Djeoromitxi

Family
Macro-Jean
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
jbt
Location
-12.04°, -64.67°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Ribeiro, Michela Araújo. 2008. Dicionário Djeoromitxi-Português: registro da língua do povo Jabuti. Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Guajará-Mirim. (MA thesis).


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location benĩ benĩ See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kamẽ kamẽ See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body hükari høkari See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality pipitxi pipitʃi See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body pika pika See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location pfütxe ɸøtʃe See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality txitxi tʃitʃi See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour biro biro See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body käi kǝi See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body kunĩ kunĩ See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body dji dʒi See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body nõwi nõwi See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human djiri dʒiri See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment benõhi benõhi See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality djidjirü dʒidʒirø See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality kinẽẽ kinẽẽ See Language page PLE
day día dia time türü tørø See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality katorü katorø See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality hioriru (vb.) hioriru (vb.) See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality hütõ (sharp-NEG) høtõ (sharp-NEG) See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment minõ minõ See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body nipi nipi See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna dje dʒe See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body hõka hõka See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality bepfü beɸø See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship hotxi hotʃi See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna hi hi See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment pitxe pitʃe See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment hawa hawa See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment pitxenõ pitʃenõ See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora kuka kuka See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality medjü, hainẽ (vb.) medʒø, hainẽ (vb.) See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body kõãhi kõãhi See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body nĩhu nĩhu See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar na na See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body kõãka kõãka See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality kumirü kumirø See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar hatxinĩ hatʃinĩ See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar hü See Language page PLE
if si se grammar See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location kükü køkø See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body ninika ninika See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment kupa kupa See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body hapfõ haɸõ See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body hetã hetã See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment mĩmĩ mĩmĩ See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality täri tǝri See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tõdje tõdʒe See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human txiü tʃiø See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment kupa kupa See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship tätxi, dji tǝtʃi, dʒi See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body hakü hakø See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human tõhi tõhi See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality kapfütxe kaɸøtʃe See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body heo heo See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body küpfü køɸø See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality dote dote See Language page PLE
night noche noite time hõĩka hõĩka See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body nĩnĩküte nĩnĩkøte See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality hanõtxi hanõtʃi See Language page PLE
one uno um number uitxi uitʃi See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar ränẽ rǝnẽ See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body hübi høbi See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human hikäbü hikǝbø See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment nĩpa nĩpa See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour nõrü nõrø See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body wewe wewe See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture wikü wikø See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora rari rari See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality to, here to, here See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment mĩkänõrü mĩkǝnõrø See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality hürü hørø See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality patä patǝ See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body tebükudji tebøkudʒi See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental hõmã hõmã See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment bekükü bekøkø See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality titi, bihi, tätä, txunĩ titi, bihi, tǝtǝ, tʃunĩ See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment bzirebzire bzirebzire See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ku ku See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment ta ta See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body o o See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar newi newi See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar na na See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality txitxi tʃitʃi See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality käbzitä kǝbzitǝ See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar newe newe See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar adje adʒe See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body borekü borekø See Language page PLE
three tres tres number djeboäbo dʒeboǝbo See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment uhõhõ uhõhõ See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body wekä wekǝ See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body heku heku See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body habädjenõkü habǝdʒenõkø See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment txetu tʃetu See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body pa pa See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion huwi huwi See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion hari, neuwenĩ hari, neuwenĩ See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact bzihe, txe bzihe, tʃe See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental hubä hubǝ See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental bü, hĩhĩ bü, hĩhĩ See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact äre, kuka ǝre, kuka See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state hahi hahi See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental nõtenõ nõtenõ See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body pfo, ko ɸo, ko See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion hõkü, nõkü, pä hõkø, nõkø, pǝ See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental djü, pi dʒø, pi See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion hüpfü høɸø See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state hüte, bere høte, bere See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion ü ü See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact päpä, tümĩ pǝpǝ, tümĩ See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other pepe pepe See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact hi hi See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental änõ ǝnõ See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental dje dʒe See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ore ore See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body hõna hõna See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other be be See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact päpä, tümi pǝpǝ, tümi See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental hubä hubǝ See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact piriri piriri See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental änõ ǝnõ See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state hõna hõna See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body nõtõ nõtõ See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ĩ ĩ See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body heitxi heitʃi See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact djebühe dʒebøhe See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state tumĩ tumĩ See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other hubi hubi See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body u u See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body bere bere See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion bziruiwa bziruiwa See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental nĩpikühenĩ nĩpikøhenĩ See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact kühi køhi See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact txi tʃi See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other pari, bero pari, bero See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body nõküpfu nõkøɸu See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion dudu dudu See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other nĩhõnõnõda nĩhõnõnõda See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body hakübe hakøbe See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body piro piro See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body See Language page PLE
two dos dois number djebo dʒebo See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment bziru bziru See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar hirü hirø See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality boi (vb.) boi (vb.) See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar be be See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar hatxiä hatʃiǝ See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar hadjo, hau hadʒo, hau See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour känõrü kǝnõrø See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar hüa høa See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship täro tǝro See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment o o See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body hari hari See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human pako pako See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page PLE
foot pie body pfü, pa ɸø, pa See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page PLE
