Kwazá

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
xwa
Location
-11.67°, -61.18°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
van der Voort, Hein. 2004. A Grammar of Kwaza. (Mouton Grammar Library, 29.) Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ũcwa- ũcwa- See Language page Joyce McCormick
and y e grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hinũnã hinũnã See Language page Joyce McCormick
at en, a em, a location See Language page Joyce McCormick
back espalda costas body etu, -bari, hebari, -tu etu, -bari, hebari, -tu See Language page Joyce McCormick
bad mal mal quality dotahỹ-, wãrẽdy dotahỹ-, wãrẽdy See Language page Joyce McCormick
belly barriga barriga body mjãka, -tɛ, tɛ- mjãka, -tɛ, tɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Joyce McCormick
big grande grande quality nỹ-, txi- (the latter is more emphasized - very big ) nỹ-, txi- (the latter is more emphasized - very big ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
black negro preto colour be?ỹ-, hoho- be?ỹ-, hoho- See Language page Joyce McCormick
blood sangre sangue body See Language page Joyce McCormick
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body tou?ũrjỹ, bɛbɛja, kurujate tou?ũrjỹ, bɛbɛja, kurujate See Language page Joyce McCormick
bone hueso osso body tsu, -xu tsu, -xu See Language page Joyce McCormick
breast pecho, seno peito body cẽrẽ cẽrẽ See Language page Joyce McCormick
child niño, niña criança human etohoi etohoi See Language page Joyce McCormick
cloud nube nuvem environment awenũ, hanãwã, hanãwãnũ awenũ, hanãwã, hanãwãnũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
cold frío frio quality kaikuja, awy kaikuja, awy See Language page Joyce McCormick
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality watxi, watxiwatxi-, jananãi- watxi, watxiwatxi-, jananãi- See Language page Joyce McCormick
day día dia time haja haja See Language page Joyce McCormick
dirty sucio sujo quality hoho- hoho- See Language page Joyce McCormick
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Joyce McCormick
dry seco seco quality kara- kara- See Language page Joyce McCormick
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Joyce McCormick
dust polvo poeira environment -nĩ- -nĩ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
ear oreja orelha body ñãsi, -nãsi ñãsi, -nãsi See Language page Joyce McCormick
earth/soil tierra terra environment tsãrã, -nũ tsãrã, -nũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
egg huevo ovo fauna -ni -ni See Language page Joyce McCormick
eye ojo olho body ecũi, -tõi ecũi, -tõi See Language page Joyce McCormick
far lejos longe quality ãi ãi See Language page Joyce McCormick
fat/grease grasa gordura body kɛ̃imũ, jãtsi- kɛ̃imũ, jãtsi- See Language page Joyce McCormick
father padre, papá pai kinship aha aha See Language page Joyce McCormick
feather pluma pena fauna -xyico -xyico See Language page Joyce McCormick
fire fuego fogo environment hi, -nã, -terjỹ hi, -nã, -terjỹ See Language page Joyce McCormick
flower flor flor environment See Language page Joyce McCormick
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment exyilo, hanãwãnũ, hinũnũ exyilo, hanãwãnũ, hinũnũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
fruit fruta fruta flora tsytõi, -tõi, etũi, -ko (the latter refers to big fruit ) tsytõi, -tõi, etũi, -ko (the latter refers to big fruit ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
good bueno bom quality wainãi, wai- wainãi, wai- See Language page Joyce McCormick
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body exyi, -xyi, -nũ exyi, -xyi, -nũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
hand mano mão body tsoje, -tsa, -koje tsoje, -tsa, -koje See Language page Joyce McCormick
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar -hata- -hata- See Language page Joyce McCormick
head cabeza cabeça body tsuty, -kuty tsuty, -kuty See Language page Joyce McCormick
heavy pesado pesado quality atsile- atsile- See Language page Joyce McCormick
how? como como grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
1sg yo eu grammar si si See Language page Joyce McCormick
if si se grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location akwate, -kwa-, -kwate-, enã akwate, -kwa-, -kwate-, enã See Language page Joyce McCormick
intestines intestinos intestinos body mjãka mjãka See Language page Joyce McCormick
lake lago lago environment hãrokãi hãrokãi See Language page Joyce McCormick
leaf hoja folha environment hesyxe, -xy, -xe (latter is a small leaf) hesyxe, -xy, -xe (latter is a small leaf) See Language page Joyce McCormick
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body dakoro dakoro See Language page Joyce McCormick
leg/foot pierna perna body -kai -kai See Language page Joyce McCormick
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wɛro- wɛro- See Language page Joyce McCormick
liver hígado figado body eri eri See Language page Joyce McCormick
long largo comprido, longo quality unã- unã- See Language page Joyce McCormick
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna sytyi, esa (the latter is a wood louse) sytyi, esa (the latter is a wood louse) See Language page Joyce McCormick
man/male hombre homem human exwa, tswa, -rati exwa, tswa, -rati See Language page Joyce McCormick
meat/flesh carne carne fauna au, auxwana, -xwana au, auxwana, -xwana See Language page Joyce McCormick
moon luna lua environment hakuri, hanãwã (hakuri also means month) hakuri, hanãwã (hakuri also means month) See Language page Joyce McCormick
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Joyce McCormick
