Waimaja

Family
Tukanoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
bao
Location
0.30°, -70.16°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Huber, R.; Reed, R. 1992. Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. Instituto Linguistico de Verano. Mountain, Kathy. 1978. Lista de Palabras Swadesh y Rowe. Linguística y Campos Afines. Anderson, Martha y Bonnie Brobston, eds.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Kelsey Neely
and y e grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment nũã́ nũã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
at en, a em, a location See Language page Kelsey Neely
back espalda costas body hṍkʰɨ̃́ hṍkʰɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
bad mal mal quality jã́'jã́-ri-he, jã́'jã́(-ro) jã́'jã́-ri-he, jã́'jã́(-ro) See Language page Kelsey Neely
belly barriga barriga body páàgá páàgá See Language page Kelsey Neely
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Kelsey Neely
big grande grande quality ᵽáí ɸáí See Language page Kelsey Neely
black negro preto colour ñíňĩ́ ɲírĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
blood sangre sangue body di di See Language page Kelsey Neely
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ñĩ́kʰã́ õ̀ã̀ňõ̀ ɲĩ́kʰã́ õ̀ã̀rõ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
bone hueso osso body õã́ňõ̀ õã́rõ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
breast pecho, seno peito body oᵽɛ̨́ŋʌ̃̀ oɸɛ̨́ŋʌ̃̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
child niño, niña criança human da'ké-g(ɨ/o) (masc./fem.) da'ké-g(ɨ/o) (masc./fem.) See Language page Kelsey Neely
cloud nube nuvem environment bu'eri, ó'kó bɨ'rɨri níi buʔeri, óʔkó bɨʔrɨri níi See Language page Kelsey Neely
cold frío frio quality džɨ́hɨ́á dʒɨ́hɨ́á See Language page Kelsey Neely
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality ã́'jṹ, ã́'jṹ-ro ã́ʔjṹ, ã́ʔjṹ-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely
day día dia time ɨ̃́mɨ̃́ňẽ̀kʰò~nɨ̃̀̀mɨ̃̀̀ ɨ̃́mɨ̃́rẽ̀kʰò~nɨ̃̀̀mɨ̃̀̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
dirty sucio sujo quality õ'wẽ́dĩ́ õʔwẽ́dĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Kelsey Neely
dry seco seco quality bóᵽó bóɸó See Language page Kelsey Neely
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality he'jó-ti, dṹmṹ'kóá he'jó-ti, dṹmṹ'kóá See Language page Kelsey Neely
dust polvo poeira environment po'ká, hi'tá poká po'ká, hi'tá poká See Language page Kelsey Neely
ear oreja orelha body ã́mṍᵽeřò ã́mṍɸerò See Language page Kelsey Neely
earth/soil tierra terra environment hitʰá hitʰá See Language page Kelsey Neely
egg huevo ovo fauna díyɛ́ díjɛ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
eye ojo olho body kʰaᵽégʌ̀ kʰaɸégʌ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
far lejos longe quality õõ-pɨ, jo'á-ro-pɨ õõ-pɨ, jo'á-ro-pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
fat/grease grasa gordura body ɨhɛ́ ɨhɛ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
father padre, papá pai kinship kʰáàkʰɨ kʰáàkʰɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather pluma pena fauna ᵽóá ɸóá See Language page Kelsey Neely
fire fuego fogo environment ᵽɛkʰámẽ̀ ɸɛkʰámẽ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
flower flor flor environment ó ó See Language page Kelsey Neely
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment bã'kã bu'é-ri bã'kã bu'é-ri See Language page Kelsey Neely
fruit fruta fruta flora dikʰá dikʰá See Language page Kelsey Neely
good bueno bom quality ãñũ ãɲũ See Language page Kelsey Neely
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ᵽóà ɸóà See Language page Kelsey Neely
hand mano mão body ã́mṍ ã́mṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kɨ̃́ɨ̃́ (masc.), 'kṍṍ (fem.), 'tóó (neuter) kɨ̃́ɨ̃́ (masc.), 'kṍṍ (fem.), 'tóó (neuter) See Language page Kelsey Neely
head cabeza cabeça body dɨᵽɨ́gʌ̀ dɨɸɨ́gʌ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
heavy pesado pesado quality dɨ̃'kɨ̃-hãjũ dɨ̃'kɨ̃-hãjũ See Language page Kelsey Neely
how? como como grammar dõõ ('bíiro), 'jẽ́ẽ́ dõõ ('bíiro), 'jẽ́ẽ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
1sg yo eu grammar dyɨ́ djɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
if si se grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Kelsey Neely
intestines intestinos intestinos body ɨ́tʰá mĩhĩ̀dà ɨ́tʰá mĩhĩ̀dà See Language page Kelsey Neely
lake lago lago environment ɨtʰá bɨkʰɨľà ɨtʰá bɨkʰɨrà See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf hoja folha environment ᵽṹňõ ɸṹrõ See Language page Kelsey Neely
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body a'kó dɨ̃jã-(pe) a'kó dɨ̃jã-(pe) See Language page Kelsey Neely
leg/foot pierna perna body ñĩ́kʰã́ ɲĩ́kʰã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment bɨpó yabɛ́mì bɨpó jabɛ́mì See Language page Kelsey Neely
liver hígado figado body ñɛ̃mɛ̃́ňĩ̀tʰì ɲɛ̃mɛ̃́rĩ̀tʰì See Language page Kelsey Neely
long largo comprido, longo quality džóa dʒóa See Language page Kelsey Neely
