Akawaio

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
ake
Location
6.16°, -60.86°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Edwards, Walter F. 1980. A short grammar and dictionary of the Akawaio and Arekuna languages of Guyana. Georgetown: University of Guyana. Meira, Sérgio. Wordlist.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location iideeboi, diieeboi i'debɔɪ, 'diebɔɪ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
and y e grammar mörabai mö'rabaɪ See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment uuruumöröpö (ashes) urumö'röpö (ashes) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
at en, a em, a location boo See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
back espalda costas body apoi, eebiiyak (lower part of-) a'pɔɪ, ebi'yak (lower part of-) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bad mal mal quality örii öri unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
belly barriga barriga body yeekiiariieng (stomach) yekiariɛŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
below abajo, debajo abaixo location iidoknoo, diioknoo i'dɔʔno, 'dioʔno inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
big grande grande quality egee ɛge unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
black negro preto colour iikkɨrɨng iʔkɨrɨŋ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
blood sangre sangue body mɨng mɨŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bone hueso osso body öpɨ öpɨ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
breast pecho, seno peito body manak manak inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
child niño, niña criança human mɨree mɨre inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cloud nube nuvem environment kabuuruuk kaburuk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cold frío frio quality komiikkeenak kɔmiʔkenak inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
day día dia time wöinai wöɪnaɪ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dirty sucio sujo quality iigöpa (v.), teembadaiguuknang (dirty-faced, adj.), iigöpazak (dirty object, n.) I'göpa (v.), tembadaɪ'guʔnaŋ (dirty-faced, adj.), I'göpazak (dirty object, n.) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dry seco seco quality akmuung akmuŋ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality yögeenakpeng jögenaʔpeŋ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dust polvo poeira environment kuuduukpang ku'duʔpaŋ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
ear oreja orelha body pana pana inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
earth/soil tierra terra environment nong nɔŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
egg huevo ovo fauna iikmooi iʔmoɪ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
eye ojo olho body eenuu enu inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
far lejos longe quality önnö ön'nö unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fat/grease grasa gordura body iibuunek, biiuunek (fat) ibunɛk, biunɛk (fat) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
father padre, papá pai kinship kɨɨbɨnɨ kɨɨbɨnɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
feather pluma pena fauna chiipok tʃipɔk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fire fuego fogo environment abok abɔk inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
flower flor flor environment yöi ariikkuu jöi a'riʔku inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fruit fruta fruta flora eebeeruu e'beru inheritance; unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
good bueno bom quality wagɨ wagɨ inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body puupö (on head), chiipok (on skin) pupö, tʃipɔk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hand mano mão body eemiiya emiya inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kɨrörö kɨrörö inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
head cabeza cabeça body puukpai puʔpaɪ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
heavy pesado pesado quality eetabɨnek eta'bɨnɛk unique shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
how? como como grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
1sg yo eu grammar uurö urö inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
if si se grammar a'tai (SM) aʔtai (SM) Doubtful loan, direction unknown Compare Piapoco asáisí See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location gau (~liquid), dak (~building, vehicle) gaʊ (~liquid), dak (~building, vehicle) inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
intestines intestinos intestinos body weenuupö we'nupö inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
lake lago lago environment missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
leaf hoja folha environment yaree (E1977) yare (E1977) inheritance; unknown Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kamiik ka'mik unique Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
leg/foot pierna perna body eekmada eʔ'mada unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment kamiiriik ka'mirik inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
liver hígado figado body eeree ere inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
long largo comprido, longo quality unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ayang ayaŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
man/male hombre homem human warawok warawɔk inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
meat/flesh carne carne fauna puung puŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
