Cavineña

Family
Tacanan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cav
Location
-13.35°, -66.63°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Camp, Elizabeth L. and Liccardi, Millicent R. 1989. Diccionario cavineña-castellano, castellano-cavineña, con bosquejo de la gramática cavineña. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics. Girard, Victor. 1971. Proto-Tacanan Phonology. University of California Publications in Linguistics 70. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location e-baro-kʷe e-baro-kʷe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
and y e grammar hadʸa hadʸa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment moro; e-tiki-muru (G71) (moro is plural form; also means "dust" and "sand", and part of the words for "dandruff" and "flour") moro; e-tiki-muru (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
at en, a em, a location See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
back espalda costas body e-bebakʷa e-bebakʷa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bad mal mal quality hida-ma; hida-ma-ke; yo(ʔ)amo (hida-ma is literally "good negative"; (hida means good, -ma is negation, or no)) hida-ma; hida-ma-ke; yo(ʔ)amo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
belly barriga barriga body e-domi-hiti e-domi-hiti unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
below abajo, debajo abaixo location e-ma-ke e-ma-ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
big grande grande quality ari-da; ari-na; ebari ari-da; ari-na; ebari inheritance likely loan into some Panoan lgs See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
black negro preto colour sewe-da; sewe; sewe-da-tere (G71); ceveda (G71) sewe-da; sewe; sewe-da-tere (G71); ceveda (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blood sangre sangue body ami ami inheritance/Panoan Panoan *imi, Mascoyan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body e-bohoc̷o; buhu-cu (G71); toc̷o e-bohočo; buhu-cu (G71); točo inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bone hueso osso body e-c̷a(ʔ)o e-ča(ʔ)o inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
breast pecho, seno peito body yakʷa yakʷa doubtful loan Movima čah-kwa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
child niño, niña criança human e-bakʷa-ke e-bakʷa-ke doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Pano *βakɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cloud nube nuvem environment wani (Also means "smoke") wani unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cold frío frio quality ba-da-ke; bane-; ba-da (G71) ba-da-ke; bane-; ba-da (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality yoneri; poša amadʸa; kwaca-wana (G71); neri (G71) yoneri; poša amadʸa; kwaca-wana (G71); neri (G71) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
day día dia time wekaka (Also means "time") wekaka unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dirty sucio sujo quality asika-da-ke; asika-ni; seki- asika-da-ke; asika-ni; seki- inheritance cf. Chacobo čɨkɨ See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dry seco seco quality e-ora; rara-ya; pec̷a; e-mano-no (G71) e-ora; rara-ya; peča; e-mano-no (G71) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality kʷero-da-ma (Literally means "sharp-negative"; kʷero-da is sharp, -ma is a negation, or no) kʷero-da-ma See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dust polvo poeira environment moro moro inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ear oreja orelha body iha-ka; iha-ka-kani (G71) iha-ka; iha-ka-kani (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
earth/soil tierra terra environment mehihi; y-awa (G71); meči (G71) mehihi; y-awa (G71); meči (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
egg huevo ovo fauna e-ka e-ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
eye ojo olho body ya-to-ka ya-to-ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
far lejos longe quality hapa-da hapa-da unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fat/grease grasa gordura body hohi-da; ise; e-c̷e-ri; manteka; e-ceri (G71) (The latter is from the Spanish "manteca") hohi-da; ise; e-če-ri; manteka; e-ceri (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
father padre, papá pai kinship tata; baki-ke; pae (G71) (Girard states that the latter, pae, is borrowed from the Spanish "padre") tata; baki-ke; pae (G71) doubtful loan (into protolanguage?) similar forms all over region See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
feather pluma pena fauna e-kata; ododo e-kata; ododo unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fire fuego fogo environment e-ti-ki e-ti-ki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flower flor flor environment šaša šaša inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment apo-apo; sise-wani (apo-apo also means "darkness"; the "wani" in "sise-wani" means "smoke") apo-apo; sise-wani See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fruit fruta fruta flora akʷiho; e-kaka; no(ʔ)i; ca-rena (G71) akʷiho; e-kaka; no(ʔ)i; ka-rena (G71) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