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna íamɨ̃̀ íamɨ̃̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
man/male hombre homem human ɨ̃́mɨ̃́ ɨ̃́mɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ɨ́ᵽɨ́dì ɨ́ɸɨ́dì See Language page Kelsey Neely
moon luna lua environment ñã́mĩ́ mãkʰɨ muipũ̀ ɲã́mĩ́ mãkʰɨ muipũ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship kʰáàkʰò kʰáàkʰò See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouth boca boca body ɨhɛ́řò ɨhɛ́rò See Language page Kelsey Neely
name nombre nome human wãmɛ̃́ wãmɛ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
near/close cerca de perto quality ã́dõ-ã́kã, pɨ'tó-pɨ ã́dõ-ã́kã, pɨ'tó-pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Kelsey Neely
neck cuello pescoço body ãmɨ̃́tʰutʰù ãmɨ̃́tʰutʰù See Language page Kelsey Neely
new nuevo novo quality wãmã́ wãmã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
night noche noite time ñã́mĩ́ ɲã́mĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
no/not no não grammar mɛ̃́ mɛ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
nose nariz nariz body ĩkʰĩ́ʌ̃̀ ĩkʰĩ́ʌ̃̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
old viejo velho quality bɨ'kɨ́-ro, ka bɨ́'kɨ́-ro bɨ'kɨ́-ro, ka bɨ́'kɨ́-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely
one uno um number hikʰá hikʰá See Language page Kelsey Neely
other otro outro grammar a'pĩ́, a'pé- a'pĩ́, a'pé- See Language page Kelsey Neely
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Kelsey Neely
person/human being persona pessoa human bóhó'ká (people) bóhó'ká (people) See Language page Kelsey Neely
rain lluvia chuva environment ókʰó peà ókʰó peà See Language page Kelsey Neely
red rojo vermelho colour hṹã́ hṹã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
right/right hand derecha direita location/body di'ábã́kɨ̃ di'ábã́kɨ̃ See Language page Kelsey Neely
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page Kelsey Neely
root raíz raiz flora nɨ̃́kʰṍnĩ́ nɨ̃́kʰṍnĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
rotten podrido podre quality bo'á(-), bo'á-ro bo'á(-), bo'á-ro See Language page Kelsey Neely
sand arena areia environment botířihɛ̀ hitʰá botírihɛ̀ hitʰá See Language page Kelsey Neely
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality he'jó-hãjũ he'jó-hãjũ See Language page Kelsey Neely
short corto curto quality jo'a-ti jo'a-ti See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoulder hombro ombro body akʰṍňõ̀ akʰṍrõ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Kelsey Neely
skin piel pele body kʰáhɛ́řó kʰáhɛ́ró See Language page Kelsey Neely
sky cielo céu environment ɨ̃mɨ̃́ kahɛ̀řò ɨ̃mɨ̃́ kahɛ̀rò See Language page Kelsey Neely
small pequeño pequeno quality pee'kíákã, bẽ'tã́kã pee'kíákã, bẽ'tã́kã See Language page Kelsey Neely
smoke humo fumaça environment pékʰá bueřì pékʰá buerì See Language page Kelsey Neely
star estrella estrela environment ñṍkʰṍ ɲṍkʰṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora jú'kɨ́-gɨ jú'kɨ́-gɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone piedra pedra environment ɨ̃tʰã́ŋã́ ɨ̃tʰã́ŋã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
tail cola, rabo rabo body kʰɨ̃ ᵽikʰṍňṍ kʰɨ̃ ɸikʰṍrṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
that ese/esa esse grammar tɛ́ tɛ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kɨ̃́hã kɨ̃́hã See Language page Kelsey Neely
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ɨ'hé-biti ɨ'hé-biti See Language page Kelsey Neely
thin delgado fino quality ɨ'hé bẽe dĩiri ɨ'hé bẽe dĩiri See Language page Kelsey Neely
this este/esta este grammar átʰɛ́ átʰɛ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
2sg xx xx grammar mɨ̃́ mɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Kelsey Neely
three tres tres number í'tía- í'tía- See Language page Kelsey Neely
thunder truenos trovão environment bɨ́ᵽó bɨ́ɸó See Language page Kelsey Neely
bite morder morder body bákʰá bákʰá See Language page Kelsey Neely
blow soplar soprar body báhɛ́ ~putʰí báhɛ́ ~putʰí See Language page Kelsey Neely
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
burn quemar queimar environment ho'é-, 'ɨ̃́ɨ̃́ ho'é-, 'ɨ̃́ɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
climb subir subir motion See Language page Kelsey Neely
come venir vir motion dóò dóò See Language page Kelsey Neely
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Kelsey Neely
count contar contar mental See Language page Kelsey Neely
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Kelsey Neely
cut/hack cortar cortar impact táa(-), wi'dé taa táa(-), wi'dé taa See Language page Kelsey Neely
die/be dead morir morrer state diádžáíkʰʷà diádʒáíkʰʷà See Language page Kelsey Neely
dig cavar cavar impact kʰʷá kʰʷá See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Kelsey Neely
drink beber, tomar beber body hĩ́nĩ́ hĩ́nĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