moon luna lua environment kaböi kaböɪ inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship sang saŋ inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mouth boca boca body mɨda mɨda inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
name nombre nome human eezek ezɛk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
near/close cerca de perto quality akoobee a'kobe inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
neck cuello pescoço body pɨmɨ pɨ'mɨ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
new nuevo novo quality eemennak emɛnnak inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
night noche noite time eeewarbö eɛwarbö inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
no/not no não grammar bra bra inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
nose nariz nariz body enna ɛnna inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
old viejo velho quality peenarok penarɔk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
one uno um number tiigiingö tigiŋö inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
other otro outro grammar turonŋ (SM) turonŋ (SM) inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body eekkɨmangdok (n.) eʔkɨ'maŋdɔk unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
person/human being persona pessoa human ka'pong (SM) kaʔpoŋ (SM) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
rain lluvia chuva environment tuuna tuna inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
red rojo vermelho colour apiiyuu, juuweeyuu apiyu, dʒuweyu unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
right/right hand derecha direita location/body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
road/path camino caminho manufacture ekma ɛʔma inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
root raíz raiz flora yöi miik jöɪ mik inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
rotten podrido podre quality akmooda aʔmoda unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sand arena areia environment wösök wösök unique Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
short corto curto quality aga'ne'pe (SM) agaʔneʔpe (SM) unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
shoulder hombro ombro body moda mɔ'da inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental eebiiyöknödok ebijöknödɔk unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
skin piel pele body biipö bipö inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sky cielo céu environment kabuuruuk ka'buruk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
small pequeño pequeno quality aigoo aɪgo inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
smoke humo fumaça environment iigöröjiing, giiöröjiing igörödʒiŋ, giörödʒiŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
star estrella estrela environment chiiriigö tʃirigö inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yöi jöi inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
stone piedra pedra environment tök tök inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tail cola, rabo rabo body areekna areʔna inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
that ese/esa esse grammar mörö mörö inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar tok tɔk inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality iibuunek i'bunɛk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
thin delgado fino quality abiitɨmɨng abi'tɨmɨŋ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
this este/esta este grammar seerö, see serö, se inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
2sg xx xx grammar a- (reduced form of [amörö]) a- (reduced form of[amörö]) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
throat garganta garganta body eezeng e'zɛŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
three tres tres number oozourau ozɔʊraʊ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
thunder truenos trovão environment kormee kɔrme inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bite morder morder body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
blow soplar soprar body eedarengba ('blow ritually') edarɛŋba unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
breathe respirar respirar body ekuuwekmang eʔ'kuwɛʔmaŋ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
burn quemar queimar environment biiuuruu biuru unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body abö a'bö inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
climb subir subir motion eegainuunnö egaɪ'nunnö inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
come venir vir motion yeeknö jeʔnö unique shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cook cocinar cozinhar impact guuiibö guibö unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cry llorar chorar mental guuarannö gua'rannö inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cut/hack cortar cortar impact agɨdɨ a'gɨdɨ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
die/be dead morir morrer state eeriiknö eriʔnö inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dig cavar cavar impact aga a'ga inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dream soñar sonhar mental enekpöknö ɛ'nɛʔpöknö inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
drink beber, tomar beber body enjii cndʒi inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
eat comer comer body endaknang ɛndaʔnaŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fall caer cair motion damokkang da'mɔʔkaŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fear miedo medo mental jiinɨknödok dʒinɨʔnödɔk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
flow fluir fluir motion yanɨgɨ ('overflow') janɨgɨ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fly volar voar motion ariindang arindaŋ inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