mouth boca boca body ekãi, rwỹtɛ ekãi, rwỹtɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
name nombre nome human ta- ta- See Language page Joyce McCormick
near/close cerca de perto quality bo-, du-, kuro-, tãi-, tja?atje-, tsje- bo-, du-, kuro-, tãi-, tja?atje-, tsje- See Language page Joyce McCormick
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Joyce McCormick
neck cuello pescoço body -koko -koko See Language page Joyce McCormick
new nuevo novo quality arwa-, darahỹ arwa-, darahỹ See Language page Joyce McCormick
night noche noite time hadeja hadeja See Language page Joyce McCormick
no/not no não grammar hỹʔỹ hỹʔỹ See Language page Joyce McCormick
nose nariz nariz body tsɛni, ɛsalõi, -karwanĩ, -salõi tsɛni, ɛsalõi, -karwanĩ, -salõi See Language page Joyce McCormick
old viejo velho quality ereritay, ererixwa, kai, haka- ereritay, ererixwa, kai, haka- See Language page Joyce McCormick
one uno um number tei, -na-, -hana- tei, -na-, -hana- See Language page Joyce McCormick
other otro outro grammar duky duky See Language page Joyce McCormick
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Joyce McCormick
person/human being persona pessoa human mãrɛ̃ritsa mãrɛ̃ritsa See Language page Joyce McCormick
rain lluvia chuva environment awe- awe- See Language page Joyce McCormick
red rojo vermelho colour kiʔỹ- kiʔỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
right/right hand derecha direita location/body watxiwatxiʔỹkoro watxiwatxiʔỹkoro See Language page Joyce McCormick
road/path camino caminho manufacture txahỹ txahỹ See Language page Joyce McCormick
root raíz raiz flora -tswe, -jã, -kãjã, -koke -tswe, -jã, -kãjã, -koke See Language page Joyce McCormick
rotten podrido podre quality ho- ho- See Language page Joyce McCormick
sand arena areia environment kãkã-, tsũrũrũnĩ kãkã-, tsũrũrũnĩ See Language page Joyce McCormick
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality byru-, karuru- byru-, karuru- See Language page Joyce McCormick
short corto curto quality coñũ?ỹ- coñũ?ỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoulder hombro ombro body -tu, -bari -tu, -bari See Language page Joyce McCormick
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hohỹ- hohỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
skin piel pele body esiki, hãtsũ-, -siki, -xy esiki, hãtsũ-, -siki, -xy See Language page Joyce McCormick
sky cielo céu environment hanãwã, -nãwã hanãwã, -nãwã See Language page Joyce McCormick
small pequeño pequeno quality tohoi, txuhũi tohoi, txuhũi See Language page Joyce McCormick
smoke humo fumaça environment huja, hu-, hiñanũko, hinũnũ huja, hu-, hiñanũko, hinũnũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
star estrella estrela environment txitũjɛ, -tõi txitũjɛ, -tõi See Language page Joyce McCormick
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ywynwỹ, ywynwỹtsu, tsu, tsĩrjẽ-, -kanɛ ywynwỹ, ywynwỹtsu, tsu, tsĩrjẽ-, -kanɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
stone piedra pedra environment haki, hakidwa, -dwa haki, hakidwa, -dwa See Language page Joyce McCormick
tail cola, rabo rabo body -siñũ -siñũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
that ese/esa esse grammar ay- ay- See Language page Joyce McCormick
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Joyce McCormick
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Joyce McCormick
this este/esta este grammar ỹ- ỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
2sg xx xx grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
throat garganta garganta body -koko, -xỹiro -koko, -xỹiro See Language page Joyce McCormick
three tres tres number emã emã See Language page Joyce McCormick
thunder truenos trovão environment bɛrɛ- bɛrɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
bite morder morder body hadai-, kahɛ- hadai-, kahɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
blow soplar soprar body ehu-, habja- ehu-, habja- See Language page Joyce McCormick
breathe respirar respirar body enãjã-, enãʔenã enãjã-, enãʔenã See Language page Joyce McCormick
burn quemar queimar environment txitxi-, ke-, tsɛhũ-, hunũ-, hɛdɛ- txitxi-, ke-, tsɛhũ-, hunũ-, hɛdɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ja- ja- See Language page Joyce McCormick
climb subir subir motion ori- ori- See Language page Joyce McCormick
come venir vir motion onỹ-, wanỹ-, oriñe- (the latter also means rise ) onỹ-, wanỹ-, oriñe- (the latter also means rise ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
cook cocinar cozinhar impact wãdy-, wã-, arunã-, kunãtɛ-, wanỹ- wãdy-, wã-, arunã-, kunãtɛ-, wanỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
count contar contar mental hãte-, ɛhɛta hãte-, ɛhɛta See Language page Joyce McCormick
cry llorar chorar mental yro-, emã- yro-, emã- See Language page Joyce McCormick
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ba-, by-, hadai-, hydy- ba-, by-, hadai-, hydy- See Language page Joyce McCormick
die/be dead morir morrer state hedutu-, isi-, towari- hedutu-, isi-, towari- See Language page Joyce McCormick
dig cavar cavar impact je-, -je- je-, -je- See Language page Joyce McCormick
dream soñar sonhar mental wãwãwỹ- wãwãwỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
drink beber, tomar beber body kui-, pã-, tsoihỹ- kui-, pã-, tsoihỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
eat comer comer body iluja-, ja-, pyu- iluja-, ja-, pyu- See Language page Joyce McCormick
fall caer cair motion bu-, hyja-, pu-, tou-, tsewe-, tuce-, tui- bu-, hyja-, pu-, tou-, tsewe-, tuce-, tui- See Language page Joyce McCormick
