. ɂu·p, etc. and cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p same underived Munro et al.1992 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic ɂichipay insect; also, in complex expressions, “animal” unique broader (something like “critter”) phrase ɂich ipay= something move= “infest with bugs” with =k Munro et al.1992 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera nyiɂily head louse semantic shift *?-?il Proto-Yuman Does this contain *?-?il WORM Langdon 1979:639? (Proto-Yuman) same other complex ny-iɂily p3spossessor-vermin Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos hanamo mallard (Anas boschas) inheritance Proto-Yuman broader (any duck) phrase ha- “water” Merriam 155:145 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa halapuy milkweed unique same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus hatav'iily reed, tule inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai ɂhtá same phrase 7aha-ɂichɂivily “water-plant” Munro et al.1992 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos sakwathɂaaly mockingbird unique Note Cocopa C. šàkwi·lá· same phrase contains sakah- “have feathers”; simplex in Munro et al. Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera sampulyk mosquito inheritance *smpul Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 under “FLY”, *smpul “mosquito” same underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera iido kuupit moth; kind of owl unique broader (night flyer/??) phrase iido “eye” kuupit<kw-aapet “closed, blocked” Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor nuumet mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 same phrase from nuume - ɂatay bobcat - big Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing quail missing missing Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata ɂachiily type of small shell from the coast used for necklaces loan no information there's a series of %chi words for shells in Gab, Barb, Kitanemuk same phrase looks like compound of FISH and WORM Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys taksee gopher inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:872 Metath same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ɂave rattlesnake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? broader (any snake) underived Munro et al.1992 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp chamaduuly red ant inheritance broader (any ant, with red ant as prototype) underived Munro et al.1992 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus thiɂiikwa (Merriam Cowbird); Merriam gives qual ē täk' a blackbird unique broader (several types of blackbirds) underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis kwas'ool; Merriam oo' mä thāy big bird, hawk inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai skwāla; this looks like a metath, and see Kiliwa pkwalu, 'Iipay Aa ?epkwaal; Yuma kwash7o/l “large hawk sp.”; UA *kwa'a “large hawk” should be considered as a source (S716) same underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss ɂachii ɂahan salmon, earwig insect unique same phrase fish right(direction)/good Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? ɂahatath'ily type of spiny of scaled lizard (lives in greasewood) inheritance Proto-Yuman Contains *(č)-xat “dog”; Note Yavapai thθí(·)la same phrase 7ahat-ath'ily second element only in this form Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna kwaathany type of brownish-colored lizard unique same underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ɂave snake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? ; Maricopa ɂave; Yuma 7a.ve/ Halpern 1:30 same underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco thiinyer sparrowhawk unique same underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae halytot spider, especially black widow spider inheritance Proto-Yuman IA hellytutt “black widow spider”; C. xłycuc same underived Munro et al.1992 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ɂilyhwenyoor spotted skunk inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco1978:96 (Langdon 1976:873 Metath) same phrase ɂilyhwe-inyoor skunk-spotted Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae hanye type of toad inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG broader (frogs and toads) phrase ha- “water” Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) missing missing Maricopa h'aa missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura ɂase buzzard inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. C. šayí·, same underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines kapet turtle; primarily, desert turtle inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Yavapai kpít; and note Serrano/Kitanemuk krprtt, kopotat; Yuma axnaraxna/r “turtle” Halpern 3:207 is cognate in Proto-Yuman; Yuma kwape/T “land turtle” Halpern 3:208 broader (turtles and tortoises) underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica ɂahma quail inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 Metath; Yuma 7axma/ Halpern 1;30 unknown Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis yaalak wild goose loan Cocopa or Chemehuevi Mojave should have /d/, not /y/; Yuma ya.la/k Halpern 1:28; Cocopa ya·lák, Chemehuevi has same form WW %lala ~ %lak broader (any wild goose (Merriam)) underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus kamay'iivet whale; a snake tht Mataviily brought to the earth, a great doctor who lived across the ocean some time ago unique broader (several mythical beasts plus cetaceans) phrase second part from 7ave-7atay snake-big Munro et al.1992 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos iiya kwinyiihuly pelican (Merriam confirms as White pelican Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) inheritance C. knyɂuy same phrase iiya “mouth”; second element only in this expression Munro et al.1992 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica kamchuulyk wild grape unique same underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) thivay oats, barley loan Spanish Spanish cebada “barley” WW %cebada broader (non-wheat grains) underived Munro et al.1992 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) ɂakyet sunflower loan Cahuilla-Cupeño Cahuilla ˈpaɁaqal “sunflower”; Cupeño ˈpaʔaqiʎ same underived Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ɂiidoo willow inheritance with *-yaaw Proto-Yuman JHH but in Langdon somewhere with no recon same underived Munro et al.1992 