good bueno bom quality hida; hida-kʷita; hi-da-pore-ama (G71) hida; hida-kʷita; hi-da-pore-ama (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body e-c̷aro e-čaro inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hand mano mão body e-me-toko; e-me (G71) e-me-toko; e-me (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar to-ke; to-ra (former is absolutive form, latter is ergative form) to-ke; to-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
head cabeza cabeça body i-yo-ka i-yo-ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
heavy pesado pesado quality bikʷe-da bikʷe-da inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
how? como como grammar a(ʔ)i a(ʔ)i unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
1sg yo eu grammar i-ke; e-ra (former is absolutive form, latter is ergative form) i-ke; e-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
if si se grammar ni (C&L89) ni See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location e-doko-ho; -ho e-doko-ho; -ho inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
intestines intestinos intestinos body e-sere; e-dumi-ti (G71) e-sere; e-dumi-ti (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lake lago lago environment be(ʔ)i; bei (G71) (Also means "ant eater") be(ʔ)i; bei (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
leaf hoja folha environment e-haki; hata e-haki; hata inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hani; hani-(ʔ)e-ke hani; hani-(ʔ)e-ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
leg/foot pierna perna body e-c̷a-ka e-ča-ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tahita tahita unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
liver hígado figado body e-takʷa e-takʷa inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
long largo comprido, longo quality hono-da; baro-da; baro-da-ke hono-da; baro-da; baro-da-ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna bi(ʔ)a; bia (G71) bi(ʔ)a; bia (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
man/male hombre homem human deka deka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
meat/flesh carne carne fauna e-rami e-rami inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
moon luna lua environment badi (Also means "month") badi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship e-kʷa-ke; e-kʷaʔa; mama e-kʷa-ke; e-kʷaʔa; mama inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mouth boca boca body e-kʷac̷a (Also can refer to the mouth of a river) e-kʷača inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
name nombre nome human e-ba-ka-ni e-ba-ka-ni inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
near/close cerca de perto quality hapa-da-ma; re-wa; deke-ya (hapa-da-ma is literally "far-negative"; hapa-da means "far", and "-ma" is a negation, or no) hapa-da-ma; re-wa; deke-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tʸowi; hepo kani tʸowi; hepo kani See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
neck cuello pescoço body e-piti e-piti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
new nuevo novo quality i-[y]akʷa-ke; i[y]akwa (G71) ("-yakʷa means "now") i-[y]akʷa-ke; i[y]akwa (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
night noche noite time meta; čine-ho meta; čine-ho inheritance; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
no/not no não grammar ama; -ma; aihama; daha; hipa; bato ama; -ma; aihama; daha; hipa; bato loan, direction unknown Chácobo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
nose nariz nariz body e-wi (Also means "point" and "beak") e-wi inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
old viejo velho quality e-siri-ke; bero; bero-siri-ke e-siri-ke; bero; bero-siri-ke inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
one uno um number pea-dʸa (pea means "other") pea-dʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
other otro outro grammar pea; pea-ra (G71); pea-sa (G71); pea - peya (G71) pea; pea-ra (G71); pea-sa (G71); pea - peya (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ohehe-da-ke; adʸa-ya (specifically meaning "sick" or "sickness") ohehe-da-ke; adʸa-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
person/human being persona pessoa human e-kʷita e-kʷita inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rain lluvia chuva environment ne(ʔ)i; nei (G71) (Specifically the noun) ne(ʔ)i; nei (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
red rojo vermelho colour pode-da; ča-ča-da (G71) pode-da; ča-ča-da (G71) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
right/right hand derecha direita location/body hida-e-ke (Means "good") hida-e-ke unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
road/path camino caminho manufacture edihi; e-kari (edihi is "road", e-kari is "path") edihi; e-kari inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
root raíz raiz flora e-tiri e-tiri unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rotten podrido podre quality e-riri; iwina-ya; poc̷o; hakona-ya e-riri; iwina-ya; počo; hakona-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sand arena areia environment mehihi; moro mehihi; moro inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kʷero-da; hakʷa-ya (kʷero-da also means "pointed") kʷero-da; hakʷa-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