fear miedo medo mental we- we- See Language page Joyce McCormick
flow fluir fluir motion hy- hy- See Language page Joyce McCormick
fly volar voar motion hyhyrwa-, tsiniri- (tsiniri- is to fly up ) hyhyrwa-, tsiniri- (tsiniri- is to fly up ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
grow crecer crescer state ereri- ereri- See Language page Joyce McCormick
hear oír ouvir mental jãsi- jãsi- See Language page Joyce McCormick
hide esconder esconder motion jɛhɛ- jɛhɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
hit golpear, pegar bater impact haunỹ- (also means stumble ) haunỹ- (also means stumble ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Joyce McCormick
kill matar matar impact hedysi-, otsi- hedysi-, otsi- See Language page Joyce McCormick
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental areta, ũcehỹ-, ũcenãi areta, ũcehỹ-, ũcenãi See Language page Joyce McCormick
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Joyce McCormick
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ũi- ũi- See Language page Joyce McCormick
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body bukwa-, a- bukwa-, a- See Language page Joyce McCormick
open/uncover abrir abrir other dei-, tsirje- dei-, tsirje- See Language page Joyce McCormick
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact duduñũ-, tãtãi, ahỹ-, babay-, mɛ̃- (first two are pound , last three are beat ) duduñũ-, tãtãi, ahỹ-, babay-, mɛ̃- (first two are pound , last three are beat ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
say decir dizer mental ute-, ta-, jã- ute-, ta-, jã- See Language page Joyce McCormick
scratch rascar rasgar impact erewe-, kakanĩ-, kay-, wiri- erewe-, kakanĩ-, kay-, wiri- See Language page Joyce McCormick
see ver ver mental ãwỹi-, ãwỹirjỹ- ãwỹi-, ãwỹirjỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact cari-, bucehỹ- cari-, bucehỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
sit sentar(se) sentar state bu?ũdwa-, bu?umurjỹ-, bu-, hũdwa-, txu?ũrjỹ-, ũ-, ũrjỹ- bu?ũdwa-, bu?umurjỹ-, bu-, hũdwa-, txu?ũrjỹ-, ũ-, ũrjỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
sleep dormir dormir body u?u-, umũi-, wãwỹi u?u-, umũi-, wãwỹi See Language page Joyce McCormick
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hẽu-, nũ?ỹhỹ, ĩ- hẽu-, nũ?ỹhỹ, ĩ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
spit escupir cuspir body tsewe-, cuheja-, kohonũ tsewe-, cuheja-, kohonũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact by- by- See Language page Joyce McCormick
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact korɛ- korɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact ɛte-, hadai-, hado-, hadori-, twe- ɛte-, hadai-, hado-, hadori-, twe- See Language page Joyce McCormick
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tsi-, tsice-, tsitɛkja-, ũ- tsi-, tsice-, tsitɛkja-, ũ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
steal robar roubar other hyri- hyri- See Language page Joyce McCormick
suck chupar chupar body kunũ-, ñũñũ- ('suckle) kunũ-, ñũñũ- ('suckle) See Language page Joyce McCormick
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Joyce McCormick
swim nadar nadar motion tsũ- tsũ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
think pensar pensar mental tutunitahỹ- tutunitahỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact aty-, bwɛ-, by-, oce-, tsewe- aty-, bwɛ-, by-, oce-, tsewe- See Language page Joyce McCormick
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact katɛ-, si-, tsinỹ- katɛ-, si-, tsinỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other are-, deba-, mũrjerwa-, piriri-, xare- are-, deba-, mũrjerwa-, piriri-, xare- See Language page Joyce McCormick
vomit vomitar vomitar body iritsa iritsa See Language page Joyce McCormick
walk caminar, andar andar motion hy-, hyhyrwa-, kerai-, tɛtɛ-, towɛdwa hy-, hyhyrwa-, kerai-, tɛtɛ-, towɛdwa See Language page Joyce McCormick
work trabajar trabalhar other warañỹ- warañỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
yawn bostezar bocejar body hahay- hahay- See Language page Joyce McCormick
tongue lengua lingua body -tuku -tuku See Language page Joyce McCormick
tooth diente dente body -mãi -mãi See Language page Joyce McCormick
two dos dois number akyta, aky- akyta, aky- See Language page Joyce McCormick
water agua agua environment hã, -mã- hã, -mã- See Language page Joyce McCormick
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar txana txana See Language page Joyce McCormick
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar tsitsɛ tsitsɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
wet mojado molhado quality emũ- emũ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
what? que, qué que grammar tsũhũ tsũhũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Joyce McCormick
white blanco branco colour ha?ỹ-, hakuty- ha?ỹ-, hakuty- See Language page Joyce McCormick
who? quien, quién quem grammar dilɛ dilɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
wife esposa esposa kinship etay etay See Language page Joyce McCormick
wind viento vento environment kurje- kurje- See Language page Joyce McCormick
wing ala asa body cake, -kasi cake, -kasi See Language page Joyce McCormick
woman/female mujer mulher human etay, -tay etay, -tay See Language page Joyce McCormick
yellow amarillo amarelo colour haxy?ỹ-, wɛu?ỹ- haxy?ỹ-, wɛu?ỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
2pl ustedes vocês grammar xyitsɛ xyitsɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