eat comer comer body See Language page Kelsey Neely
fall caer cair motion ñã́ã̀ ɲã́ã̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
fear miedo medo mental u'wí- u'wí- See Language page Kelsey Neely
flow fluir fluir motion pĩ'ṍ(-), ju'tí 'wáaro pĩ'ṍ(-), ju'tí 'wáaro See Language page Kelsey Neely
fly volar voar motion wɨ́ɨ̀ wɨ́ɨ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Kelsey Neely
hear oír ouvir mental tʰɨ́ó tʰɨ́ó See Language page Kelsey Neely
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Kelsey Neely
hit golpear, pegar bater impact kʰɛ̃́ɛ̃̀ ~ páà kʰɛ̃́ɛ̃̀ ~ páà See Language page Kelsey Neely
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other kɨ́'ó- kɨ́'ó- See Language page Kelsey Neely
kill matar matar impact hĩ́ã́ hĩ́ã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental mãhĩ́ mãhĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Kelsey Neely
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion džohá dʒohá See Language page Kelsey Neely
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Kelsey Neely
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Kelsey Neely
say decir dizer mental ĩ'ĩ́- ĩ'ĩ́- See Language page Kelsey Neely
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Kelsey Neely
see ver ver mental ĩ́ã́ ĩ́ã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Kelsey Neely
sit sentar(se) sentar state duʷí duʷí See Language page Kelsey Neely
sleep dormir dormir body kʰã́nĩ́ kʰã́nĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wĩnĩ́ñã wĩnĩ́ɲã See Language page Kelsey Neely
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Kelsey Neely
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact páá tuu, bũtu'ó páá tuu, bũtu'ó See Language page Kelsey Neely
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact wãñĩã́ wãɲĩã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact túu pua(-), ha'dé(-) túu pua(-), ha'dé(-) See Language page Kelsey Neely
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state duukú duukú See Language page Kelsey Neely
steal robar roubar other See Language page Kelsey Neely
suck chupar chupar body ṹᵽṹ ṹɸṹ See Language page Kelsey Neely
swell hincharse inchar body mĩᵽĩ́ mĩɸĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
swim nadar nadar motion báàwá báàwá See Language page Kelsey Neely
think pensar pensar mental tʰɨgoéñá tʰɨgoéɲá See Language page Kelsey Neely
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact déé-koho, kõ'á déé-koho, kõ'á See Language page Kelsey Neely
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact híá híá See Language page Kelsey Neely
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Kelsey Neely
vomit vomitar vomitar body uhéotí uhéotí See Language page Kelsey Neely
walk caminar, andar andar motion wáà wáà See Language page Kelsey Neely
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Kelsey Neely
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
tongue lengua lingua body yɛ́mɛ̃́ňõ̀ jɛ́mɛ̃́rõ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
tooth diente dente body uᵽígà uɸígà See Language page Kelsey Neely
two dos dois number pɨ́á pɨ́á See Language page Kelsey Neely
water agua agua environment ókʰó ókʰó See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ~mání ~mání See Language page Kelsey Neely
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar hã́ hã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
wet mojado molhado quality bĩ'bĩ́(-) bĩ'bĩ́(-) See Language page Kelsey Neely
what? que, qué que grammar ñẽ́ ɲẽ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
when? cuando quando grammar dõ'kṍrṍ, 'díí watoa dõ'kṍrṍ, 'díí watoa See Language page Kelsey Neely
where? donde onde grammar dõõ, 'dṍṍ-pɨ dõõ, 'dṍṍ-pɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
white blanco branco colour botʰíři botʰíri See Language page Kelsey Neely
who? quien, quién quem grammar nṍã̀ nṍã̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
wife esposa esposa kinship nɨ̃́mṍ nɨ̃́mṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
wind viento vento environment wĩ́nṍ wĩ́nṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
wing ala asa body kʰédɨ̀ᵽɨ̀ kʰédɨ̀ɸɨ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
woman/female mujer mulher human nṍmĩ́õ̀ nṍmĩ́õ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
yellow amarillo amarelo colour huří hurí See Language page Kelsey Neely
2pl ustedes vocês grammar bɨ̃́hã bɨ̃́hã See Language page Kelsey Neely
foot pie body duᵽó duɸó See Language page Kelsey Neely
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Kelsey Neely
all todo todos other nĩᵽɛtʰiřo nĩɸɛtʰiro See Language page Kelsey Neely
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Kelsey Neely
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Kelsey Neely
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Kelsey Neely
lung pulmón pulmão body jéri pũdã jéri pũdã See Language page Kelsey Neely
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Kelsey Neely
