Seri (Comcaac)

Family
Isolate (NAM)
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
sei
Location
28.99°, -112.38°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location cola See note below unknown DS2005 Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar mos unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other coox unknown Jane Hill
and y e grammar xah unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body yacOj unknown Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body izca/pxla unknown Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hant imac “earth middle” unknown Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location missing Jane Hill
back espalda costas body ipac unknown Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality cmiipla unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body yax unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location hant “down” (= “earth”) unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality caacoj unknown Jane Hill
bite morder morder body ccat “bite off large piece, like shark” unknown Jane Hill
black negro preto colour coopol (also “black widow spider” unknown Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body haait unknown Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body quipxoj unknown Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body ihica/ai unknown Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body itac unknown Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body iisax iizc unknown Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body coix quiisax unknown Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment quitaj (vi) unknown Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ccaao unknown Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human zaxt quisil, zixquisi/il unknown Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion cOquiipax unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment hoocax “large thunder clouds” unknown Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality caapl unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion moca unknown Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact cama/ma unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality miizj “correctly” unknown Jane Hill
count contar contar mental quisx unknown Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental cooha unknown Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact caactim unknown Jane Hill
day día dia time zaah “sun, day” unknown Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state cooxi (especially of animal) unknown Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact cxap unknown Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna xeecoj unknown Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality haac hapa/spx “ugly, dirty” unknown Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental como/ozi unknown Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body quisi unknown Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality cajOc, O is o umlaut and marks labialization, it is not a vowel unknown Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality quit (vi) unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment hant-o/opxoz unknown Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body isla unknown Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment hant unknown Jane Hill
eat comer comer body quihit unknown Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna iipx unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body ito unknown Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body hapx ihi/ip unknown Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion hant *cahji/it unknown Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality toox unknown Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body iha/x unknown Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship -am (of female), -ai (of male) unknown Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental quiixim unknown Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna ina “down feathers” unknown Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment hama/c unknown Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna zixca/m unknown Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion quimej unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment yapxOt (copxOt “florecer”) unknown Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion ccap unknown Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment xeele unknown Jane Hill
foot pie body ito/aa (xatj) unknown Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora hehe is “general term” unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality quiipe unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state coocp unknown Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body ili/t unknown Jane Hill
hand mano mão body inol unknown Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ee unknown Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body ili/t unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental quii unknown Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality cmotet unknown Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion quiisxO unknown Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact cnip (with hand) unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other quiipjc unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar zi/mo, zo/ unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar he unknown Jane Hill
if si se grammar pix unknown Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location iti, ano (inanimate object) unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body itzo/ozj unknown Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ca-si/mta “feel itchy” unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact quicO unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental quiya unknown Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment hax caacoj “water big” unknown Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental casim unknown Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment istj unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body isli/ic “left hand” unknown Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body ito/aa unknown Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion coom unknown Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment iza/ahox inoftj unknown Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ccam unknown Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body iyas unknown Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality cacOsxaj unknown Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna hai (head) unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body isct unknown Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human ctam unknown Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ipxa/si unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment iizax unknown Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ata unknown Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body ita (of animal or thing) unknown Jane Hill