short corto curto quality hono-da-ma; tʸobo; baro-da-ma (hono-da-ma is literally "long-negative" (hono-da means "long" and -ma is a negation, or "no"); baro-da-ma is literally "tall-negative" (baro-da-ke means "tall" and -ma is a negation, or "no")) hono-da-ma; tʸobo; baro-da-ma unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shoulder hombro ombro body yara-ka-ka yara-ka-ka inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental biso-a-ki (G71) biso-a-ki (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
skin piel pele body e-biti e-biti inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sky cielo céu environment bare-pa; ebaro-kʷe (ebaro-kʷe also means "up") bare-pa; ebaro-kʷe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
small pequeño pequeno quality ačača; pihi; ača-ača; aša-aša; nana- ačača; pihi; ača-ača; aša-aša; nana- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
smoke humo fumaça environment wani; wani-iru (G71) wani; wani-iru (G71) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
star estrella estrela environment porari porari unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora taora; akʷi taora; akʷi loan; inheritance Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stone piedra pedra environment tomo; tomo ebari (G71) tomo; tomo ebari (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tail cola, rabo rabo body iwa; ina (G71); ewa?o (G71); ewa?yo (G71) iwa; ina (G71); ewa?o (G71); ewa?yo (G71) inheritance; doubtful loan Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
that ese/esa esse grammar tumcque (C&L89 tumkke unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar to-na; to-na-ra (The former is the absolutive form, the latter is the ergative form) to-na; to-na-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ari-da ari-da inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thin delgado fino quality ari-da-ma; sara-da; ošori-ke; ošori-si (ari-da-ma is literally "thick-negative" (ari-da means "thick", -ma is a negation, or "no")) ari-da-ma; sara-da; ošori-ke; ošori-si unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
this este/esta este grammar rike (G71); riyake (G71) rike (G71); riyake (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
2sg xx xx grammar mi; mi-ke mi; mi-ke inheritance/Tacanan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
throat garganta garganta body e-c̷ori-kani; ara kani (The former is literally "possesive-voice-hole" (e-c̷ori means "voice", kani means "hole"); the latter is literally "eat-hole" (ara means "eat", kani means "hole")) e-čori-kani; ara kani inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
three tres tres number kimiša (According to IDS, from Quechua kimša) kimiša loan Quechua See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thunder truenos trovão environment tiri-ti-ya tiri-ti-ya inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bite morder morder body karo-ya karo-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blow soplar soprar body hoha-ya; ho-ha- (G71) hoha-ya; ho-ha- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
breathe respirar respirar body kana-heti-ya (Also refers to the noun "breath"; kana is "air") kana-heti-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
burn quemar queimar environment hoho-ya; tiro-ya; toča-; pawa-ya; šowa-ya (The former is the intransitive verb, the rest are transitive) hoho-ya; tiro-ya; toča-; pawa-ya; šowa-ya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body nako-ya; koro- nako-ya; koro- unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
climb subir subir motion cora- (G71) cora- (G71) inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
come venir vir motion he-ya; heti-ya; ba-na- (G71) he-ya; heti-ya; ba-na- (G71) semantic shift walk/return See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cook cocinar cozinhar impact hina-ya; e-ara-ki-ho-ya; e-ara-kia-ya; doka- (ara- means "eat") hina-ya; e-ara-ki-ho-ya; e-ara-kia-ya; doka- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
count contar contar mental pieba-ya; kʷeha-ya pieba-ya; kʷeha-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cry llorar chorar mental pa-ya; ka-ena-pa-ti-ya pa-ya; ka-ena-pa-ti-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cut/hack cortar cortar impact hikʷi-ya; raro-ya (e.g. leaves); tobo; raka-ya (e.g. cloth) hikʷi-ya; raro-ya (e.g. leaves); tobo; raka-ya (e.g. cloth) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
die/be dead morir morrer state maho-ya-ke; e-maho-ke; ma-ho- (G71) maho-ya-ke; e-maho-ke; ma-ho- (G71) loan (into protolanguage?) Tupi-Guarani See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dig cavar cavar impact poro-ya poro-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dream soñar sonhar mental tawi-ho-ya; tawi-ho- (G71) (tawa means "sleep") tawi-ho-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