grow crecer crescer state zeemokkang ze'mɔʔkaŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hear oír ouvir mental eeda eda inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hide esconder esconder motion eesoknannö e'sɔʔnannö inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hit golpear, pegar bater impact iiwono iwono inheritance; unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other achii a'tʃi inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
kill matar matar impact iiwönö iwönö inheritance see 'hit' See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental iituu itu unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
laugh reír rir mental dakköröngnödok daʔkö'roŋnödɔk unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion eekpöriinggang eʔpö'riŋgaŋ unique; doubtful loan Arawak kua See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body gokmannö gɔʔmannö inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
open/uncover abrir abrir other waraubang (adj.) wa'raʊbaŋ (adj.) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ariipogɨ ari'pɔgɨ unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
say decir dizer mental ta ta unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
scratch rascar rasgar impact chiichiikma, ekkanöbang (oneself) tʃi'tʃiʔma, ɛʔ'kanöbaŋ (oneself) inheritance; unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
see ver ver mental inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact iibö/biiö (~with blowpipe), iibooga/biiooga (~with bow and arrow), iiwönö (with gun) i'bö/'biö (with blowpipe), i'boga/'bioga (with bow and arrow), i'wönö (with gun) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sit sentar(se) sentar state ereuda (SM) ereuda (SM) inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sleep dormir dormir body eknunnö ɛʔnunnö inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body iigöknuumba igöʔnumba unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
spit escupir cuspir body eedatöng eda'töŋ inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact 'mo (SM) ʔmo (SM) unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact azuuka (fruit) a'zuka inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ekmɨzakkang ɛʔmɨ'zaʔkaŋ unique Shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
steal robar roubar other amakma a'maʔma inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
suck chupar chupar body iiguukka, giiuukka i'guʔka, guiʔ'ka inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
swell hincharse inchar body yakamangzak (n.) jaʔmaŋzak unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
swim nadar nadar motion inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
think pensar pensar mental zenmiinggang zɛn'miŋgaŋ inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact eno'ma (SM) enoʔma (SM) inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact eewatö e'watö inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other eeratöng (turn around) e'ratöŋ (turn around) inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
vomit vomitar vomitar body darböknö, dargang dar'böknö, 'dargaŋ inheritance? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
walk caminar, andar andar motion biiniinnö bininnö unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
work trabajar trabalhar other eetrawazoomang etrawa'zomaŋ loan Spanish trabajar See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tongue lengua lingua body anii ani inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tooth diente dente body ö ö inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
two dos dois number azarö azarö inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
water agua agua environment tuuna tuna inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar nya nya inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
wet mojado molhado quality aikkuu aɪʔku inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
what? que, qué que grammar ökrö öʔrö inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
when? cuando quando grammar ökratai öʔra'taɪ inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
where? donde onde grammar naiyau naɪyaʊ doubtful loan Wapishana naʔiam See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
white blanco branco colour aimuuknang aɪmuʔnaŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
who? quien, quién quem grammar önɨk önɨk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
wife esposa esposa kinship nopɨ nɔpɨ inheritance Pemongan; probably Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
wind viento vento environment pezetö pɛ'zɛtö unique; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
wing ala asa body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
woman/female mujer mulher human uuriichang uritʃaŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
yellow amarillo amarelo colour karakuape (SM) karakuape (SM) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
2pl ustedes vocês grammar inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
foot pie body pɨda pɨda inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ganang ganaŋ unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
all todo todos other tambooroo tam'boro unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
ankle tobillo tornozelo body pɨragong pɨ'ragɔŋ inheritance Venezuelan See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
armpit axila, sobaco axila body eewata e'wata inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body wak wak unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