name nombre nome human ita/asi unknown Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body icaa/z it unknown Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality iicx unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body yaap unknown Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality cmaa quiih “now be” unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time iha/moc unknown Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar saate (neg. is m-) unknown Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body iif unknown Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality queejim unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number tazo unknown Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other caatjc unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar ihma/a unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body cmoque/epe “sick” unknown Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ziix quiisax “cosa que tiene vida” unknown Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact ccaxz (with long thing) unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment ipca unknown Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour cheel unknown Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body inol aapa “right hand” unknown Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture haaho unknown Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ixa/ai “root, base, foundation” unknown Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality czimpxa unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment hamt cooxp lit. “tierra blanca” (see “dust”) unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental quee unknown Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact cota/xim , unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental quiho unknown Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality coco/ctim unknown Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ccaiit “toward (with weapon)” unknown Jane Hill
short corto curto quality coojoj unknown Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body isla/aaj unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ihi/ini cO|quiij “shy” unknown Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state quiij unknown Jane Hill
skin piel pele body ina/ail unknown Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment hami/ime unknown Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body quiim unknown Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality quisil unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment hamca/axat unknown Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body cosi/i unknown Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body quitp (“spit out”) unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact iti cO|cazx (vi) unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact iiqui *coto/fz unknown Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact eenim co|cni/p unknown Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state caap “be standing” unknown Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment azoj unknown Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other ccooz unknown Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora hehe unknown Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment hast unknown Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body ccotz unknown Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body qu-iha/amaj unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body cpete unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion cacat unknown Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body iip unknown Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar ticah unknown Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ee unknown Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality quipcO unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality queeme “skinny” unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental quimoz unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar hipmoca unknown Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar me unknown Jane Hill
three tres tres number capxa unknown Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body ipnij (inside) unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact Cocoji/it unknown Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment iinj unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact cahi/zj unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body ipl unknown Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body ita/ast unknown Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other iiqui toii cpot “turn self around” unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number coocj unknown Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body quitajc unknown Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion catax unknown Jane Hill
water agua agua environment hax (fresh) unknown Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar ha-, he unknown Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ha-, he unknown Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality quiijc unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar a/z, haz unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar zi/mjOc unknown Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar ha/qui unknown Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour cooxp unknown Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar quii/h, ha/qui, ha/ahcO unknown Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship aal “spouse” (husband or wife) unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment hai (“wind, north wind”) unknown Jane Hill
wing ala asa body iiseja “branch, wing” unknown Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human cmaam unknown Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other cati/cpan loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body caajc unknown Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour cmasol unknown Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ma- (plural subject) unknown Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae cootaj ant unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 228 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana haamoja antelope loan Cocopa Cocopa mɂu·ł “antelope, probably related to proto-Yuman *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep”, perhaps *ahat-m?u·ł ...?? WW %mo: same underived Comcaac Dictionary 306 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus xeezej badger unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 585 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata coyóco caacoj common pigeon unique broader (this is domestic pigeon but probably wild pigeon too) phrase white.winged.dove big Comcaac Dictionary 240 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp senelcsét c is /k/ bat unique same phrase senel- cset butterfly- frigatebird (meaning “frigatebird like a butterfly” Comcaac Dictionary 557 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp contéetxyat stinkbug, Pinacate beetle unique narrower (a kind of beetle, but the kind I've used throughout) underived Comcaac Dictionary 213 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus xapij common reed Phragmites australis unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 580 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis sliitxcoj common hog-nosed skunk )(conepatus mesoleucus) unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 560 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus xeecoj wolf unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 583 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis mojet bighorn sheep loan Cocopa? Yuman *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep” WW %mo: same underived Comcaac Dictionary 447 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ziic