bark corteza casca environment yúkʰɨ́ kʰahɛřò júkʰɨ́ kʰahɛrò See Language page Kelsey Neely
fingernail uña unha body ã́mṍ kʰahɛ̀řò ã́mṍ kʰahɛ̀rò See Language page Kelsey Neely
heart corazón coração body yéříkʰà jéríkʰà See Language page Kelsey Neely
sun sol sol time ɨ̃́mɨ̃́ňẽkʰò mãkʰɨ̆̃ muiᵽũ̀ ɨ̃́mɨ̃́rẽkʰò mãkʰɨ̆̃ muiɸũ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment búľó (cerro), ɨ̃́tʰã́bùľò (montaña) búró (cerro), ɨ̃́tʰã́bùrò (montaña) See Language page Kelsey Neely
green verde verde quality humɛ̃́ humɛ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
hot caliente quente quality áhi áhi See Language page Kelsey Neely


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Kelsey Neely
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. ohó ohó See Language page Kelsey Neely
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna mĩ́nĩ́ mĩ́nĩ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. wã́dõpĩ wã́dõpĩ See Language page Amazonia Kelsey Neely
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. dahɛ́ dahɛ́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Kelsey Neely
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. ka'tá ka'tá See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Kelsey Neely
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae ã́mbokʰo ã́mbokʰo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae mĩ́mĩ́ mĩ́mĩ́ See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes bɨᵽɨ́ ᵽokʰò bɨɸɨ́ ɸokʰò See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica wekʰó wekʰó See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Kelsey Neely
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Kelsey Neely
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae džukʰá dʒukʰá See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Kelsey Neely
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ekʰáľikʰɨ́ džáì ekʰárikʰɨ́ dʒáì See Language page Not native; widespread Kelsey Neely
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɨ́kʰó bɨ́kʰó See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Kelsey Neely
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri ᵽã́mṍ ɸã́mṍ See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Kelsey Neely
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ɨhó (Caiman) ɨhó (Caiman) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Kelsey Neely
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna wáí wáí See Language page Kelsey Neely
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae bɨ̃́ bɨ̃́ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura tʰɨ́bɨ́ľò tʰɨ́bɨ́rò See Language page Kelsey Neely
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. yúáhò júáhò See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Kelsey Neely
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Kelsey Neely
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Kelsey Neely
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes ᵽĩ́nṍ ɸĩ́nṍ See Language page Widespread Amazonia Kelsey Neely
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae pĩ́'dṍ pĩ́'dṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ãñã́ ãɲã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox é'rí, 'día 'ã́jã́ é'rí, 'día 'ã́jã́ See Language page Widespread South America Kelsey Neely
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Kelsey Neely
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Kelsey Neely
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Kelsey Neely
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Kelsey Neely
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Kelsey Neely
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa nɛ̃́ňõ̀̀ nɛ̃́rõ̀̀ See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Kelsey Neely
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Kelsey Neely
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Kelsey Neely
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ɨ̃'dẽ-jõ ɨ̃'dẽ-jõ See Language page Kelsey Neely
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Kelsey Neely
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca ᵽátʰɨ ɸátʰɨ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Kelsey Neely
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) yitʰá jitʰá See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Kelsey Neely
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra bu'há bu'há See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Kelsey Neely
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens bía bía See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Kelsey Neely
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ãnɨ̃́ ãnɨ̃́ See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Kelsey Neely
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. we'kɨ́ 'óó we'kɨ́ 'óó See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Kelsey Neely
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Kelsey Neely