lung pulmón pulmão body diioro diɔrɔ unique shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sweat sudar suor, suar body eeramuutang eramutaŋ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bark corteza casca environment yöi biikpö yöɪ biʔpö inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fingernail uña unha body eemiiya biipö emiya bipö inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
heart corazón coração body yeewang eenapö yewaŋ enapö inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sun sol sol time wöi wöɪ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment wïk (E1977) wïk (E1977) inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
green verde verde quality joogɨrɨ dʒogɨrɨ unknown; inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hot caliente quente quality aknek aʔnɛk inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (136)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana anondö anɔndö inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. wairawok ek waɩrawɔk ek inga sp. doubtful loan Arawak wiru See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. aguu agu loan into protolg, direction unknown Northern Carib? Tupi-Guarani Mello (2000) reconstructs for Proto-TG. Occurs widely in Carib; but loan into (?) Piaroa /æk'uri/; Nheengatu /akuti/; Achuar agutí WW %akuti See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. agaree (E1977) agare (E1977) loan (into protolg?) Venezuelan subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) Tupi-Guarani *yakaré reconstructed for Proto-Tupi-Guarani (Schleicher 1998) WW %jakare See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus sargau sargaʊ rat unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon Broader (probably rat in general) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes aura aʊra unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora maing (worm) maɪŋ worm unique See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kuuyuuk kujuk black ant inheritance Inherited status uncertain; no generic? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) kokchiiriimö kɔʔtʃirimö unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri mauraiö (giant); kaikang (giant) maʊraɪö, kaɪkaŋ inheritance Venezuelan subgroup (Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Eñepa) Also: kaɪkaŋ (giant armadillo) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. meguuruu (banana), chiikerente, paruuruu (plantain) mɛguru, tʃikerente, paruru inheritance? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. marbak marbak unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. aguubiijii (bora beans, Vigna sesquipedalis) agubidʒi bora beans missing Akawaio, Pemon Vigna sesquipedalis See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis teuzang tɛʊzaŋ unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna torong toroŋ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae amang amaŋ inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) arabö arabö inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha missing See iwarga ('monkey') See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata kanggaruumö kaŋgarumö unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera wagau wagaʊ unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris paruuweena paruwena inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum eeroi erɔɪ inheritance - WW Northern Carib? %eroi See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum eeroi erɔɪ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda ögöibasee ögöɪbase inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea kiidada kidada inheritance Unknown (attested Akawaio, Pemon, Makiritari) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria koorooii koroi inheritance Unknown (Akawaio, Pemon, maybe Yukpa and Eñepa) possible link? Carib (*)masarawa, TG *taraBe See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pagiira (peccary) pagira Pecari angulatus (collared peccary) inheritance Northern Carib? Likely loan Carib > Wapishana bakɨɽ; see also Piaroa maquíra, Cofan saquira See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ködökkwak ködöʔkwak inheritance Pemongan group (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi, prob. Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura makkwai maʔkwaɪ unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae kiiriicharak kiritʃarak inheritance Pemongan group (Akawaio, Pemon, Mkushi, Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. pawik pawik Crax alector inheritance See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus giant savannah deer (as opposed to bush deer): waigiiniimö waɪginimö giant savannah deer inheritance Pemongan See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris peeroo (general; Sp. loan), ookpoogong (hunting dog) pero, okpogɔŋ loan Spanish Also: okpogɔŋ 'hunting dog' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae weeruujii werudʒi doubtful loan Pemon/Wapishana Wapishana uri'di See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family maikuuak maɪkuak inheritance N Amazonian subgroup See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. piiriimok (E1977) pirimɔk (E1977) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus kariimuura karimura inheritance Venezuelan subgroup (Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Eñepa) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna moorok morɔk inheritance Northern Carib? (Akawaio, Makushi, Mapoyo, Pemon) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera chiikpong tʃiʔpoŋ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera weruuwee weruwe housefly inheritance Northern Carib? cf. Tacanan *we(ře)we(ře), West Tuk were