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. ɂavee; oh hool' yä Merriam 55:136 rat , mouse semantic shift Colorado River Yuman This is 7ave. “mouse” in Maricopa, Yuma; Yuma has kwa.shtam7u.ki/nyk “woodrat” broader (small rodent not squirrel) underived a woodrat clan Munro et al.1992 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ɂahamskukwenp tomato worm, caterpillar unique narrower (a specific kind of caterpillar) phrase ɂaha-mskukwenp water-?? Munro et al.1992 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. thaampo ɂaqwath/thaampo tamkwerk yellowjacket inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Cocopa şxmpa·; 'Iipay Aa metpaaw, Kiliwa cpaaw same phrase thaampo ɂaqwath bee yellow Munro et al.1992 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia sakuuqwaath goldfinch unique Note 'Iipay Aa mut'-tah-kwas also with ekwas “yellow” same phrase sakah “grow feathers” - 'aqwaath”be yellow” Munro et al.1992 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna chamaduuly, hanapuk, huroo, nyuuraw kwasma/ma inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna 7ichayer unique Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna thily'ahmo inheritance Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna hatchoq inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna kwiimiith “lawn” inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna 7aqwaq inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna 7ave inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna halytot inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food uukan shinny game unknown but note Kiliwa -uha7 'stone' root in 'kickball' simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology 7Amat Chamem Kachumpap The Fourth Dimension, Heaven unique phrase Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
feather headband dress takuupany feather headdress unknown but note ku, kw in this word and in IA, C words compound Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7ipa arrow, bullet inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other 7ipa meramer arrow straightener unique phrase Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool 7achii takwahav 7ipay live bait unique phrase fish bait.line Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation huchqol apóove school unique phrase youth container!! Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material kari basket unknown but note Kiliwa +hay simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material saku7ul bead inheritance Proto-Yuman could be a loan but is in IA and C simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool 7utis bow, gun unique simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport kulho boat, wooden box inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai khlo/ 'boat' of course possibly a loan; Langdon 1979 says metathesis with /h/ is common in Yuman. I think it's good because of Kiliwa kul7suuw 'large water jar, bottle' derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation hah po'-ve water bottle unique although note Kiliwa piip 'weave baskets' and pi7 in 'canteen' phrase Merriam 38:99 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation kapel, papel paper, book loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology pi7pataahan chief, big shot unknown derived person good/real Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress ii7wem akhav G-string, loincloth unique CHM 38:97 has un-yeev 'made of tules' phrase buttocks cover Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
cook food food alyuuly=k cook, boil inheritance Proto-Yuman note Cocopa Lyu:mas 'pot' simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
corpse food ipuych corpse, dead person Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology iima=k dance inheritance *ma(7) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool uusak digging stick unknown looks like CHM's 'fish spear'; he has ă-whel' 'digging stick'; might be cognate with IA o-hwat (CHM's form), (x=s is OK, and labialization could come from the /u/) pierce-k Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool tahyuuk big spoon, ladle, scoop unknown might be loan, Cocopa has shxyuk 'ladle', and M. should have /d/ for *y compound identical verb is 'dip out' (beans, not a liquid) Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology sumaa=k to dream inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH always from 'sleep' Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tahoongm big drum unknown looks sound symbolic or might even be lots of metathesis from tambor compound Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kwaloyaw chicken semantic shift a 'bird' word derived kw- Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
earring other ismalyk thawen earring inheritance *$mal(k) 'ear' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 phrase ear hang Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology nyavdii ghost, devil unknown derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool ow'-wah-ke-am' fire drill unknown derived Merriam 38:99 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other tă-kwaht'-tă-vă fireplace unknown derived tah-kwaht 'build a fire' Merriam 38:97 Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 7a7ii wood, firewood inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food 7achii vuuva=k to fish unique phrase Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool 7achii vuuvay fish line unique see also 'string' phrase Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food 7ahchet wheat semantic shift must be a grass word simplex 7ahche 'type of grass' Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology 7ahta cane, bamboo, flute inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa 7+xta 'reed' simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology nyavdii ghost, devil unknown derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool alyiich glue unknown simplex vb is same Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology tuunyéechve grave, burial place unknown see 'cremate' derived tuunyee 'light a fire, cremate"-ch-ve Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
alcohol food haarav whiskey, liquor, wine semantic shift identical to Cocopa compound water-hurt Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics 7amalykatu, ismalykatu jimsonweed inheritance shares smaly root with Yavapai, Cocopa? Note Cocopa şmál ka·pí·ţ, Yavapai smá·lkktū· Might be cognate with Yavapai, of course derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology sumach 7ahot witch doctor, Indian doctor unique phrase dream be.good/correct/clean Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food háni honey loan English WW %honey simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