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ódikʰà ódikʰà See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Kelsey Neely
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum mɨ̃́nṍ mɨ̃́nṍ See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yúkʰɨ́gɨ̀ júkʰɨ́gɨ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana bũ'hã́ bũ'hã́ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Kelsey Neely
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Kelsey Neely
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Kelsey Neely
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Kelsey Neely
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Kelsey Neely
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Kelsey Neely
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Kelsey Neely
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Kelsey Neely
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Kelsey Neely
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Kelsey Neely
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Kelsey Neely
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kʰĩ́ kʰĩ́ See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Kelsey Neely
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Kelsey Neely
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Kelsey Neely
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jã'pĩ́ jã'pĩ́ See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ñã́ᵽĩ́ ɲã́ɸĩ́ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Kelsey Neely
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. ñãmṍ ɲãmṍ See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wáa-'gá ('gourd', H&R) wáa-'gá ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Kelsey Neely
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Kelsey Neely
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Kelsey Neely
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi kʰáᵽí kʰáɸí See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Kelsey Neely
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Kelsey Neely
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae mẽkʰã́ (generic) mẽkʰã́ (generic) See Language page Kelsey Neely
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Kelsey Neely
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis utiámɨ̃̀ utiámɨ̃̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Kelsey Neely
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Kelsey Neely
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Kelsey Neely
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Kelsey Neely
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Kelsey Neely
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Kelsey Neely
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Kelsey Neely
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Kelsey Neely
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera nũkʰɛ̃́ nũkʰɛ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera bekʰõá bekʰõá See Language page Kelsey Neely
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Kelsey Neely
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Kelsey Neely
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mɨ̃́tʰẽ́ mɨ̃́tʰẽ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera bútʰúà bútʰúà See Language page Kelsey Neely
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Kelsey Neely
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Kelsey Neely
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Kelsey Neely
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae bɨᵽɨ́ bɨɸɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca mãkʰã́nɨkʰɨ, džáí (both 'tigre') mãkʰã́nɨkʰɨ, dʒáí (both 'tigre') See Language page Kelsey Neely
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Kelsey Neely
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Kelsey Neely
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] ɛ̃́mṍã́mɨ̃̀ ɛ̃́mṍã́mɨ̃̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella akʰɛ́ akʰɛ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Kelsey Neely
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus ihiáľò bokʰɨ ihiárò bokʰɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Kelsey Neely
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis díadžò díadʒò See Language page Kelsey Neely
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis díadžò díadʒò See Language page Kelsey Neely
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu kʰíyɛ́hɛ́ kʰíjɛ́hɛ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari jé'hé, páɨ jé'hé jé'hé, páɨ jé'hé See Language page Kelsey Neely
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Kelsey Neely
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Kelsey Neely
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bu bu See Language page Kelsey Neely
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris día jehe día jehe See Language page Kelsey Neely