See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis mabaruuwa (Lutra macrodus) mabaruwa Lutra macrodus; 'water dog' inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) wannak (SM) wannak (SM) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba onoree (Ardea cocoi) ɔnɔre (Ardea cocoi) inheritance Attested Guiananan and Venezuelan See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae ariiya ariya unique Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawaree kaware loan Portuguese Portuguese cavalho See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pɨmɨi (pepper) pɨmɨɪ inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arauda araʊda inheritance Likely loan Carib > Arawak: Piapoco, Achagua àlawàta; see also Guayabero /árow-at/. Also iwarka 'generic monkey' (E1977) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tuuguuik (E1977) tuguɪk (E1977) inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. wayamaga wayamaga WW (source?) Northern Carib? (attested Akawaio, Pemon, Yukpa) %wajamaka Likely loan into Nadëb: wajãam See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing no generic? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tiimening timɛnɪŋ inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Eñepa, maybe Waimiri-Atroari) See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra kuumak ek kumak ek inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. naböɪ naböɪ inheritance Akawaio, Pemon rel. to 'potato' terms? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae sagaikka sagaɪʔka inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. kiiawok kiawɔk inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. wayara wayara doubtful loan into protolg - WW Akawaio, Pemon %arara WW %ara See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays aknaik aʔnaɪk inheritance? Proto-Carib possible loan into proto-Carib, cf. Arawak mariki and TG aBati See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. uuruuktuuruu (E1977) uruʔturu (E1977) inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. wara (large catfish); reekkö (small catfish) wara; rekkö small catfish inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta eegii egi unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta kaknarii kaʔnari doubtful loan Akawaio, Pemon Arawak; shared Pemon Likely relationship to Arawak kani- forms; e.g. Achagua ké:niru. Also kaʔnari (E1980) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mabii mabi inheritance North Arawak e.g. Piapoco mapiri See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera seebee sebe inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) kabiiyakkwa (cream colored), kuuwarang bana (dark brown), korgoobiichoo (fluffy), kömɨrɨsee (spiky orange-colored), aguubana (tiny), kara-gara (white) kabijaʔkwa, kuwaraŋ bana, kɔrgobitʃo, kömɨrɨse, agubana, kara-gara white type unknown Akawaio, Pemon No generic. Also: kabiiyakkwa (cream colored), kuuwarang bana (dark brown), korgoobiichoo (fluffy), kömɨrɨsee (spiky orange-colored), aguubana (tiny) See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae awaree aware inheritance - WW Northern Carib? %jawari Likely loan Carib > Wapishana /jawari/; Hodï /yowale/; Yanomami /awaɾe/, Piaroa yäväre See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes töpoik (general), kuuk-kuuk (great horned) töpɔɪk, kuk-kuk owl (generic) doubtful loan - WW? onomatopoeic Akawaio, Pemon %murukutu / kurukutu Also: kuk-kuk 'great horned owl' See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) uurana urana inheritance Proto-Carib? (Also attested Waimiri-Atroari) Loan into Wapishana See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana padawaiya ek padawaija ek chocolate palm (used for thatching); Jessema sp. unknown See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kawak kawak inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea mopa mɔpa unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus kaiwarak kaɪwarak semantic shift? Pemongan group (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi) caraua? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae aruu aru inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Pemon, Akawaio, Makushi, Wai Wai) East Tukanoan See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum sak sak inheritance Northern Carib? Broader (potato, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae parandarai parandaraɪ inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones mariidö maridö inheritance Unknown (Akawaio, Pemon, Makiritari) See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. kwarang kwaraŋ inheritance Venezuelan subgroup? (shared Akawaio, Pemon, Eñepa) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata waimeksa (lizard) waɪmɛksa lizard inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda kuuiiwa kuiwa inheritance Akawaio, Pemon cf. TG uluwa See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ögöi ögöɪ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox sagazak (rattlesnake) sagazak rattlesnake inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. wara (large catfish); reekkö (small catfish) wara; rekkö large catfish inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae arai araɪ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae karii kari inheritance Northern Carib? (Pemongan, Yukpa) Likely loan Carib > Hodï kali See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas sak sak inheritance Northern Carib? Broader (potato, sweet potato) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris maibuurii maɪburi inheritance Proto-Carib? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera kuungwaik kuŋwaɪk unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea kobarii kɔbari loan North Arawak e.g. Piapoco kubàli See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. uuri uri unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae oroioroi(SM) oroioroi(SM) unique See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ambak (frog), chiinau (toad) ambak, tʃinaʊ inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tamɨ (SM) tamɨ (SM) inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria wayamorii, peeiduura (turtle) wajamɔri, peɪdura inheritance Northern Carib? (attested Akawaio, Pemon, Makushi, Wai Wai) Also: peɪdura See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. kiiyabok kijabɔk inheritance Akawaio, Pemon See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yöi yöɪ inheritance Northern Carib? See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui pöirök ek pöirök ek Pouteria sp. (bark boiled and drunk as medicine) unknown See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae angwana (E1977) aŋwana (E1977) unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita tabiiyuuga (E1977) tabiyuga (E1977) unique See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae sabeereedek, kaiparak saberedɛk, kaɪparak unknown Akawaio, Pemon shared Pemon Also: kaɪparak See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. nak nak inheritance Proto-Carib? (Pemon, Akawaio, Carijona) See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin


Cultural Vocabulary (105)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pöröu pöröʊ inheritance hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool wakka waʔka inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool mosogoroi (E1977) mɔsɔgɔrɔɪ (E1977) inheritance Akawaio-Pemon can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material kamok kamɔk made from calabash gourd inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material waɪgarapö Inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Epps Research Group
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material waigarapö (generic basket) waɪgarapö basket used to store cooked or smoked fish and meat unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material kazuuruu kazuru loan - WW Pemongan subgroup %kasiru See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bed cama cama culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material abonok abɔnɔk inheritance Proto-Carib See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool kuuraik kuraɪk inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Maybe Proto-Carib currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bow arco arco subsistence tool uuraba uraba inheritance Proto-Carib arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross
broom escoba vassoura culture-material padazekkadok padazɛʔkadɔk inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
canoe canoa canoa transport kanau kanaʊ doubtful loan (into protolg?) - WW %kanawa WW occurs in e.g. Wapishana, khanawa; various Carib (kanau, kanawa, kanowa, kanáw); Guayabero, kanáw; Candoshi, kánó; Jivaro, kán; Matses, cano; Napo Lowland Quichua, kanu; Siriano, cũma; Yanomam (kanaw, kanae). Ultimate source sometimes claimed to be Car WW %kanawa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cat gato gato acculturation kaiguuzhii (E 1980) kaɪguʒi unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chicken gallina galinha acculturation iimɨgararuu imɨgararu chicken with featherless neck unknown maybe %kara Shared form in Pemon; inheritance or shared innovation/diffusion? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology eebuuruu (E1980) eburu inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool wa'tana (C-F 2003) waʔtana war club unknown Compare Yucuna kuhjuwaʔala See Language page Melody Ann Ross
coca narcotics Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
cook food food guibö Unique See Language page Epps Research Group
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology missing malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dance (generic) culture-mythology manunnö Inheritance Pemongan subgroup See Language page Epps Research Group
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool kuungwa kuŋwa inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup? hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology paba paba semantic shift father' Maybe from 'father'? But referential kin term is distinct. In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
digging stick subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology enekpöknödok ɛnɛʔpöknödɔk unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology saambuura sambura loan Spanish/Portuguese Found widely in Carib, with some t-s correspondences (but apparently not regular). Also found Baniwa, Yavitero, Northern Emberá, Jivaro family, Cubeo, Nheengatu, Ninam See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool oorii-oorii ori-ori inheritance Proto-Carib Reduplicated esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology muurang (herbal), kuumii (used by kanaima) muraŋ, kumi herbal charm inheritance Akawaio-Pemon Alternate: kumi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fireplace hogar lareira other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
