Pumé

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yae
Location
7.11°, -67.60°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Dyck, Merrill & Teresa Ann Dyck. 2007. Yaruro. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. Mosonyi, E.E. and Jorge C. Mosonyi. 2000. Manual de lenguas indígenas de Venezuela, I-II. Caracas: Fundación Bigott. Yu, Pei-Lin. 1997. Hungry Lightning: Notes of a Woman Anthropologist. [Glossary of Pume words in appendix]. Univ. of New Mexico Press.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
and y e grammar ado See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kjõdȩ pjurú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
back espalda costas body pʰutu kara See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bad mal mal quality čʰa-ĩ-dɛ ('not good'?) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
belly barriga barriga body akö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ɛte-tãrã-ri (tãrã-ri is a more general spatial term) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
big grande grande quality bũĩdȩ ãnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
black negro preto colour burɛ-burɛ-a; kãrã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
blood sangre sangue body gué See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body čumã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bone hueso osso body See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body čuču See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
child niño, niña criança human buíchjĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment gõãrã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cold frío frio quality chjüchjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tʰamõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
day día dia time See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality ingȩrȩchiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dry seco seco quality gaǫ, ga, gaǫchjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality baibaiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dust polvo poeira environment dabú chjö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
ear oreja orelha body tãrãpuȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment dabú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
eye ojo olho body dachó See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
far lejos longe quality jachí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ñõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship amãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
feather pluma pena fauna puaché See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fire fuego fogo environment kjõdȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
flower flor flor environment chjuchjú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment jurukjó See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora čo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
good bueno bom quality chjadȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kɨ̃ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hand mano mão body ichí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ɔdɛ; inɛ̃ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
head cabeza cabeça body tʰɔbɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality chachá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
how? como como grammar yʊta da-rĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
1sg yo eu grammar kɔdɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
if si se grammar -rʊ hudi See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location tʰo-ro See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body akʊ-to (akʊ 'stomach') See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
lake lago lago environment tjá ãnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
leaf hoja folha environment to pjüdá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body oé tãrãrí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body dyaí jú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɛrɛpamẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
liver hígado figado body See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality ngõãtĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna nẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
man/male hombre homem human ǫãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ngõã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
moon luna lua environment gupẽnẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship aĩ ~ eĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
mouth boca boca body dyá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
name nombre nome human kẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality kɛrĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body gɔrɔ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
neck cuello pescoço body gɔrɔ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
new nuevo novo quality pȩachjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
night noche noite time ngẽnẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
no/not no não grammar kʰʊrĩ ma See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
nose nariz nariz body ĩbupuȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
old viejo velho quality ǫtȩmãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
one uno um number kjãrẽmẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
other otro outro grammar kjãrẽmõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body gito hãbo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human pũmẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment kʰɔmẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
red rojo vermelho colour kǫȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body mũĩchjiá tãrãrí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
root raíz raiz flora to tãkü See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
rotten podrido podre quality tupuchjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sand arena areia environment ngãvẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality gaipa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
short corto curto quality tükümĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body kãto See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental i-dɛ-rĩ kʰia ('shame' [n.]) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
skin piel pele body í See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sky cielo céu environment ãdȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality tǫkõi See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment chjö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
star estrella estrela environment bǫȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
stone piedra pedra environment tãdɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body chjiá jú, chjiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ǫdȩrõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality bũĩdȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
thin delgado fino quality buíchjĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
2sg xx xx grammar mẽnẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
throat garganta garganta body gɔrɔ yaɔ (neck-?) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
three tres tres number tjararĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment tĩba baʊ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bite morder morder body juipá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
blow soplar soprar body pjurapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
breathe respirar respirar body jẽvapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
burn quemar queimar environment küapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body hura See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
climb subir subir motion bua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
come venir vir motion mãnã jãnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact čumã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
count contar contar mental atarapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cry llorar chorar mental eharo kʰia See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kǫapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state jãbó See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dig cavar cavar impact dabú ãnõpá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental kʰanẽ-hʊ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body jará See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
eat comer comer body jurá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fall caer cair motion kjatö chĩnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fear miedo medo mental uapá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
