Plains Miwok

Family
Penutian
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
pmw
Location
38.03°, -121.42°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location newit:o- unknown Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar 7a:j unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other syk:e- inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar missing Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body hot:okli- inheritance Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ka:puh inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment sik:e- inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location {-Hwi-} “locational suffix inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body k2c2:j2- 2 is schwa unknown Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality saj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body hena- unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location wanit unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality teme-, tem:e- unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body 72:s2- inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour kulu7lu- 7 is glottal stop inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body kic:aw inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body pu:ce- inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body lop:o- inheritance Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body k2c2c, and variants inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body mu:-, mu:su- inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body hes:e- inheritance Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment h2ls2- inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body wika:j-y- unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human pyne- unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion pajtu- inheritance Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment mo:li- (under mal:i- inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality tisti- (of a person, add -ku- or -k:u inheritance Jane Hill
come venir vir motion 72n:2-, 7o:ni- inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 7okje- inheritance Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality welwel inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental lel:a- unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental 7utsu- inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tep:a- inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time hi:- inheritance Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state ceme:n-y- inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact 7ol:u- inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna 7olet:i “coyote” inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental 7ek:uc inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7us: inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality hewe:na-, inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality niki7ti- inheritance Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment sik:e- inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body solo:to- unknown Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment jot:ok inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body cam:a- unknown Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna we:wo (Sp) loan Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body welaj, w2laj inheritance Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body k2na-, kyna-, k2k:2- inheritance Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion joco:n-u-, unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality tot:o- inheritance Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body wata:ka- unknown Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship 7ap:a- inheritance Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental sel:ajku- inheritance Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna sale-, inheritance Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment wyke- inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna pu:- inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion colo:-t-u “run, of water” inheritance Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment wile-, wule- inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion syle:t-y- inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hune- inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body kolo- inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality welwel inheritance Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state 72t2m:2kse- inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body m2n, unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body 7ek:uh inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar 7isy-, 7is:y- inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body tolo- unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental helme- unknown Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality 72l27:2l unknown Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion 7o:su unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact nokca-, inheritance Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other hanaksy- unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar hi:ti inheritance Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar kan:i-, inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location hoji:my, hoj:i:my inheritance Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body put:ul inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body cu:ju- unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact he7ta- unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental 7ekut:a7:e- unknown Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment 7ol:eh, 7ol:es inheritance Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental 7ilsy- unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment pate- unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body cajmy- inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body kaw:al, kaw:ali- inheritance Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ty7e:l-y- inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment wil:ep, wul:ep inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hese- inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body kyl:a-, ky:la- inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kac:a- unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna c2psi- “body” loan direction unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body pohkal, poh:ol inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human saw:eh unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna 7yme:na- unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment kome- inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship 7yk:a- unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body lupe- inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human 7owa:se- inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body to:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality haj:e- inheritance Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body to:pa- inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality we:sy- unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time kawyl inheritance Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar he:la(7) “no”, inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body hu:k inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality hoj:a 72t2mci- “old man” inheritance Jane Hill