house other 7ava house, wall, story (in a house) inheritance *wa(7) Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food anyii= hunt, fight unknown might be cognate w/ Yavapai word simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material 7ahkwe knife unknown simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
mat culture-material choo'-chā-jah mat unknown simplex Merriam 38:97 Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7ahmo wooden bowl or mortar for pounding mesquite inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
necklace other honak, huunak necktie, beads, kerchief (anything worn around neck) inheritance Proto-Yuman WW simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool 7atat needle, thorn semantic shift *7-ta(:)t Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978;98 simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport 7aha saqwal oar unique phrase water row.boat Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool ham7ukye stone pestle for pounding mesquite beans unknown also katoove 117 simplex ham7uuche is grinding stone, mano; Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
pinole food 7ahchet uuaaly gruel unknown note the 'wheat' word; also pinool phrase wheat Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other malyho pipe inheritance Proto-Yuman Yavapai mlhu simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
pitch food kwalyiich mesquite pitch unknown see 'glue' simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool alyuulyve stove, pot inheritance Proto-Yuman *lyu 'cook'; note 7ahapupur water pot, olla; what is pupur? derived see 'cook Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool kupet quiver (for arrows) loan direction unknown Cocopa simplex kw+(aa)pet Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology 7ahnaly gourd, gourd rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa; word originally is 'turtle', shifted to gourd (probably by way of 'rattle') simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology itch-ĕ-hwat red paint inheritance Proto-Yuman just 'red' derived Merriam 38:97 Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7ath7ii salt inheritance Proto-Yuman see Yavapai 7thí: simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology suunaa clothes, clothing unknown simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material nyavhay ahvay willow bark skirt unique ahvay 'dress' cog. w/ Yavapai 'skirt' word phrase ahvay dress Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool chavóove trap unknown han-nee'-kum 'snare' CHM 38:99 derived chavoo=k to trap, snare Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology suuvaar song unknown derived isvar 'to sing' Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool 7utat spear inheritance *7-ta(:)t Proto-Yuman see 'needle'; Kiliwa 7+tat 'thorn' simplex maybe really 7atat, but backformed from poss. Nyutat??? P 43 Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
stirring stick food sii7un porridge stirrer made from an 7iihor stick unknown simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 7ichuukwev rope, fishing line, yarn unknown derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material 7ahmaly sack inheritance Proto-Yuman see Yavapai simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation 7asukar sugar loan Spanish WW %azúcar simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
sweathouse other taho7óvye sweathouse unknown drived taho7oy vb Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology 7ich kunaav=k tell a story inheritance Proto-Yuman see Yavapai form phrase Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology tuunyee=k light a fire, cremate (someone), burn (something) unknown see 'grave' simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics 7a7uuv tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Hokan JHH WW %7u:p simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
tule boat transport kiikwily raft unknown derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology mat-tah-ā ā>t-mus'-sav white paint unknown phrase Merriam 38:97 Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material katel winnowing basket; pottery tray or dish used for parching or roasting corn or beans unknown simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress nyahmanyow sandals,shoes inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa derived Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics mat ichev medicine unknown phrase Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material akwiily cradleboard inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see 'Iipay Aa and Kiliwa khwit simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation pi7pa kuchiir policeman unknown phrase achhiir 'imprison many people' Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation suultaw army, soldier loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
corn food tadiich corn,seed inheritance Proto-Yuman simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
beans food marik beans inheritance Proto-Yuman very early loan, may not be perfectly cognate throughout WW %mun simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation posh, poosh cat loan English WW %pussy simplex Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation 7utis bow, gun semantic shift simplex Murno et al. 1992 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress makupuur, kumupuur hat semantic shift see Cocopa kupuur 'headband' derived makor 'top' Munro et al. 1992 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material 7amayly inheritance Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture aduly= (make a) inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7ahpe inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool uusa-k loan Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture vasaly=k loan Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ham'uuche inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool 7utis “bow” inheritance Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool 7utat unknown Jane Hill
house other 7ava inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large AG dense sedentary no