z is /sh/ bird unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 616 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger cootaj coopol black ant unique same phrase ant black Comcaac Dictionary 228 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus teepol black-tailed jackrabbit unique Note UA *taput brush rabbit??? same underived Comcaac Dictionary 569 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus nop bobcat, Lynx rufus unique Note Proto-Yuman *nymi- same underived Comcaac Dictionary 454 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera seenel butterfly unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 556 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? hatnáacoj Gila woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygialis) unique same phrase hatni aacoj woodpecker big Comcaac Dictionary 358 2 This bird held onto the sky during the flood 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae hehe yapxöt imóoxi desert chia, Salvia columbariae unique same relative clause flower that.does.not -die (im-, negative relative clause marker!) Comcaac Dictionary 376 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. xpasíticl Harris' antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisii) unique same underived looks like 2 words but it's bad spacing before accented vowel in this font Comcaac Dictionary 598 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota xaasj an quiimtoj swallow (bird) unique broader (any swallow?) relative clause xaasj cardon; lit. los que tienen su nido en el cardon Comcaac Dictionary 577 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana ziic hacáatol American coot unique same phrase bird dangerous (brings bad luck) Comcaac Dictionary 616 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii hapxa cotton-tail rabbit unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 342 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. missing missing missing 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans oot coyote unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 364 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos hanaj j is /x/ common raven unique broader (probably raven and crow) underived Comcaac Dictionary 324 2 belongs to the devil and goes around killing with a bow. A person who kills a raven will be killed with a gun, perhpas by one of his own children. 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii hehe camóstim toloache, Datura discolor unique same relative clause planta que causa muecas Comcaac Dictionary 371 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus hap mule deer unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 335 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris haxz dog unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 363 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura noosi mourning dove, Z. macrocoura unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 455 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna zixcám fish unique see 88 same underived looks like etymologically might have the ziix “thing” element so common in the rel. clause animal names; perhaps onomasticized version of the generic “animal”,in (88) making this the prototype Comcaac Dictionary 634 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera haxz ii dog flea unique Note Proto-Yuman *?-?il “lice”?? This form is used only for possessed lice in Comcaac narrower (dog fleas only) other complex dog possessed.louse/flea Comcaac Dictionary 363 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. xeescl x is /X/ (uvular yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius) and ladder-backed woodpecker, Picoides scalaris unique broader (at least 2 genera of woodpecker-like birds) underived Comcaac Dictionary 584 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera xcoomoj housefly unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 583 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei hamat blue yucca, Y. baccata unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 321 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon xees gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 584 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna otác frog, toad unique WW %wakat broader (frogs and toads) underived Comcaac Dictionary 460 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos zep Golden eagle unique Note Delta-California Yuman ?espa ??? A connection? same underived Comcaac Dictionary 615 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer cocaznáacöl gopher snake unique same phrase cocazni “viper” aacöi “grande” Comcaac Dictionary 197 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) conée grass unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 212 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera caatc grasshopper (especially Oedipodinae) unique narrower (certain species) underived Comcaac Dictionary 74 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. ziix cozíp round-tailed ground squirrel (Sphermophilus tereticaudus unique same relative clause cosa que besa Comcaac Dictionary 622 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. xpist a squirrel (Sciuridae) unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 599 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus sah great horned owl, Bubo virginiana [sic] unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 553 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae hant coáaxoj regal horned lizard, Phrynosoma solare unique same phrase hant “earth” -- other element only in this form Comcaac Dictionary 327 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ziix hant quicáayot animal, especially horse unique same relative clause lit. cosa que gatea Comcaac Dictionary 624 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae xeenoj hummingbird unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 584 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. haapis casa desert tobacco, N. obtusifolia unique Is the haapis part the %u:p word? narrower (a species of Nicotiana) finite clause? tobacco stinks Comcaac Dictionary 307 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic ziix ccam animal, insect unique broader (any animal) relative clause cosa que tiene vida Comcaac Dictionary 619 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica hocö cheel cedar loan O'odham Piman huk “wood” same phrase wood red Comcaac Dictionary 382 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera hai head louse unique narrower (head louse only) underived Comcaac Dictionary 318 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos feel mallard, Anas platyrhynchos unique This is a very odd word, the only “real” word with initial /f/ in the language. same underived Comcaac Dictionary 299 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa najcáazjc reedstem milkweed, Asclepias albicans/subulata unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 453 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus pat tule, Southern cattail (Typha domingensis) unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 745 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos ziic coosixoj common mockingbird, Mimus polyglottos unique same relative clause ziic c-oosixoj “bird that- incites.to.fight” Comcaac Dictionary 616 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera cozamicamáacöl mosquito unique same phrase atacadores grandes Comcaac Dictionary 241 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera caamopxa white-lined