one uno um number ken:aty-, inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other tektu- inheritance Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar 7im:yla- “other one” inheritance Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sike- inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human mi:w, miw7:a “Indian” inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact 72:l2-, 7y:ly- unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ho:ma- inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour wete7te- inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body we:ja- inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture muk, mu:k inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora sac:a- inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality puse:na- (food), inheritance Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment hu:ma- inheritance? Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental kac:y- inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact cu:ju-, unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental ci:sy- unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality syca-; unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact toj:a-, loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
short corto curto quality ca:pu- (Sp), 7ena:ny- (people) loan Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body me:ta- unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental jil27l2- unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state h27:2c:e-, hy:7a- unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body talka- (hide) inheritance Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment wic:ek inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body 7e:cy- inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality 7itit:i- inheritance Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment ka:lih, ka:lis inheritance Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hukju- inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body j2:p- inheritance? Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact 7aswa- inheritance Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ciju:tu “wring out” unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kuntu-, kuna- unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment hol:ok:aj unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other welna- inheritance? Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tumaj inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment sawa-, sowa- inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body cujmu- inheritance Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body hela:ka- inheritance Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body t2:k2-,t2lk2- unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 72ps2- inheritance Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body kol:a- (Sp) loan Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar no:-, inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar 7ik:o- inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality l2w:2s inheritance Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality nuc:utu- “skinny” inheritance Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental ton:i- inheritance Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar ne:-, inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar mi:-, inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number tel:ok:o- inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body n2m:it unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact juk:i- unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment lil:ik inheritance Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact t2:j2- inheritance Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body nep:it inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body k2:t inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other wi:lakse- “turn around” inheritance Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7o:jok:o- unknown Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion loj:u- inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment ki:k inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ma:si, mas:i- inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar 7ic:y- inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality cakah- unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ha:h inheritance? Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar missing Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar minim inheritance Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour putu7tu inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar manti- inheritance Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship k2:t unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment w2l; inheritance? Jane Hill
wing ala asa body sale- inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human 72s2:72h, 7ysy:7yh inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tawhal:e- (Sp.) loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body hawsy- inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour jyly7ly- doubtful loan Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar missing Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. 