foot pie body dykudji, dytoha, -toha, coha, -djo dykudji, dytoha, -toha, coha, -djo See Language page Joyce McCormick
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar bonyhỹ, -je?e, -e bonyhỹ, -je?e, -e See Language page Joyce McCormick
all todo todos other du-, txirja du-, txirja See Language page Joyce McCormick
ankle tobillo tornozelo body ecorewe ecorewe See Language page Joyce McCormick
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tsoronãtai, -natai tsoronãtai, -natai See Language page Joyce McCormick
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Joyce McCormick
lung pulmón pulmão body erixykãjã, exykãjã, -xykãjã (all refer to the plural lungs ) erixykãjã, exykãjã, -xykãjã (all refer to the plural lungs ) See Language page Joyce McCormick
sweat sudar suor, suar body konãjãdy- konãjãdy- See Language page Joyce McCormick
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ihilu-, kakanĩ-, koxona-, pɛtxa ihilu-, kakanĩ-, koxona-, pɛtxa See Language page Joyce McCormick
bark corteza casca environment wo-, -siki, -ka wo-, -siki, -ka See Language page Joyce McCormick
fingernail uña unha body tswãsĩ, -swãsĩ tswãsĩ, -swãsĩ See Language page Joyce McCormick
heart corazón coração body erito erito See Language page Joyce McCormick
sun sol sol time kosa kosa See Language page Joyce McCormick
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment tsuritsatu tsuritsatu See Language page Joyce McCormick
green verde verde quality mɛ̃rũi?ỹ- mɛ̃rũi?ỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
hot caliente quente quality kike-, konãjã- kike-, konãjã- See Language page Joyce McCormick


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (134)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus mãru mãru See Language page Joyce McCormick
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hoi hoi See Language page Joyce McCormick
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna outo, outorɛ outo, outorɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. olu olu See Language page Amazonia Joyce McCormick
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. bilitsyhỹ, mãrãkãkã, xowywy bilitsyhỹ, mãrãkãkã, xowywy See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans ðãw'rɛ ðãw'rɛ See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Joyce McCormick
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kutyxu, hakoro kutyxu, hakoro See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Joyce McCormick
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae sĩ, utetay, utetay txuhũi, kitsuty, harẽ, jũtsĩ, sirisiri?ekai (these are all names for various species of tinamou) sĩ, utetay, utetay txuhũi, kitsuty, harẽ, jũtsĩ, sirisiri?ekai (these are all names for various species of tinamou) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae mãnĩnĩ djẽtsyhẽ mãnĩnĩ djẽtsyhẽ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. awy awy See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica awy awy See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae makuitxato, terai, hatsuru, huhu (these are names for various species of dove) makuitxato, terai, hatsuru, huhu (these are names for various species of dove) See Language page Joyce McCormick
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ũcady ũcady See Language page Joyce McCormick
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae uruhu uruhu See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family damũ damũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae mouru, txikere mouru, txikere See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris jerexwa jerexwa See Language page Not native; widespread Joyce McCormick
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) asitsu asitsu See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Joyce McCormick
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri harurai harurai See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Joyce McCormick
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. tauta tauta See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Joyce McCormick
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kyryjaje kyryjaje See Language page Joyce McCormick
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna manini, ũmãtɛ- manini, ũmãtɛ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae eri eri See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. tsyitsu tsyitsu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura koko, kotorɛ, kurukuru, ukato (these are names for various species of toad) koko, kotorɛ, kurukuru, ukato (these are names for various species of toad) See Language page Joyce McCormick
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Joyce McCormick
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata tai (generic lizard) tai (generic lizard) See Language page Joyce McCormick
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. tsã-kã'rũ tsã-kã'rũ See Language page Joyce McCormick
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura dede dede See Language page Joyce McCormick
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes deda deda See Language page Widespread Amazonia Joyce McCormick
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae takwa narẽtxa takwa narẽtxa See Language page Joyce McCormick
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna -djay -djay See Language page Joyce McCormick
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Joyce McCormick
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Joyce McCormick