drink beber, tomar beber body ihi-ya; ihi-išo-ke ihi-ya; ihi-išo-ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
eat comer comer body ara-ya; ara-ara-ya ara-ya; ara-ara-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fall caer cair motion ribi-ya; pakaka-ya ribi-ya; pakaka-ya unique; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fear miedo medo mental bahi-da; moiya-ya; hekotana-ya bahi-da; moiya-ya; hekotana-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flow fluir fluir motion hori-ya hori-ya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fly volar voar motion heta-ya heta-ya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grow crecer crescer state baro-na-ya; ari-ari-ho-ya; wiha-ya (baro-na-ya usually refers to children; wiha-ya refers to plants) baro-na-ya; ari-ari-ho-ya; wiha-ya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hear oír ouvir mental baka-ya baka-ya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hide esconder esconder motion ka-tewa-ho-ya; katewa ka-tewa-ho-ya; katewa unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hit golpear, pegar bater impact a-ya, miri-ya; taro-; kac̷a-ya a-ya, miri-ya; taro-; kača-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other coger (C&L89) koger loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
kill matar matar impact iye-ya; iye- (G71) iye-ya; iye- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental bawe-dʸa; adeba- bawe-dʸa; adeba- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
laugh reír rir mental c̷a-ya; šokoi-šokoi-ya (The former also means "smile") ča-ya; šokoi-šokoi-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ha-ra-ya ha-ra-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ani-ya; hoiyomata-ya; honeni-ya ani-ya; hoiyomata-ya; honeni-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
open/uncover abrir abrir other pakaša-ya; pototaša-ya; bosa-ya (The latter is "burst open") pakaša-ya; pototaša-ya; bosa-ya unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact miri-ya; hari-ya; a-ya, miri-ya; taro-; kac̷a-ya (The first two, miri-ya and hari-ya, mean pounding specifically with a fist; the rest are the same as the entry for "hit") miri-ya; hari-ya; a-ya, miri-ya; taro-; kača-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
say decir dizer mental a-ya; kʷeha-ya (a-ya also means "to do" or "to make") a-ya; kʷeha-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
scratch rascar rasgar impact arañar (C&L89) araɲar loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
see ver ver mental ba-ya ba-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact mare-; tekʷa-ya; piya-c̷ewe-a-ya (piya-c̷ewe-a-ya specifically refers to shooting an arrow) mare-; tekʷa-ya; piya-čewe-a-ya unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sit sentar(se) sentar state ani-bote-ya; ho-ani-ya (bote- is "to lower") ani-bote-ya; ho-ani-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sleep dormir dormir body tawi-ya; tawi-yaho (G71); tawi- (G71) tawi-ya; tawi-yaho (G71); tawi- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wani; hiro-ya; wani-da; hiro- (G71) (wani is the transitive verb, hiro-ya is intransitive; wani-da is specifically "sniff"; wani also means "smoke") wani; hiro-ya; wani-da; hiro- (G71) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spit escupir cuspir body e-kʷedi-ra-a-ya ("-kʷedi is "saliva") e-kʷedi-ra-a-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact bori-ya; pac̷a-ya bori-ya; pača-ya unique; unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact tisi-ya; iña-xasayo (G71) tisi-ya; iña-xasayo (G71) unknown; inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact sakʷa-ya (sakʷa-ya is also used for "injection") sakʷa-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state neti-ya; neti-cora- (G71) neti-ya; neti-cora- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
steal robar roubar other čiri-ya; čiri- (G71) čiri-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
suck chupar chupar body soso-ya; sobi-ya; c̷eo-ya; robi-ya; soso-soso-ya (The latter two, robi-ya and soso-soso-ya, specifically mean "suckle") soso-ya; sobi-ya; čeo-ya; robi-ya; soso-soso-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
swell hincharse inchar body moha-ya; toc̷o-ya; koha- (Specifically "swelling") moha-ya; točo-ya; koha- unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
swim nadar nadar motion bec̷a-ya beča-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
think pensar pensar mental inime-topo-ya; inime-ba-ya; topo-ya; peya-inime; ehene- (inime means "soul") inime-topo-ya; inime-ba-ya; topo-ya; peya-inime; ehene- inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact mare-ya; ihewe-ya; išac̷abo-ke; ka-daka-ti- (G71) mare-ya; ihewe-ya; išačabo-ke; ka-daka-ti- (G71) unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact risi-ya, kaka-; dono-ya; risi-wa-ke risi-ya, kaka-; dono-ya; risi-wa-ke inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other tipiro tipiro hoya; kawalʸati-ya; romo-ya; tipirotana-ya; warere-ya; walʸaki aya (tipiro tipiro hoya, kawalʸati-ya, and romo-ya all mean "turn over"; tipirotana-ya, warere-ya, and walʸaki aya all mean "turn around") tipiro tipiro hoya; kawalʸati-ya; romo-ya; tipirotana-ya; warere-ya; walʸaki aya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