flow fluir fluir motion kãmẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fly volar voar motion uȩ rö pjõã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
grow crecer crescer state ɔtɛ-pa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hear oír ouvir mental tãrȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hide esconder esconder motion goadi See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact bede kʰae-iʊ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other gõa; ida See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
kill matar matar impact ngũnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental dabá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
laugh reír rir mental aȩrĩkjiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ãrẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body kjõrõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other are-goɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact kʰae gua (with fist); bede kʰae-iʊ (strike) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
say decir dizer mental See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact tüká kǫarí kǫarí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
see ver ver mental da See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact a See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state chá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sleep dormir dormir body mõã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body pjĩdö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
spit escupir cuspir body dyá uí pjuyú See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tuti-čia See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact piru See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact idɛ-gua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kʰia See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
steal robar roubar other garɔ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
suck chupar chupar body chĩã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
swell hincharse inchar body bũĩdȩpá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
swim nadar nadar motion uí rö tuá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
think pensar pensar mental jõrẽtá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact a-ɛnõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact dyurá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other karupá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body ungõdǫchö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion baö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other hãbepa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body yaɔ yabɛ kʰia See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tongue lengua lingua body tjǫpõnõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tooth diente dente body jõdȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
two dos dois number ñõãrĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
water agua agua environment See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ãrõrẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
wet mojado molhado quality učʰa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
what? que, qué que grammar tjãnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
when? cuando quando grammar nüparö See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
where? donde onde grammar tjãnã rö tjãnã röpẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
white blanco branco colour bȩrȩbȩrȩá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar chjiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship iãĩ ǫãĩchiá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
wind viento vento environment pjaȩpá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
wing ala asa body pjǖdá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human iãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour kǫȩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mẽnẽrõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
foot pie body See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ado See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
all todo todos other ǫtȩbo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body hu čatu See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body kʰanã puɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body a-gure-čʊ (defecate) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body pʰuru See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body u-gõdɔ (perspire) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body tʊka See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bark corteza casca environment tó í See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fingernail uña unha body iβɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
heart corazón coração body chjĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sun sol sol time See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment ñãmĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
green verde verde quality chjãchjá See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hot caliente quente quality See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. pʰʊ̃dičʰičʰi See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna pua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Paulina Franco, PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Paulina Franco, PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes hʊtʊrʊkʰʊ pua 'owl'; hututu 'barn owl' (Lin97) See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica yaba pua; geregeré (small yellowheaded; Lin97) See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae hotoko pua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae apɛpara pua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae mõkʰɛ pua See Language page Widespread South America Paulina Franco, PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family pua anã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba hokará ('cattle egret', Lin97); ãdʊra pua ('heron') See Language page Widespread South America Paulina Franco, PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris oré aoré See Language page Not native; widespread Paulina Franco, PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) tuchupi (arboreal); ariguri (giant) (Lin97) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Paulina Franco, PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri igurú (7-banded; Lin97) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. yãkãkã; ari See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Paulina Franco, PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus čoe ('freshwater eel') See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna chõ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae apéi (Lin97) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. dapué (Lin97) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. ipurimechá (tegu lizard; edible, large; Lin97) See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Paulina Franco, PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata topo-topo; chiruri (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. kʰũĩnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae po (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox po chiá 'pit viper'; chiagodé 'rattlesnake' (Lin97) See Language page Widespread South America Paulina Franco, PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria damɛ̃ 'turtle' See Language page Widespread Paulina Franco, PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis oɛbi See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Paulina Franco, PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) boɛ a See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Paulina Franco, PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba [tʰo to 'palm'] See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Paulina Franco, PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Paulina Franco, PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa hudi bobui go (Lin97) See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Paulina Franco, PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana udi 'thatch' See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Paulina Franco, PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Paulina Franco, PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Paulina Franco, PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Paulina Franco, PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) čo-ki See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Paulina Franco, PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Paulina Franco, PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Paulina Franco, PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Paulina Franco, PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. paratʊnã to (banana tree) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Paulina