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Joyce McCormick
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) hahe, haheturai, iriti, kidjoro (these are names for various species of mushroom) hahe, haheturai, iriti, kidjoro (these are names for various species of mushroom) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Joyce McCormick
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Joyce McCormick
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Joyce McCormick
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Joyce McCormick
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Joyce McCormick
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Joyce McCormick
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Joyce McCormick
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Joyce McCormick
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Joyce McCormick
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) tsotsinĩñɛ̃ tsotsinĩñɛ̃ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Joyce McCormick
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Joyce McCormick
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens hade hade See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Joyce McCormick
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea cẽrĩ cẽrĩ See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus babaykalo, bakaci babaykalo, bakaci See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Joyce McCormick
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. apara apara See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Joyce McCormick
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. hari?ixu hoho?ỹhỹ, kumada (the former is black beans, the latter is fava beans) hari?ixu hoho?ỹhỹ, kumada (the former is black beans, the latter is fava beans) See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) tuituiñɛ̃ tuituiñɛ̃ See Language page Joyce McCormick
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays atxitxi atxitxi See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Joyce McCormick
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum uinũ, ui uinũ, ui See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ywynwỹ, -nwỹ, -ñwỹ- ywynwỹ, -nwỹ, -ñwỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Joyce McCormick
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. cukwe cukwe See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Joyce McCormick
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Joyce McCormick
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Joyce McCormick
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Joyce McCormick
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum urumãinwỹtõi urumãinwỹtõi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Joyce McCormick
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana owy owy See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Joyce McCormick
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Joyce McCormick
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Joyce McCormick
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Joyce McCormick
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Joyce McCormick
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta jo (generic manioc) jo (generic manioc) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Joyce McCormick
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Joyce McCormick
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum nũnã, xurimjɛ̃ nũnã, xurimjɛ̃ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Joyce McCormick
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas nũnã, xurimjɛ̃ nũnã, xurimjɛ̃ See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Joyce McCormick
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) haytoronitɛ (entry for "bottle gourd") haytoronitɛ (entry for "bottle gourd") See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Joyce McCormick
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Joyce McCormick
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Joyce McCormick
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Joyce McCormick
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Joyce McCormick
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Joyce McCormick
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Joyce McCormick
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Joyce McCormick
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Joyce McCormick
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis duri, -nãko, xɛdyxu, enãko, etajanãko, wã, jẽjẽkydy (these are the names of various species of bee) duri, -nãko, xɛdyxu, enãko, etajanãko, wã, jẽjẽkydy (these are the names of various species of bee) See Language page Joyce McCormick
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kawapɛ kawapɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae kumĩcɛ kumĩcɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera tsetseritse tsetseritse See Language page Joyce McCormick
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pura pura See Language page Joyce McCormick
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Joyce McCormick
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda daraikaru, nãtsĩrĩ daraikaru, nãtsĩrĩ See Language page Joyce McCormick
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones dytyi esiñũ?e dytyi esiñũ?e See Language page Joyce McCormick
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea kuku kuku See Language page Joyce McCormick