all todo todos other bzitã bzitã See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body papfüoka paɸøoka See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body hakükakü hakøkakø See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body nĩmeko nĩmeko See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body bähenõ bǝhenõ See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body tõru tõru See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body txi tʃi See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body bätutuka bǝtutuka See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time tõhõ tõhõ See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment uri uri See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality häterü hǝterø See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. beretxe beretʃe See Language page PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna bitä bitǝ See Language page PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. bitxi bitʃi See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. hõtxi hõtʃi See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans kunõtotxitxi kunõtotʃitʃi See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. pfouri ɸouri See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae otxerü, otõka, orotxi, djoi otʃerø, otõka, orotʃi, dʒoi See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae kiriripika kiriripika See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae txoritxi tʃoritʃi See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pfopfo, patxehe ɸoɸo, patʃehe See Language page Widespread PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. pire pire See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica eruwe eruwe See Language page Widespread PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae mekutxi mekutʃi See Language page PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae pikuri pikuri See Language page PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae tõtõtxi tõtõtʃi See Language page Widespread South America PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family parotxitxi parotʃitʃi See Language page PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakänõ wakǝnõ See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae mioro mioro See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris wa wa See Language page Not native; widespread PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis ärätxä, watxiri ǝrǝtʃǝ, watʃiri See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) parori parori See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tõo tõo See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. waodü waodø See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. uhiri uhiri See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus mire mire See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna minõ minõ See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. bziohõberü bziohõberø See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae minõrürü minõrørø See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. bzira bzira See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. nirübi, ditxedu, kunime nirøbi, ditʃedu, kunime See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. minõtxikorü minõtʃikorø See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura txinikakä tʃinikakǝ See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. hautxitxi hautʃitʃi See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata hau hau See Language page PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. txaõ tʃaõ See Language page PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura mĩtokakä mĩtokakǝ See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes mẽpfuru mẽɸuru See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae neru neru See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mẽ mẽ See Language page PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox merübri merøbri See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria bzieko bzieko See Language page Widespread PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis eitxi eitʃi See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) pfonini ɸonini See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba djärä dʒǝrǝ See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. pahe pahe See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa kuru kuru See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea kubitxi kubitʃi See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes ünĩ ønĩ See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua naburi naburi See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) habzi habzi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra kumepika kumepika See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens tete tete See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea komẽ komẽ See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. hõãtxitä hõãtʃitǝ See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. koretxi koretʃi See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays txitxi tʃitʃi See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum padji padʒi See Language page plant PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ku ku See Language page PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana kurabi kurabi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. homi homi See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala hokä hokǝ See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] ore ore See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum djeopäre dʒeopǝre See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana bi bi See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. txitoro tʃitoro See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia otxo (?) otʃo (?) See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bore bore See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas hemi hemi See Language page plant PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. bu bu See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. bireka bireka See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) djibe, koraka dʒibe, koraka See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. bzirima bzirima See Language page plant PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. hokä hokǝ See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. tane, pfütxe tane, ɸøtʃe See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola padjihõ padʒihõ See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae kunõhihi kunõhihi See Language page PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. heru, pipitxi, pirürü heru, pipitʃi, pirørø See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis tuiri, itõ, ne tuiri, itõ, ne See Language page PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria komepika komepika See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae wiräwirä wirǝwirǝ See Language page PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera hareru hareru See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora teürire teørire See Language page PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda pänikäte pǝnikǝte See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones oika oika See Language page PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea korokoro korokoro See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera päri pǝri See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera kuhenĩ kuhenĩ See Language page PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae tenopika tenopika See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. hanõ hanõ See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae tärärä tǝrǝrǝ See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. patxi patʃi See Language page PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera txerere tʃerere See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea txitxika tʃitʃika See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita tärätärä tǝrǝtǝrǝ See Language page PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda minio minio See Language page PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae nimekäri nimekǝri See Language page PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca wa wa See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha mẽnĩmĩ-pikatxi mẽnĩmĩ-pikatʃi See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] üri øri See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella bzire bzire See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus mẽnĩmĩ mẽnĩmĩ See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae dji dʒi See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis waure waure See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis wauretätä wauretǝtǝ See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pahe pahe See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari paheri paheri See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kunĩ kunĩ See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua õõ õõ See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. teri teri See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris hoãbzia hoãbzia See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) djedje dʒedʒe See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus bäräte bǝrǝte See Language page PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae tekati tekati See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris hõã hõã See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus kudi kudi See Language page PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material toe toe See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material tetä tetǝ See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material nĩpe nĩpe See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport kuäkä kuǝkǝ See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology hika hika See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology küro køro In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology küro køro Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material kuine kuine See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kukä, kä kukǝ, kǝ See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other nitäkä nitǝkǝ may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other pitxerakü pitʃerakø See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology kanõnõ, honĩtĩ kanõnõ, honĩtĩ See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology hotõ, karopsihi hotõ, karopsihi In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology opä opǝ multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material hakutä hakutǝ See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material haku haku See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool mĩtä mĩtǝ especially for clearing fields See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool kubi kubi hunting, warfare See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool tewä tewǝ arco See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport bziruiküruä bziruikøruǝ See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material hanĩbe hanĩbe See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool oa oa See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology du du See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool kamĩte kamĩte See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other benĩka (beeswax) benĩka (beeswax) See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food be be only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture hokä hokǝ See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material hi hi See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation nikokäkoä nikokǝkoǝ See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation käko kǝko See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology nõtenõ nõtenõ See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation paro paro See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology korekõ korekõ See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation bekidji bekidʒi See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation warurei warurei See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tewä (weapon, gun) tewǝ (weapon, gun) See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress kanõ kanõ See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology nĩrü nĩrø See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food kukänĩ kukǝnĩ See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology howa howa See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool nõõã nõõã esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food minõbä minõbǝ See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food õbi õbi See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food hipfo hiɸo Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool djibe, koraka dʒibe, koraka See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool kunĩ kunĩ esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool kabekä kabekǝ See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool kütü køtø See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool pfü ɸø See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture hibzi hibzi prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food bore to bore to agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food ma ma See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food ma ma agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool mẽnẽ mẽnẽ agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool tereka tereka See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other hiküka, ka, nĩka hikøka, ka, nĩka See Language page PLE