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Kelsey Neely
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) hɛ̃́mɛ̃́ hɛ̃́mɛ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus wípótɨ́, wíipotɨ wípótɨ́, wíipotɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris wekʰɨ́ wekʰɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ñã́mã́ ɲã́mã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
bed cama cama culture-material kã́'dĩ́ricá-pĩĩ kã́'dĩ́ricá-pĩĩ See Language page Kelsey Neely
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ᵽṹũŋɨ̃́ ɸṹũŋɨ̃́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kʰṹmṹňõ̀ kʰṹmṹrõ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
canoe canoa canoa transport kʰúmṹã́ kʰúmṹã́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Kelsey Neely
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology yukʰɨ́gɨ̀ tʰotʰi jukʰɨ́gɨ̀ tʰotʰi See Language page Kelsey Neely
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology kũbũ, ku'rí, ka bá'hé-gɨ kũbũ, ku'rí, ka bá'hé-gɨ In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Kelsey Neely
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Kelsey Neely
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Kelsey Neely
firewood leña lenha other ᵽekʰá yukʰì ɸekʰá jukʰì See Language page Kelsey Neely
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Kelsey Neely
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Kelsey Neely
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Kelsey Neely
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
knife cuchillo faca culture-material wídɛ́řikʰaᵽĩ̀ wídɛ́rikʰaɸĩ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kʰõmẽ́ã̀ kʰõmẽ́ã̀ especially for clearing fields See Language page Kelsey Neely
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool anɨ̃́ŋɨ̃̀ anɨ̃́ŋɨ̃̀ hunting, warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hadɛ́řikʰářò hadɛ́rikʰárò See Language page Kelsey Neely
bow arco arco subsistence tool bɨɛ́řikʰábɛtʰò bɨɛ́rikʰábɛtʰò arco See Language page Kelsey Neely
paddle/oar remo remo transport wářikʰářò wárikʰárò See Language page Kelsey Neely
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hotʰɨ́ hotʰɨ́ See Language page Kelsey Neely
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Kelsey Neely
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology ñã́hã́ŋã ɲã́hã́ŋã See Language page Kelsey Neely
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
wax cera cera other See Language page Kelsey Neely
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Kelsey Neely
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ñṹkʰã̀ ɲṹkʰã̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Kelsey Neely
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Kelsey Neely
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Kelsey Neely
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Kelsey Neely
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology wí'ó-gɨ, ka do'tí-gɨ wí'ó-gɨ, ka do'tí-gɨ See Language page Kelsey Neely
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Kelsey Neely
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
salt sal sal food bṍã bṍã See Language page Kelsey Neely
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Kelsey Neely
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool buᵽúá buɸúá currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Kelsey Neely
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Kelsey Neely
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Kelsey Neely
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Kelsey Neely
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Kelsey Neely
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Kelsey Neely
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wáa-'gá ('gourd', H&R) wáa-'gá ('gourd', H&R) See Language page Kelsey Neely
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Kelsey Neely
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kʰánĩ́ňĩ-kʰápĩ̀ kʰánĩ́rĩ-kʰápĩ̀ See Language page Kelsey Neely
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture hĩ́nĩ́ňikʰɛ̀ hĩ́nĩ́rikʰɛ̀ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Kelsey Neely
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food kʰĩ́ ᵽokʰá kʰĩ́ ɸokʰá agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Kelsey Neely
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Kelsey Neely
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Kelsey Neely
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Kelsey Neely
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Kelsey Neely
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Kelsey Neely
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Kelsey Neely
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Kelsey Neely
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Kelsey Neely
house other See Language page Kelsey Neely


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
Linguistic exogamy