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera harusa, syicosa harusa, syicosa See Language page Joyce McCormick
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pororõtɛ pororõtɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kamũkamũ, txitxilu kamũkamũ, txitxilu See Language page Joyce McCormick
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Joyce McCormick
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. hakoro, kemãi hakoro, kemãi See Language page Joyce McCormick
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kaihutu kaihutu See Language page Joyce McCormick
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kei, -se kei, -se See Language page Joyce McCormick
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita baynũ, mɛ̃rũmɛ̃rũ, tu, tyrihi (these are names for various species of wasp) baynũ, mɛ̃rũmɛ̃rũ, tu, tyrihi (these are names for various species of wasp) See Language page Joyce McCormick
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda hɛlotxi, kile hɛlotxi, kile See Language page Joyce McCormick
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae dytyi, dytyito dytyi, dytyito See Language page Joyce McCormick
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca ĩtsɛ̃ ĩtsɛ̃ See Language page Joyce McCormick
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Joyce McCormick
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Joyce McCormick
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Joyce McCormick
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Joyce McCormick
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Joyce McCormick
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Joyce McCormick
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae husi husi See Language page Joyce McCormick
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis mãtete txihỹte (generic otter) mãtete txihỹte (generic otter) See Language page Joyce McCormick
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis mãtete txihỹte (generic otter) mãtete txihỹte (generic otter) See Language page Joyce McCormick
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Joyce McCormick
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari hajere (generic peccary) hajere (generic peccary) See Language page Joyce McCormick
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae axu axu See Language page Joyce McCormick
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Joyce McCormick
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. katay katay See Language page Joyce McCormick
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris jara jara See Language page Joyce McCormick
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Joyce McCormick
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) huri huri See Language page Joyce McCormick
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus waruka waruka See Language page Joyce McCormick
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae hotemã, tsĩkẽ hotemã, tsĩkẽ See Language page Joyce McCormick
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris ãrũi ãrũi See Language page Joyce McCormick
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus aʔũ aʔũ See Language page Joyce McCormick


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ururirɛ, -nĩ- (generic basket) ururirɛ, -nĩ- (generic basket) See Language page Joyce McCormick
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kanɛto kanɛto See Language page Joyce McCormick
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material itso itso See Language page Joyce McCormick
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material warikanɛ, waritseniʔɛ warikanɛ, waritseniʔɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
canoe canoa canoa transport kanwã kanwã See Language page Joyce McCormick
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Joyce McCormick
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology hirini hirini In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Joyce McCormick
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Joyce McCormick
broom escoba vassoura culture-material hesyse hesyse See Language page Joyce McCormick
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Joyce McCormick
firewood leña lenha other hi, hitsu, dodoja- (dodoja- specifically means "cut firewood") hi, hitsu, dodoja- (dodoja- specifically means "cut firewood") See Language page Joyce McCormick
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Joyce McCormick
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology arikwãjũ arikwãjũ In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology dyry, hãxyi, kẽwẽxu, -lotxwɛ, hãxyilotxwɛ (the latter, hãxyilotxwɛ, is a specific kind of flute with four holes) dyry, hãxyi, kẽwẽxu, -lotxwɛ, hãxyilotxwɛ (the latter, hãxyilotxwɛ, is a specific kind of flute with four holes) multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Joyce McCormick
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Joyce McCormick
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
knife cuchillo faca culture-material koreja, korejatxuhũi, wesi, winite koreja, korejatxuhũi, wesi, winite See Language page Joyce McCormick
machete machete facão culture-material koreja, korejakanɛ koreja, korejakanɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ale ale especially for clearing fields See Language page Joyce McCormick
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool mãbi mãbi hunting, warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