vomit vomitar vomitar body ka-poša-ti-ya; ka-daka-ti- (G71); kadakati-ya (kadakati-ya is to vomit from being too full) ka-poša-ti-ya; ka-daka-ti- (G71); kadakati-ya unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
walk caminar, andar andar motion ahe-ya; honeni-ya ahe-ya; honeni-ya inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
work trabajar trabalhar other mere-ya; me-re- (G71) mere-ya; me-re- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
yawn bostezar bocejar body ka(ʔ)ac̷anaka-ti-ya; ka-aca-naka-ti-(G71) ka(ʔ)ačanaka-ti-ya; ka-aca-naka-ti-(G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tongue lengua lingua body yana (Also means "language, law, an order, custom") yana inheritance/Panoan? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tooth diente dente body e-c̷e e-če inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
two dos dois number beta beta inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
water agua agua environment e-na e-na inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar e-kʷana; e-kʷana-ra; yac̷e (e-kʷana is the absolutive form, e-kʷana-ra is the ergative form; yac̷e is the dual form ("we two")) e-kʷana; e-kʷana-ra; yače inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wet mojado molhado quality naka-da; naki; naka-naka; ena-kata; bado-da; naka-ta- (G71) (e-na means "water") naka-da; naki; naka-naka; ena-kata; bado-da; naka-ta- (G71) unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
what? que, qué que grammar a(ʔ)i; ehe a(ʔ)i; ehe inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
when? cuando quando grammar ehe-c̷ono ehe-čono inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
where? donde onde grammar eho; ehe dʸane; eho-oke; eheho; eho-to-; aiho eho; ehe dʸane; eho-oke; eheho; eho-to-; aiho inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white blanco branco colour paha-da; paha-ya (G71) paha-da; paha-ya (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
who? quien, quién quem grammar e-he-ke e-he-ke unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wife esposa esposa kinship e-wane-ke e-wane-ke inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wind viento vento environment kʷehihi kʷehihi unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wing ala asa body yahapa-ra yahapa-ra unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
woman/female mujer mulher human e-pona e-pona inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
yellow amarillo amarelo colour hawa-da hawa-da inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mi-kʷana; mi-kʷana-ra (The former is the absolutive form, the latter is the ergative form) mi-kʷana; mi-kʷana-ra inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
foot pie body e-wači e-wači inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar todʸa-noka-dʸa; yodihidʸa (noka is "fold") todʸa-noka-dʸa; yodihidʸa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
all todo todos other dotʸa; yota dotʸa; yota unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ankle tobillo tornozelo body e-wači-atoha-kaka (wači is "foot") e-wači-atoha-kaka unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
armpit axila, sobaco axila body iɲokʷiha iɲokʷiha inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body dumi (G71) dumi (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
lung pulmón pulmão body e-hasa e-hasa inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sweat sudar suor, suar body weroro- (G71) weroro- (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bark corteza casca environment e-biti (Also means "skin") e-biti inheritance/Panoan See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fingernail uña unha body e-me-šoro e-me-šoro unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
heart corazón coração body e-niho e-niho inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sun sol sol time iheti iheti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment owa-kʷemoso; e-mata (owa means "earth") owa-kʷemoso; e-mata inheritance? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
green verde verde quality sawa-da sawa-da inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hot caliente quente quality oke-da oke-da doubtful loan Tupi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (135)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawayo (from the Spanish "caballo") kawayo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. bina; maka-bina (latter is "vampire bat") bina; maka-bina See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ča(ʔ)i; opati ča(ʔ)i; opati See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. cokwe (G71) cokwe (G71) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. tedu (C&L89) tedu See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae nuhua (C&L89) nuwa See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae madakapa (G71) madakapa (G71) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes popo; marošei (Generic owl) popo; marošei See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica korakʷa; tʸoʔi; ka(ʔ)e-ka(ʔ)e; peči; siro korakʷa; tʸoʔi; ka(ʔ)e-ka(ʔ)e; peči; siro See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae we(ʔ)i; bihihi we(ʔ)i; bihihi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wiwipa wiwipa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae hamani hamani See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family hohe (G71) hohe (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae mayahua (C&L89) majawa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris čapa (generic dog) čapa See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis čapa (generic dog) čapa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) be(ʔ)i be(ʔ)i See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri codi (G71) codi (G71) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. matoha matoha See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wi-ka-motya-ho- (G71) wi-ka-motya-ho- (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. lala'cua (C&L89) lalaʔkua See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. risu (C&L89) risu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. tucunu (C&L89) tukunu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura bororo (G71) bororo (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. pisoso pisoso See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata yaʔa-matoha; banakʷa yaʔa-matoha; banakʷa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ibabi ibabi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura sero (G71) sero (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes mapisi (C&L89) mapisi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna bakʷa; bakwa (G71) bakʷa; bakwa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis jae atsuquique (C&L89) hae atsukike See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) hiʔi hiʔi See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca saasi - sa?asi (G71) saasi - sa?asi (G71) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) wapehe wapehe See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens biho; hite-biho (specifically "chili pepper") biho; hite-biho See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea kanise (G71) (plural "peanuts") kanise (G71) See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus jatsu (C&L89) hatsu See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. huacarare (C&L89) wakarare See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. poroto (According to Girard, borrowed from Aymara-Quechua) poroto See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) noc̷a; kona (G71) noc̷a; kona (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ihike ihike See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum omaha omaha See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna akʷi (also means "stick") akʷi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana e-mace (G71) e-mace (G71) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. maca madi (C&L89) maka madi See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kʷawe (generic manioc) kʷawe See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum bachi (C&L89) bači See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kono-kahi; ano-ʔai; bači (kono- means "vine") kono-kahi; ano-ʔai; bači See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. cunu caji (C&L89) kunu kahi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tamabucu (C&L89) tamabuku See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. kemi kemi See Language page plant Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. cunu (C&L89) kunu See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ac̷a; oʔo kono ac̷a; oʔo kono See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic murahuahua (C&L89) murawawa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae poki; omanana; bona; tepaco poki; omanana; bona; tepaco See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata bona See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hino; atata-waha (G71) (waha means "honey") hino; atata-waha (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria sopa sopa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae omaha porari omaha porari See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera hababa; hapipi hababa; hapipi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera japui (C&L89) hapui See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ec̷ena; tʸono; toyo-toyo; c̷oho; e-cena (G71) (generic worm) ec̷ena; tʸono; toyo-toyo; c̷oho; e-cena (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda wači-wači-ke; mapakʷi; nuriri (G71) ( means "foot") wači-wači-ke; mapakʷi; nuriri (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ahi-pa ahi-pa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea pui (C&L89) pui See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera bi(ʔ)a; takʷapa bi(ʔ)a; takʷapa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera hewewero; da-ka-nabo; tipesi hewewero; da-ka-nabo; tipesi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae ahari (G71) ahari (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. di(ʔ)i di(ʔ)i See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea bekwihi (G71) bekwihi (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita bira bira See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda hemo (also means "shell") hemo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae tiriri tiriri See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca iba (G71) iba (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] do(ʔ)o do(ʔ)o See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella hirowa (G71) (generic capuchin monkey) hirowa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus biwa (G71) (generic spider monkey) biwa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ijahua (C&L89) ihawa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis kwecara (G71) kwecara (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis cuetsara (C&L89) kuetsara See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu waborasa (G71) waborasa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae iha (G71) iha (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua jucuri (C&L89) hukuri See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mada (G71) (generic agouti) mada (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris sododo (G71) sododo (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus hite hite See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae dawapa (G71) dawapa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris ahuada (C&L89) awada See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus dokʷe-ri; pisini; yarapasa dokʷe-ri; pisini; yarapasa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material hiti (larger, more durable basket hiti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bed cama cama culture-material e-tawi-ki; eperere; e-hara-kʷare (tawi means "sleep") e-tawi-ki; eperere; e-hara-kʷare unique/calque See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material e-bade-ki e-bade-ki unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material huacu (C&L89) waku loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
canoe canoa canoa transport kʷaba kʷaba inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture komo-komo; bombo (generic drum; "bombo" is from Spanish) komo-komo; bombo Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology komo-komo; bombo (generic drum; "bombo" is from Spanish) komo-komo; bombo loan - WW %kumu See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology maru (C&L89) maru inheritance In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology ča-ča-ne-pohi (G71) ča-ča-ne-pohi (G71) (also means "savior") Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
broom escoba vassoura culture-material e-bobo-ki e-bobo-ki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology e-hoto-ki; kamisa-kʷana (The latter is from the Spanish "camisa") e-hoto-ki; kamisa-kʷana unique; loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fence, palisade cerco cerca other e-taraka-ne-ke; espiki (IDS notes the unusual consonant cluster in "espiki") e-taraka-ne-ke; espiki unique may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
firewood leña lenha other kʷa-ti kʷa-ti inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ihawa (also means "fox") ihawa semantic shift? fox'? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology yoso; e-duči (G71) (both mean "God"; yoso is from Spanish "Dios") yoso; e-duči (G71) loan; inheritance? Spanish In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology raota; mori (Girard states that raota is from the Spanish "flauta") raota; mori loan; inheritance Spanish multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kočiro-kaka; kočiro ebari (Former is "small knife", latter is "large knife"; from Spanish "cuchillo") kočiro-kaka; kočiro ebari loan Spanish cuchillo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
machete machete facão culture-material suque (C&L89) suke unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool hača (From Spanish "hacha"; IDS notes that the H is pronounced) hača loan Spanish hacha especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool piya piya loan/inheritance? Panoan *pia hunting, warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hada-hada; c̷ati hada-hada; čati unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bow arco arco subsistence tool etonono etonono semantic shift from 'round/curved'? arco See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paddle/oar remo remo transport e-taro-ki e-taro-ki inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
plate plato prato culture-material peha; seeta; meči-peha peha; seeta; meči-peha inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool emari-kaka; pabeherere emari-kaka; pabeherere unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool pabejerere (C&L89) pabeherere unknown agriculture? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology matarka (from Spanish "matraca") matarka loan Spanish See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool e-madi (G71) e-madi (G71) loan (into protolg?) Arawak See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