firewood leña lenha other abok kemee abɔk kɛme inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup Other complex abɔk=fire; kɛme= ?? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food iidɨmɨ idɨmɨ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food moorokma morɔʔma inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool konoik eewa kɔnɔɪk ewa inheritance Pemongan subgroup Phrase kɔnɔɪk=fishhook; ewa=string See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool mooroik morɔɪk inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food eegii (dried), aguuzee (soft), eegiigaraudanɨsak (toasted) egi, aguze, egigaraʊdanɨsak soft flatbread inheritance Pemongan subgroup Alternate: aguze (dried) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food proowa (flour; see Wapishana) (E1977) prowa (E1977) loan, direction unknown - WW %porowa Akawaio prowa; Wapishana phuruuma; Sikuani bawa; Hodi hyowã WW %porowa agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ook ok animal unique Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross
genipap culture-mythology Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool kamok (bowl made from calabash gourd), arabö kamɔk, arabö gourd unknown; unknown Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool suumarii sumari inheritance Proto-Carib Probably Carib loan in Paresi tʃimjare esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation aragabusa aragabusa loan Spanish 'arcabuz' Spanish source; attested Akawaio, Eñepa, Macushi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material akkuuak aʔkuak unknown But compare Arawak-origin WW %amaka See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hat sombero chapéu dress arok (E1980) arɔk semantic shift Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup from 'headdress' Possible loan into Nadëb as 'basket' See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology piiyaichang (witch doctor) (E1977) piyaɪtʃaŋ (E1977) inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
honey miel mel food teeuuzang eeuuguu teuzaŋ eugu unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Pemon Compound teuzaŋ= honey bee; eugu = juice only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hunt cazar caçar food ondïmang (E1977) ɔndïmaŋ (E1977) inheritance Pemongan subgroup See Language page Melody Ann Ross
knife cuchillo faca culture-material mariiba mariba loan (into protolg?), direction unknown - WW %marije Arawak: Wapishana, Baniwa, Tariana; Carib: Trio, Akawaio, Mapoyo, Yabarana, Pemon, Wai Wai, Waimiri-Atroari; Nadëb; possibly Ocaina WW %mariye See Language page Melody Ann Ross
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ak ak inheritance Proto-Carib Loan into Wapishana See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fence, palisade cerco cerca other pe'wï peʔwɨ unknown may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other Missing See Language page Epps Research Group
plate plato prato culture-material parabii parabi loan, direction unknown - WW Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup %parapi Originally 'clay plate'? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool öinö öɪnö inheritance Proto-Carib? Attested Venezuelan + Guiana branches See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool unknown See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology ereng (song) (SM) ereŋ (song) (SM) missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
salt sal sal food waiyoo waɪjo unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
school escuela escola acculturation skur skur loan English English more likely than Spanish escuela; reasonable in context of Guyana history and American missionary presence. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology ereng ereŋ inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spear lanza lança subsistence tool suubararii subarari loan - WW %sipara/sapere Carib (e.g. Pemon kusupará); Urarina sa:beɽe; Iquito sáhuiri; Sikuani sipari (axe); Carib (spear) WW %sapara See Language page Melody Ann Ross
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food chiibiiba tʃibiba unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation chiigaruu tʃigaru inheritance Akawaio-Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food tenggiik teŋgik inheritance Venezuelan (N. Amazonian) subgroup word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tobacco (native) narcotics tamɨ Inheritance *tam(u/ï) Proto-Carib Reconstruction Meira p.c. See Language page Epps Research Group
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool anok eesek (glossed as 'three logs on which pot is placed for cooking') abɔk esɛk missing agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool uurarii urari inheritance - WW %wirari Ultimate source Tupi; could have gone Akawaio > Wapishana or vice versa hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wax cera cera other maidageng maɪdageŋ unknown Akawaio-Pemon shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool pangga paŋga sieve made from mukuru inheritance Akawaio-Pemon agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology missing a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material waigarapö, wariicha waɪgarapö, waritʃa unknown; inheritance shared Pemon See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology inheritance Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology pong pɔŋ inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kuuikta kuɪʔta inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paddle/oar remo remo transport nairö naɪrö inheritance See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture eesekkwa e'sɛʔkwa inheritance Pemongan See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology aguuknodok (paint) (E1977) aguʔnɔdɔk (E1977) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture pawaru pawarʊ loan - WW %pajaru prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin
house other öudö öʊdö unique See Language page Melody Ann Ross, Lauren Franklin


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large AG dense sedentary