bow arco arco subsistence tool bilo bilo arco See Language page Joyce McCormick
paddle/oar remo remo transport kanwãri, eri kanwãri, eri See Language page Joyce McCormick
plate plato prato culture-material korejari korejari See Language page Joyce McCormick
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool iritxinite, towarilo iritxinite, towarilo See Language page Joyce McCormick
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material tsilotoro tsilotoro See Language page Joyce McCormick
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Joyce McCormick
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ahỹ- ahỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool nũtenv nũtenv See Language page Joyce McCormick
wax cera cera other nũtynũ, nũtyrɛ nũtynũ, nũtyrɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
honey miel mel food nũty nũty only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Joyce McCormick
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture i'tsosisi i'tsosisi See Language page Joyce McCormick
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material hakikanɛxy hakikanɛxy See Language page Joyce McCormick
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Joyce McCormick
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology sisiketɛ sisiketɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology ecerjỹ-, erewe (generic paint) ecerjỹ-, erewe (generic paint) See Language page Joyce McCormick
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
school escuela escola acculturation erewexynitɛxy erewexynitɛxy See Language page Joyce McCormick
bottle botella garrafa acculturation amũtay, -tay amũtay, -tay See Language page Joyce McCormick
paper papel papel acculturation exy, papɛu (the latter is from the Portuguese "papel" exy, papɛu (the latter is from the Portuguese "papel" See Language page Joyce McCormick
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology wãwãwỹ- wãwãwỹ- See Language page Joyce McCormick
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kurakura kurakura See Language page Joyce McCormick
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other uitɛ uitɛ See Language page Joyce McCormick
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation atsuka, atsukanũ, atsukakalo atsuka, atsukanũ, atsukakalo See Language page Joyce McCormick
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Joyce McCormick
shoes zapatos sapatos dress cohasiki cohasiki See Language page Joyce McCormick
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
cat gato gato acculturation jãu jãu See Language page Joyce McCormick
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Joyce McCormick
hat sombero chapéu dress tsutysiki, ururisike tsutysiki, ururisike See Language page Joyce McCormick
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tãjã tãjã See Language page Joyce McCormick
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool nwãrã nwãrã See Language page Joyce McCormick
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Joyce McCormick
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Joyce McCormick
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
salt sal sal food tsɛ̃ tsɛ̃ See Language page Joyce McCormick
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Joyce McCormick
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Joyce McCormick
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Joyce McCormick
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool axyisike, babay-, babaynitɛ axyisike, babay-, babaynitɛ esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Joyce McCormick
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Joyce McCormick
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Joyce McCormick
hunt cazar caçar food okja- okja- See Language page Joyce McCormick
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Joyce McCormick
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool haytoronitɛ (entry for "bottle gourd") haytoronitɛ (entry for "bottle gourd") See Language page Joyce McCormick
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Joyce McCormick
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool hɛ, mũsi hɛ, mũsi See Language page Joyce McCormick
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool mũsixu mũsixu See Language page Joyce McCormick
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture jomũ jomũ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Joyce McCormick
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food jononĩ jononĩ agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food atxitxiri (generic bread) atxitxiri (generic bread) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Joyce McCormick
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Joyce McCormick
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Joyce McCormick
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Joyce McCormick
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Joyce McCormick
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool manary manary agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Joyce McCormick
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Joyce McCormick
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Joyce McCormick
digging stick subsistence tool nwãrãxu nwãrãxu See Language page Joyce McCormick
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Joyce McCormick
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Joyce McCormick
house other -xy -xy See Language page Joyce McCormick