wax cera cera other wini (G71) wini (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
honey miel mel food waha; ihamia (G71) waha; ihamia (G71) inheritance cf. Chacobo only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture jiru (C&L89) hiru unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology tsudi (C&L89) tsudi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material noc̷a e-tare; c̷ohi (The former is "thatch"; the latter is "roof") noča e-tare; čohi unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology horo-horo; čipi-čipi-ke; pora-pora-ke (generic paint) horo-horo; čipi-čipi-ke; pora-pora-ke See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology bare-pa (G71) bare-pa (G71) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
school escuela escola acculturation escuela (C&L89) eskwela See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bottle botella garrafa acculturation botella (C&L89) botella See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
paper papel papel acculturation kirika ~ kilika (also means "book", "letter") kirika ~ kilika See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tawi-ho-ya (tawi is "sleep") tawi-ho-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
chicken gallina galinha acculturation takore takore loan - WW %takara See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology e-maho-kani (Literally "possesive-corpse hole" (e-maho is "corpse" and kani is "hole")) e-maho-kani See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other bajutu (C&L89) bahutu See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation šita; asoka (The former is "sugar cane"; the latter is sugar, from the Spanish "azucar"; Girard states that šita is borrowed from Panoan) šita; asoka See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapato-ki (from the Spanish "zapato") sapato-ki See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
policeman polícia policía acculturation purisha (C&L89) puriʃa See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sodaro sodaro loan Span/Port soldado See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
cat gato gato acculturation miši (IDS notes that similar forms occur throughout the Americas; Girard states that it is borrowed from Aymara-Quechua) miši See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation huecrime (C&L89) wekrime unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hat sombero chapéu dress motiro; kačoča; čoro motiro; kačoča; čoro unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wara-hi; ekʷari wara-hi; ekʷari unknown; loan TG - Siriono? also in Shipibo See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool wika-(ʔ)oho wika-(ʔ)oho See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
salt sal sal food bano bano inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hero-išo-ke hero-išo-ke unique See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool missing currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool tubu (C&L89) tubu hunting and warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool e-pi-ki; pei-pei-išo (The verb is pei-ya) e-pi-ki; pei-pei-išo inheritance esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food atsa (C&L89) atsa doubtful loan, direction unknown cf. Ocaina aadzi See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
hunt cazar caçar food babi-ra; babi-ya; katiaki-ho-ya babi-ra; babi-ya; katiaki-ho-ya See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ošo (generic animal, except kʷanobi, which is "wild animal") kʷanobi; ošo unknown Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tamabucu (C&L89) tamabuku unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool makana makana unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool mano-tako mano-tako See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture topa-ri (generic beer) topa-ri prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food emiwe; kʷawe moro emiwe; kʷawe moro unknown agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food kʷawe ("tapioca, manioc, cassava") kʷawe unknown usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food kʷawe ("tapioca, manioc, cassava") kʷawe unknown See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool missing hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool haha-; irare; haha-išo-ke (generic strainer or sieve) haha-; irare; haha-išo-ke unknown agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool emiwa-ki (generic bait) emiwa-ki can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool sopoti; pato sopoti; pato See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture makana makana use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker
house other e-tare; e-tiki-kwere (G71) e-tare; e-tiki-kwere (G71) inheritance See Language page Joyce McCormick, Becky Walker