7atkal abalone, abalone meat, small shell oysters along American River inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae tisi:naj, tisi:na:je- ant inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Miss, Mics other complex -aj is thematic suffix, distinguished in some dictionaries Callaghan 1984 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana hah-loo- antelope inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis underived Merriam 57:483 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus 7ol:e7le- badger unique From the root “to dig” which is Pmie and Utian relative clause dig-agentive, one who digs Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus ho'-pah Bald eagle unique underived Merriam 57:485 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata hum:a:wel, 7um:a:wil pigeon inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp simsi- bat inheritance *$im... Utian Callaghan 1997:30 reduplicated Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor hen:it beaver inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp kyn:istal:li-, kən:əsta:li- black beetle inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Miss underived must be complex etymologically Callaghan 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus lin:ak round tule inheritance Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971(?) underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis his:ik striped skunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis, underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tolo:ci- bird (generic) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived -:ci may be old diminutive Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger mulu7lu7 tisi:naj black ants unique neologism? loan translation? phrase black ant Callaghan 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus 7ysy:mati-, 7ysym:ati- bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 phrase bad creature Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus 7epa:li- jackrabbit inheritance *epla:-li- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 2001:325 other complex --:li is suffix Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus 7in:an blackberry inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Mics; note Mutsun 7e:nena -- Utian? underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? kuj:ak:a grouse inheritance Eastern Miwokan Same word as “mountain quail” in all Mis, Mip underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus tol:om:a- bobcat inheritance *tol:om:a- Miwokan Possibly Utian, but Callaghan 1997:33 says Pco *to:roma “wildcat” is probably a loan from Miwokan WW %talom underived Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera holo:pitin:a:je- butterfly unique Only holo shared with Mis phrase holo:-pitin -a:je; first two elements of uncertain meaning Callaghan 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus mol:uk California condor inheritance Miwokan This form is also Proto-Wintun; Whistler (1977) thought it was of Miwokan origin. Word is in Mil and Misn, etc. WW %moloko underived Callaghan 1984 (p. 306) 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? sajsi- bluejay, Stellar Jay (CHM has for Aphelocoma) loan into protolanguage Miwokan unknown See Pmiw *$ajiic (which may be Patwin loan) -- an areal word: Callaghan 1997:58 WW %chaj underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? palat:ata-?, palti7na-? woodpecker (CHM has palti7na- for Melanerpes) loan *pala:T:a-? Miwokan unknown A widespread early loan, note Pynim *pHala:taH. “There are peculiar develpments in both Miwok and Yokuts” Callaghan 1997:61 WW %palaka ~ %pana(k) reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. ton:oko- Merriam chipmunk inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Mics but for spotted skunk only underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota sal:ip, sal:ipsali:p(y)- swallow inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana tohkol, tok:ol mudhen inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii hika- cottontail inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. tat:ahkal, tat:ak:al cotton tree (Populus), poplar inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Miss, Mics reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans 7olet:i- coyote inheritance *7ole- Miwokan Callaghan 1971, 1997:58 underived -t:i- is suffix etymologically Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos 7awic:i-, 7awyc:i- smaller crow inheritance *7a:wy(ch) Miwokan Callaghan 1997:28 WW %alwut underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii missing missing missing 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus 7ywy:ja- deer inheritance *7ywy-ja- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 ; looks a bit like Chumashan *wy: underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana sak:y- pine tree inheritance *sak:y- Utian Callaghan 1997:18 underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris cu:cu- dog loan Spanish This looks like other California “dog” words but this form is usually said to be from Spanish chucho. reduplicated Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura hulul:i-, hul:ul:i- mourning dove inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis; possibly Utian (Callaghan 1962:103 given Mu hunu:nu underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae hik:ah duck inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus la:pa- elderberry tree (CHM confirms) unique underived Callaghan 1984 (p. 305) 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus hah-ki'-ah elk inheritance *hak:a:ja- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:59, may be cognate with Proto-Yokutsan *sohkoy??? in which case Yok-Utian WW %sok underived Merriam 57:481 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna pu:- fish loan Patwin Callaghan 2001:326 (but note that pu:- occurs in other Miwokan as “fish eggs” JHH underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera kəkəh, kykyh? flea inheritance *ky:ky$- Miwokan Callaghan 1971 underived Callaghan 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. tiw:aj yellowhammer, red-shafted flicker (Colaptes capher) inheritance *Tiw(:)a- Utian Callaghan 1986:62 underived -aj is probably suffix etymologically Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera hom:om:a:je- housefly inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins other complex -:a:je is suffix Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon ju:wel, fox (CHM has ju:wel as Urocyon) inheritance *juw:el- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971, 1997:58 underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna potpot, potpoto- frog, bullfrog inheritance Eastern Miwokan Mins word for “toad, bullfrog” reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos wip:akah, wihpakah Golden eagle inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis underived Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. 7in:an berry inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Min, Mics underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer wak:a:li- gopher or bull snake (CHM cited in CC) inheritance Miwokan Bodega Dic says is Miwokan but has no reconstruction, and I find none in other sources underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) cike- grass unique probably from the “green” word but not like other examples underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera ko:co- grasshopper inheritance *ko:To-? Callaghan 1971 underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. 