sphinx moth unique narrower (a kind of moth, but the kind Merriam always uses) finite clause? from causative of “get lost” ccamopxa??? Comcaac Dictionary 64 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor xazoj mountain lion unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 583 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. satoj mussel (especially Modiolus capax) unique narrower (mainly one species of Mytelidae) underived Comcaac Dictionary 555 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata xpaléemelc olive shell, cone shell unique broader (includes Olivellidae and Conidae) underived sure looks like a complex formation but no analysis suggested Comcaac Dictionary 596 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? zaah aquéemot /qu/ as in Spanish Stellar's Jay unique same other complex sun brother.in.law Comcaac Dictionary 611 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum haan Smooth Pacific Venus clam, Chione fluctifraga (perhaps most similar to Pismo) unique narrower (only used in names for some species of clams) and broader (can be any shell with ihaxöl) underived Comcaac Dictionary 306 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. cocázni rattlesnake, especially Western Diamondback (C. atrox) unique narrower (does not include sidewinders, for e.g.) underived Comcaac Dictionary 197 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp missing missing missing 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus zazan Great-tailed grackle loan O'odham O'odham shashani “blackbird” broader (I suspect any non-corvid black bird) underived Comcaac Dictionary 615 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis siipoj cquihjö red-tailed hawk unique They think might be related to TO sipuk “cardinal” -- I doubt i very much. “Hawk” and “cardinal” don't have anything in common! same phrase osprey (Pandion) red Comcaac Dictionary 558 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus zaap Greater roadrunner, Geococcyx californianus unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 613 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? haasj spiny lizard, Sceloporus magister/? unique narrower (a species of Sceloporus) underived Comcaac Dictionary 309 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna tozípia side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana unique narrower (a species of Uta, although probably the one Merriam meant) underived Comcaac Dictionary 575 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ziix coíimaj hant cöquiih cö is /kw/ snake, general term for non-biting species (biting species change coiimaj for cocazni) unique narrower (doesn't include biting snakes/vipers) relative clause animal coiler (whipsnake) earththat- lies (?) Comcaac Dictionary 205 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco siimen American kestrel, Falco sparviverius unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 558 2 siimen cöittaxz “tener mala suerte” 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae coopol black widow spider unique narrower (kind of spider; their generic isn't all spiders in any case) underived Comcaac Dictionary 225 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae otác toad, frog unique broader (frogs and toads) underived Comcaac Dictionary 460 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) hehe tree, plant, bush unique broader (any plant?) underived Comcaac Dictionary 371 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura naapxa turkey vulture unique Note Cocopa šayí· same underived Comcaac Dictionary 453 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines xtamóosni desert tortoise unique narrower (desert tortoise only; mud turtle is a different word) underived but note moosni (caguama) Comcaac Dictionary 599 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica hamoj Gambel's quail, Callipepla gambelii unique Note Yuman ɂhmá (Yavapai), ɂahmaá ('Iipay Aa) -- a connection??? Perhaps an old arealism? same underived Comcaac Dictionary 203 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis cooijac Canada goose unique same underived looks like a verb, but no analysis suggested Comcaac Dictionary 218 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus haquim (arc.) whale unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 334 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos tosníxp white pelican unique same phrase tosni “brown pelican”-xp < cooxp “that which is white” yields “white pelican” Comcaac Dictionary 575 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) caztaz hajöázipoj oats unique broader (domestic oats and wild oats relative clause trigo que ha sido aplastado Comcaac Dictionary 159 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) cotx brittlebush (Encelia farinosa) unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 239 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. paaij Goodding willow, driftwood unique narrower (a species of willow) underived Comcaac Dictionary 463 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. xpos packrat, white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula) unique same underived Comcaac Dictionary 599 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) haxz heeque hairy caterpillar unique same phrase dog young Comcaac Dictionary 363 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper potáa larva, worm, maggot unique broader (diverse worms and larvae) underived Comcaac Dictionary 469 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna cootaj unknown Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ziic unknown Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna xcoomoj “housefly” unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna haxz unknown Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna cone/e unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna hepem (white-tail) unknown Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna coca/zni “rattlesnake” unknown Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna coi/iz unknown Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food missing missing Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology hant quih quicópol infierno, hell (lit. dark land) unknown phrase hant earth/land Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
feather headband dress hanaj haaonam headpiece made with feathers unknown phrase hanaj crow haaonam hat Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool haxáaza arrow unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool ziix icáahit bait (lit. cosa con que uno pesca) unknown phrase caahit Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation haaco ano hapáspoj cöicacóaat school (house in which one teaches with paper) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material hasaj traditional basin-shaped Seri basket unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material haapxij prehistoric bead made of shell unknown also ihaapxa, hapápi 'seeds, bons, and shells that have been strung on a necklace' simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool haacni bow for arrows unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport canóaa boat loan Spanish WW %canoa simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation hatéeya bottle loan Spanish WW %botella simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation hapáspoj paper, book semantic shift name for tail fan e.g. of shrimp is hapaspoj yaa, lit. sus naipes simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology quihéhe chief, leader (tener palo de autoridad) unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool hehe plant, bush, tree, wood, stick, club, staff of office unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing missing Jane Hill