Franco, PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. karao See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) kʊrʊ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays pʰʊɛ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Paulina Franco, PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum gãbi See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna to See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Paulina Franco, PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Paulina Franco, PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Paulina Franco, PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Paulina Franco, PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Paulina Franco, PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Paulina Franco, PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Paulina Franco, PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Paulina Franco, PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Paulina Franco, PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Paulina Franco, PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Paulina Franco, PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bai 'manioc, sweet/bitter' (Lin97); tãbɛ (tapioca, manioc; IDS) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Paulina Franco, PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bai 'manioc, sweet/bitter' (Lin97); tãbɛ (tapioca, manioc; IDS) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Paulina Franco, PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Paulina Franco, PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas õari See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. pará See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Paulina Franco, PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tʰaɛ See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Paulina Franco, PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. ede See Language page plant Paulina Franco, PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. to kãĩ 'vine' See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Paulina Franco, PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Paulina Franco, PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi tuípa (Banisteriopsis) See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Paulina Franco, PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola nanú (Anadenanthera) (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae koai See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria arɛhɛrɔ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae apɛčẽčẽrẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pʰõpʰã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ãrĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones čʰia-ara See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera aʊre nẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera pɨ̃rɨ̃ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. kuyú (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. tarɛ; čʰĩa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita hõmĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kʰaeko; čʰɛtɛ; õãrara 'snail shell' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca guantió (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha [huia 'monkey'] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] [huia 'monkey'] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella [huia 'monkey'] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons [huia 'monkey'] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus [huia 'monkey'] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae toyaβarɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari aboea 'pig' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris chidó (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus mũĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris hoyéi (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus bɨa See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yae See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material taio 'basket' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material tʊričʰi čo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bed cama cama culture-material mõã-reã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material burí See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material ča-reã 'chair' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport čara See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology hauɛ-čʰa hapa-mẽ 'sorcerer, witch'; lit. 'magic-maker' In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology čʰa-parẽ-mẽ Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material čʰãoa anã-reã to 'sweep-INSTR'? See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology tʰibo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other jachí dãĩ may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
firewood leña lenha other kʰõdo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology yarɨka See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology ɔtɛ 'God' (IDS); Kumanyi 'Creatress, principal deity' (Lin97) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material koanã-reã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool hibɛ especially for clearing fields See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool boĩčʰĩ hunting, warfare See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool yipʰatɛ; niyatéh 'metal lance, for hunting large animals' (Lin97) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool tʰiba-to arco See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport tãĩto See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
plate plato prato culture-material hɛdɛ-reã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool mãu See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material baribo See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology čʰĩ yakodɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
wax cera cera other ẽ ĩbu 'beeswax' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kãĩ, bʊre kʊ 'rope, cord' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material udi (thatch); čʰoã-reã (roof) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology pačo tabɔ-reã 'headdress' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology hoa-reã 'paint[vb]-INSTR/NOMZ' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology ãde 'heaven' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
school escuela escola acculturation gõẽ nĩbʊ-reã bɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
paper papel papel acculturation gõẽ i See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology kʰanẽ-hʊ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation okararo pua See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology pʰatɛ puɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation čĩã-reã kʊ (sugar cane + ?) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material tʰibo taɔ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress taɔ-hõɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation guadia [Span loan] See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
cat gato gato acculturation pãrẽmẽ boĩ (? little) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress pačo-čo-reã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology tʰamõ kʰɔ̃rɔ̃-mẽ; bɛ kʰɔ̃rɔ-mẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool to koto See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress go-aburé 'women's loincloth' (Lin97) (go=weaving material from soft inner membrane of moriche palm leaf) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other tʰãre-reã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool mũĩ-reã kãĩ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
salt sal sal food ya-goe-mẽ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool pʰãĩ-to esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
hunt cazar caçar food ngũnã See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool yokodɛ, tʰaɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool to puɛ See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool to koto See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture bai eró (Lin97) prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food pʰonõ 'meal, flour' agriculture See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food tambai 'manioc flatbread' (Lin97); čãpe 'bread, cake, etc.' usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food tãbɛ 'tapioca, manioc, cassava' See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food bai ui (manicuera; lit. 'manioc water') agriculture See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool ɛ 'poison' hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool kãrẽ [vb.] agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ãrĩ can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE
house other See Language page Paulina Franco, PLE