7opuk, 7upuksu- ground squirrel inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Miss underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. me:we- grey squirrel inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis; underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus tuk:ul:i- owl, horned owl, hoot owl inheritance *tuk:úli- Miwokan Bodega Dic WW %(hu)tukul underived Callaghan 1984 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis 7ysy:mati-, 7ysym:ati- grizzly bear inheritance *7y$y-maTi7 Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1971 phrase bad creature Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae 7et:ekiliw:a- horned toad inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Mics underived surely complex etymologically but no hint anywhere as to how Callaghan 1984 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus kawa:ju- horse loan Spanish WW %caballo underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae kulu:lu- hummingbird inheritance *kulu... Miwokan Callaghan 1962:104; Mib kulup:e “hummingbird”; C's Mu form clearly a mistake in this citation reduplicated Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ka:sy- tobacco inheritance Miwokan Callaghan gives Pmiw *kajaw in Bodega dic and suggests probably Pmi underived Callaghan 1984 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp tolo:ci- junco (one speaker); also CHM 57:489 inheritance Eastern Miwokan Same as “bird”, as “bird” in MiNs underived -:ci may be old diminutive Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera ke:n head louse inheritance *keT:- “Mip /n/ is unexplained” Callaghan 1971:24 underived Callaghan 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos hik:ah, si:na- mallard duck (CHM has si:na, for which CC has “green crest on mallard's head”) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. 7e:je- manzanita tree inheritance *e:je- Miwokan In Mil, Mis JHH underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa te'-koon Broad-leaf milkweed, milkweed string unique Note Yowlumne tc'ikei , Yawdanchi tcitik, Chukchansi chek-kah (CHM) underived Merriam 57:505 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos cimit:olo- mockingbird inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins ; note Yuki č'i:mit “bird” and Wappo cimi:to “hummingbird” (Elmendorf & Shepherd 1991) phrase This must be X-bird Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera 7əjə:kəkəh; 7əjə:kəs mosquito inheritance *7yjy:ky$ Eastern Miwokan source? phrase X-fly Callaghan 1984 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera suk-ko'-sah Sphynx moth unique underived Merriam 57:497 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor pa:wuk, hi:li:ca- mountain lion inheritance Eastern Miwokan both forms in both Mis and Mip underived Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus kuj:ak:a-, kuj:ahka- ? mountain quail inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. mul7u:sa-, mulu:sa-, 7atkal oyster unique underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? kajkaj7aja- mountain bluebird (has tassel) loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown In Miss, Mins WW %kaj reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum mul7u:sa- clam, clam shells, seashells (like Chinese spoons) unique underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys səw:ət gopher inheritance *sykw:ot Utian Callaghan 1986:57 underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum nəkəh poison oak inheritance *nykys Utian Callaghan 1986:57 underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. wac:akah, wac:akas, rattlesnake unique underived Callaghan 1984 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp wete7te7 tisi:naj red ants unique C asks “loan translation”? phrase red ant Callaghan 1984 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus cikup:ati- redwing blackbird, probably Brewer blackbird (CHM only B.b.) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Miss underived -ti separable etymologically? Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis pil:aw red-tailed hawk unique underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus 7uj:uj:u- roadrunner inheritance *uj:uj:u- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 1997:60; and note Proto-Yokuts *7oj7uj from *u:j7uj; also Nisenan oo'-e-oo'-e (roadrunner CHM) WW %uji reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica kutch-un Sage herb inheritance Miwokan Callaghan 1971 gives Pmie *kyčin; Pmiw *kičin “with reverse assimilation postulated for Miw and Mip” ?? Clearly related forms, no Mi reconstruction found underived Merriam 57:503 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss tukun salmon inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? tep:e:na- lizard (generic), telegraph lizard, common lizard, blue lizard (CHM has for Sceloporus CC) unique underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna cicip:u-, cicicpu-; bird, small bird unique reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna sak:iti- black lizard, common lizard, sun lizard inheritance Eastern Miwokan In all Mis underived -ti probably separable etymologically Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna wilo-, wilu- snake unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum saka:ni- soap plant, comb, brush inheritance *saka... Miwokan Pmie *saka:ni (Callaghan 1971)-, but note Mil şikíiti , which Merriam says is soaproot (JHH) WW %svkv underived -:ni may be etymological suffix Callaghan 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata caw:e(s) berry bush, brush inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:29; at least Miwokan *čaw(:)il? “bush, brush sp.” underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco kiliksa:je- sparrow hawk (Merriam confiirms) loan into protolanguage Eastern Miwokan unknown In Mins, Miss; widespread areal for kili- (see Proto-Wintun *k'ililuk “Cooper's Hawk?” Shepherd 224) WW %kili phrase kilik-sa:je (sound.imitation -uncertain.meaning) Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae pok:um, po:ko:ne- black widow spider inheritance *pok:um Miwokan Callaghan 1971:28 underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis ton:oko- Pacific skunks (Merriam confirms for Spilogale), coon (erriam has pat-kah'-sy) inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Mics underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae potpot, potpoto- toad inheritance Eastern Miwokan Mins word for “toad, bullfrog” reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) 7ala:wah, 7ala:was tree inheritance *7alkwesh Utian Callaghan 1986:62 underived Callaghan 1984 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura cə:hə-, cy:hy- buzzard inheritance *chy:$y- Eastern Miwokan Callaghan 2001:326; an areal word also in Yukian CHECK underived Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines 7awan:aj, 7aw:anata- turtle inheritance *7awan:a-, *7aw:an(a)- Eastern Miwokan Bodega Dic., Callaghan 1997:609 WW %awan other complex -:aj is derivational suffix Callaghan 1984 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia sa:sa- live oak inheritance *sa:Ta- Miwokan Callaghan 1997:19 reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata 7oca:pa- water oak unique underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica nyk:y:te- valley quail unique underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis laka:lu- Western Canada Goose (CHM confirms) loan unknown A widespread arealism, note PY *la7la7, Pcos *la:lak; Nisenan la:kak', Maidy lylyk' (Callaghan 1997:59); this with lVkVl instead of lVlVk an unusual form but probably in the same system WW %lala ~ %lak underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus waje:na- whale loan Spanish underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos 7u:kun pelican unique underived Callaghan 1984 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica mute- grapes inheritance Miwokan Note Mil mutte “grapes”, Misn mute- “grapes” underived Callaghan 1984 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) hat'-tos wild oats loan Spanish WW %arroz underived Merriam 57:505 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica tut'-tel-oi wild rose unique reduplicated Merriam 57:501 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) ton:o:wil sunflower unique has a UA look -- check W. Mono underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. sos:o- red willow; white willow (CHM has none of these) inheritance Eastern Miwokan sos:o in Mins reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. lol:okoh woodrat inheritance Eastern Miwokan In Mins, Miss, Mip reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) 7ysy:mati Merriam's hairy caterpillar (“bear”) semantic shift Eastern Miwokan loan translation from English “wooly bear”?? Main meaning is “bear”. phrase bad creature Merriam 57:497 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper o-ko'-mat-te smooth caterpillar unique phrase X creature Merriam 57:497 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. sus:u-, su:su- yellow jacket unique reduplicated Callaghan 1984 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia hahi:ju- goldfinch unique underived Callaghan 1984 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum pah-sah-le in Korme?? Yerba Santa (pencilled above line toward right margin) inheritance Eastern Miwokan May be Eastern Miwokan if source of form verifiable; pas:a:le- in Mins underived Merriam 57:503 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna tisi:naj inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna cicip:u-, cicicpu-, loan direction unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna hom:om:a:je- and variants loan direction unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna cu:cu- loan Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna sese-, inheritance Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna 7ywy:ja- inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna wilo-, wilu- unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna po:ko:ne- Black Widow, inheritance Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food pic:a- to make acorn soup; acorn soup (any kind); thick acorn soup inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok Mins pic:a- 'acorn' simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
ball game food cakma- handball, Indian tennis unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
feather headband dress tamak:ele- Indian headband; flicker stick headdress; flicker stick (with horns); dancer's coat inheritance %tamak Proto-Eastern Miwok See Miss form other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hawlo- arrow; bow and arrow; arrow shaft; arrow poing unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool huk:i- bait unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation skwe:la- school loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material puluc:i- basket; watertight basket inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material ho:wot beads inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 WW %waku simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool këc:a-, kyc:a- bow; counters in gambling game? inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport kano:wa- trough, canoe loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation wot:ej:a- bottle loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papel paper loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ceka- chief, captain, boss, head man unique see Proto-Wintun *se:qtu (Callaghan 2001:321) simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food 7okje- to make, to cook inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see Mins simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
corpse food cem7en dead; corpse, dead person inheritance *CE:m- (?) Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103 other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology lem:a- to dance unique other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool ha:to-, ha:ro dipper, cup loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology 7ekcu- to dream; to have a nightmare inheritance *7ektu Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:48; a second cognate set yields *7ek:uc/ ? In Callaghan 1988:59 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology tum:a to drum, foot drum inheritance *Tum:a- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:19; nte Nisenan dul, Wintu tHudi simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation haj(:)i:na-, kaji:na- chicken loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
earring other lysa- earring unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology jawlu- devil, Night Rider loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other tumaj wood, stalk, stick inheritance *tumaj Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:28 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food tuple: pu:c he's poisoning the fish (tuple- general word for poison with Indian poison) unique phrase Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food pu7u:j-u- to fish unique other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food maskala-, ma:skala- acorn bread; bread loan Northern Sierra Miwok Almost certainly not a loan from Spanish bocada as suggested by Callaghan 1984, but same as Mins form and Mip should not have /s/, should be /7/ in this position?? simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
wheat food tili:ku wheat loan Spanish simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology sulep:a- elderberry flute, whistle, siren loan Northern Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:30 lists as only pMis form other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other hinow:a gambling bones; handgame(?) inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok and note Miss hi:lo Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing other complex Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology 7ël7i7ko- ghost, skeleton inheritance Yok-Utian Callaghan 1997:58 WW %7el other complex suffix -ko 'personal'?? Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology moko:ja- grave, graveyard unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