cook food food camáma cook unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
corpse food ziix hacx cmíih corpse, cadaver (lit. cosa muerta) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology cooit to dance unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology Hant Caai creator of the world according to the Seri ancestors (lit. el que hizo el mundo) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology comóozi to dream unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology an iquíixa water drum, barrel (container ) unknown phrase an 'container' quiixa 'have water or other liquid' Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation tootar chicken loan Mayo ultimately Nahuatl totolli 'young turkey' simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
earring other hasít earring unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology hai quiita an evil spirit that sounds like a child crying (lit. el que tiene el viento como madre) loan Spanish phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool caaa fire drill unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other haquéjöc firewood unknown compound ?? Does this have 'fire'? Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food caahit to fish unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool xepe poosj fishing line (sea cord) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool eenm icáahit fishook (lit. metal con que uno pesca) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
gambling sticks other xapij caanim gamestick ussed in hidden stick game unknown phrase Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing missing Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ziix quinej ghost (lit. cosa vacia) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool csipx resin, expecially creosote bush resin used as glue unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology ziix hacx cmiih quih hant an iihom grave (lugar en que esta el cadaver) unknown phrase coom Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
alcohol food cocsar yamáax liquor (Mexican's drink) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics hehe camóstim toloache (D. discolor) unknown also hehe caróocot phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology cacáaso shaman unknown siplex vb 'to see by means of shamanic power' is identical Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food panáal honey loan Spanish WW %panal simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
house other haaco house unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food quimjö go hunting for certain animal unknown there are a lot of words for different kinds of hunting simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material eenim metal, iron, knife loan O'odham simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool ziix an ihanéezj mortar, molcajete (cosa en que se machaca) unknown haacala bedrock mortar phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
necklace other hapápjc necklade, beads on a necklace (lo que se cuelga en el cuello) unknown simplex quipjc Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool pac deer bone awl used for stitching Seri baskets unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport queelx short paddle unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool hazpéen pestle used to grind mesquite pods & seeds unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
pinole food hapáha pinole (haarina de mezquite) unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other xapij an icóopis pipe for smoking (carrizo en que uno fuma) unknown phrase xapij carrizo Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
pitch food csipx resin, expecially creosote bush resin used as glue unknown other words for resin of other plants but this seems to be most general simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hamázaj clay pot unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool an icóoquim quiver (en que uno mete (cosas) unknown also hapnáail an icóoquim phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology xjii heetni gourd rattle unknown phrase xjii bottle gourd Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food hantíp salt unknown hmm, note Chumashan *tip 'salt' simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology xiica iti ooquim clothing (cosas que el o ella se pone) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material hapnáail skirt unknown compound from hap ináail 'piel de venado bura' (hap mule deer, venado bura) Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool an iquimónaica trap, en que se enredan los pies de uno unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology icóos song unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool iconip battle spear unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture poosj cord, string unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material zoozj costal, burlap bag unknown source unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation sancáac brown sugar loan Pima Bajo or maybe Yaqui sankaka (ultimate source is what?) simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
sweathouse other missing missing Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology coomx tell unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics haapis copxöt tobacco (lit. loose tobacco) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
tule boat transport hascám reed boat, balsa unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress pazáato shoe loan Spanish WW %zapato simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics ziix ic cöihíipe medicine (lo que sirve para una cosa) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hasítj cradleboard unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation ziix quixáaza soldier, police (persona con arma) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation ziix quixáaza soldier, police (persona con arma) unknown phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
corn food hapxöl corn, maize unknown simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
beans food moon pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) loan O'odham WW %mun simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation miist cat loan O'odham (M&M think it's Spanish, it isn't) simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation eenm haacni firearm, gun, rifle (lit. metal bow) semantic shift phrase Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress haaonam hat loan O'odham simplex Moser & Marlett 2005 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material haaco isxa/p unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hapa/nzx (horsehair rope) unknown Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture xap “metate” (archaic usage) unknown Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool hapoj unknown Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture coospx, quispx unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture hast icosi/c “mano de metate” (lit. piedra con que uno muele) unknown Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool haacni “bow” unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool haxa/aza “arrow” unknown Jane Hill
house other haaco unknown Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium HG low mobile no