alcohol food warjente- whiskey loan Spanish WW %aguardiente simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics missing missing Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology cemyt:e:ny- sucking doctor inheritance *7u:ten- Proto-Miwok-Mutsun Callaghan 1962:103; also tup:e:le- sorceror (can walk o fire), poison man p. 163 other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food susu cu7cuj7is honey (sweetness of the bee) unique has Pmie 'sweet word' also mijel p. 94 phrase Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
house other koca- house inheritance *koč(:)a- Proto-Miwok simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food paju:p-u- to hunt (vt, vi) inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see paj 'arrow' word in Miss other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuc:i knife, pocket knife loan Spanish WW %cuchillo simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool co:se- bedrock mortar, mortar inheritance *čo:se- Proto-Eastern Miwok Callaghan 1971:25 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
necklace other hy:le- necklace inheritance Proto-Miwok note Pmiw helék:I 'neck' simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool cil:a- awl, crochet needle, ice pick inheritance *Cy1la1s (1 subscript) Proto-Utian Callaghan 1962:102 simplex cë:lë- 'weave, sew' Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport tala:ke- oar unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool hopa- pestle (rock), acorn pounder unique also lup:u- pestle p. 88 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
pinole food lotu:pu- cereal, mush unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other lapi:pa- smoking pipe loan Spanish WW %la pipa simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
pitch food ju:tu- pine pitch inheritance *jut:e- Proto-Miwok JHH simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool lo:ja- pot loan Spanish WW %la olla simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool hawlo tyni7sy quiver inheritance note NUA *tynnV 'antelope' phrase D Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology sakas:a- cocoon rattle inheritance *şokoş:a- Proto-Miwok Callaghan 1971:18 "vocalic assimilation is proposed" WW %soko simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food koj:o- salt inheritance *koj:o- Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology haje7:a-, haje:7a clothes unique other complex haj:e- 'beside, near' Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool tanuk:a, tonuk:a- bow, bow and arrow loan Costanoan speculating that this is right because resemblant to Yokuts talip word; Callaghan 2001:330 says "probably a loanword from Costanoan" simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material halti:ja- skirt, slip, underskirt loan Spanish WW %faldilla simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool sil:e- to trap; lash rope traps; Indian traps inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see Mics form simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology hë:tik, hy:tik song inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok see Miss 7ytte other complex hëtki 'to sing'; non-concatenative derivation Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food holo:wa- ? soup stirrer unique salak:a, sylak:a- mush stirer p. 128 is an Utian cognate Callaghan 1997:33 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hi:la string loan Spanish WW %hilo simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material tëjni-, tyjni- bag, pack sack, pack basket, back pack; Indian sack made from weekds inheritance *Tyj- Proto-Utian Callaghan 1997:35; this looks a teentsy bit like the NUA 'antelope' word *tynnV??? simplex të:jë-, ty:jy- 'to tie' Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
string of shell money other ci:tepa- abalone shell, seashell, Indian money inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok "There is some doubt as to whether or not this is Plains Miwok"; identical in Mins simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation cu7cuj sweet; darling; sugar, cake semantic shift Proto-Eastern Miwok also 7as:u:ka-, 7es:u:ka- 'sugar' 187 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
sweathouse other hane:pu- sweathouse; round house; tunnel; dance house loan Sierra Miwok Callaghan 1971:19,perhaps ultimately Tubatulabal, but I wonder about this and Obispeno Chumash qnipu, and Yuki han 'house'. simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology syl:e, sil:e tl tell stories; to tell someone something unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology wë:kë- to burn; to cremate inheritance *wyke- 'fire' Proto-Miwokan Callaghan 2001:323 simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics ka:sy- tobacco inheritance Proto-Miwokan Callaghan suggests in Bodega Dic that Pmiw *kajaw and Pmie *ka:sy- do go together somehow but gives no reconstruction simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material tel:ak sifter, sifting basket unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress sapa:tu- shoes loan Spanish WW %zapato simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics wene- medicine inheritance Proto-Miwok JHH see Mil; note Hill Patwin wene, SE Pomo wéne, both 'medicine' WW %wene simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material cota- baby basket, basket crib unique simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation ceri:fe policeman loan Spanish WW %cherife simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sulda:du- soldiers loan Spanish WW %soldado simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
corn food missing missing Jane Hill
beans food piho:lis beans loan Spanish WW %frijol simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation tonci- cat loan Yokutsan Wappo also has this word WW %talom simplex Callaghan 1965 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kope:ta- gun (shotgun or rifle) loan Spanish WW %escopeta simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress sombare:ru-, somne:nu- hat loan Spanish WW %sombrero simplex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation TakaT:a- split-stick rattle, made from an elderberry branch inheritance Proto-Eastern Miwok other complex Callaghan 1984 Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material hi:ni- “thick roof” unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ciko:te- (Sp.) loan Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7yly:we- “portable mortar” unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture hopa-, unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool k2c:a-, kyc:a- “bow” doubtful loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool hawlo- “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
house other koca-, inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
large HG medium seasonal no