Yavapai

Family
Yuman
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
yuf
Location
35.63°, -113.39°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (178)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location cha/:(v)-k unknown Shaterian 1983 (unless otherwise noted) Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ?i^:nka “soon, again; wait!” unknown Jane Hill
all todo todos other pa/ya inheritance Jane Hill
and y e grammar va\vyu/:(va) “and, but” unknown Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body sqmwi^:ra unknown Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body slpu/ inheritance Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment (?)mhu\/(:)l, (?)mhu/(:)l inheritance Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location ?e, he\ “locational suffix” (needs hyphen) unknown Jane Hill
back espalda costas body hita/t “spine, back”, Hita/t (GM) inheritance Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality ?la/ loan direction unknown Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body vnu^na, mnu^(:)na, mnu/(:)na unknown Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ya:l “under” unknown Jane Hill
big grande grande quality te/(:) “big, many, much” (a suffix), vte/, kvte/: inheritance Jane Hill
bite morder morder body chkYo/, chkWo/ Y is superscript y inheritance Jane Hill
black negro preto colour ?nya_: inheritance Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body (?)hWa/t- “red; blood” inheritance Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body ha\vchu/:li inheritance Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body le_:qva “sore” unknown Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body chya/:ka inheritance Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body nyma/ya inheritance Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body vthe^:h(the^:h)i\; vthe_: unknown Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment qwa_ti inheritance Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body chmnya/yi inheritance Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human tha/wa “offspring, child” inheritance Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion chkpa/: unknown Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment (?)kWi/ inheritance Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality mu_ni unknown Jane Hill
come venir vir motion yu^wi inheritance Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact nwi_:ri unknown Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality vlwi_ “right, correct, proper”, lwi/ “correct” inheritance Jane Hill
count contar contar mental si/vi “count, read” inheritance Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental mi/: inheritance Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact kYa/t (requires prefix for Instr) inheritance Jane Hill
day día dia time sma/: “day (24 hours)” unknown Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state pi/ inheritance Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact hWa/li, hWa/ri “dig, scoop ... plant, hollow out” inheritance Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna (?)hat(?)kWi_la “wolf; mountain lion” inheritance Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality qaya “dusty” unknown Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental tsma_:chi inheritance Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body thi/: inheritance Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality ru/vi inheritance Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality yo_:va ?u_mi “not sharp, dull” unknown Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment ma\tha_:t nyu^:lk?i\?i\, ma\tmqwa_na _ is macron inheritance Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body sma/lka inheritance Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment ma^t inheritance Jane Hill
eat comer comer body ?ch...ma/:, ?chma/:, ma_: inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna sqa_wa unknown Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body yu/(:) “eye, face”, yo\",,,inheritance,,,,,,,,Jane Hill NAM,BODY,faeces,xx,xx,,Yavapai,che/lqa,,,inheritance,,,,,,,,Jane Hill NAM,MOTION,fall,xx,xx,,Yavapai,thi^ri,,,inheritance,,,,,,,,Jane Hill NAM,QUALITY,far,xx,xx,,Yavapai,twa:yi “distant”,,,unknown,,, wa/la “wing feather”" inheritance
fire fuego fogo environment ??o_ inheritance Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna ?chi/: inheritance Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion he/(:)li loan direction unknown Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment ta/vsi, ta/wsi inheritance Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion vya/:r ... i\, vya/:ri inheritance Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment muthe/ , mutha_“fog, damp” inheritance Jane Hill
foot pie body mi/ “foot; bits (in money)” inheritance Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora (?)ha_ni unknown Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality k(?)ha/na “right; good” unknown Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state ?te(:) “grown” (< -te(:) “big”) inheritance Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body nymi/ya “hair” inheritance Jane Hill
hand mano mão body sa/l inheritance Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar nytha^ch inheritance Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body qmpa^yq “brain(s), head”; k?o^ya “head, crown” unknown Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental ?e^:vi inheritance Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality no/: inheritance Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pe/qi, 7a/vi unknown Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other i:kWi^thi “catch, grab, hold on”, HikWi^thi unknown Jane Hill
how? como como grammar ka/(v) unknown Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar ?nya/- inheritance Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ya/:l “into, under” unknown Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body vha_ “guts, entrails” inheritance Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ttmo_: “itches” unknown Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact ne_hi unknown Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental spo/ inheritance Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment ?ha\hpu\/ unique Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental chkwa/ri inheritance Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment the_qa unknown Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body sa\lktha/:ri “left hand”; sa\lktha_:ro_ “on the left side” inheritance Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body mpa/ra “leg, wheel” unknown Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ya^ki inheritance Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment vrav 7ica (vrav ... 7i-ca (ca=Nom) inheritance Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ya\...pe/: “be alive, be born” inheritance Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body chvthi/:, chwthi/: inheritance Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality kYu/(:)li inheritance Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna h?e/l unknown Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body chkWa/l “lungs” inheritance Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human pa\:hmi/(ya) inheritance Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna kWe\:tho/va “meat, game” unknown Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment hla/ inheritance Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship chchi:, chi/ta : is macron inheritance Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body ya/ inheritance Jane Hill
name nombre nome human mu/l, mo/l inheritance Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body i:pu/k “nape”, Hipu/k “neck” inheritance Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality hipe/; tye/: unknown Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body mlqi/, mlqi_ inheritance Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality Hivmu^ “new, young” , hivmu^ H is h subdot unknown Jane Hill
night noche noite time hipa_:m “at night” unknown Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar ?u/mi inheritance Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body hu_: “nose, head” (WG, GM) inheritance Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality ni_kwa/yi, nykwa^yi “old, worn out” (WG) unknown Jane Hill
one uno um number (?)si/ti, (?)si/:ti inheritance Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other kWa_kv?i “open slowly” unknown Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar hke/ “other, different”, hka/ya unknown Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ?chra\/vi “sick” \/ is breve inheritance Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human ?pa/: inheritance Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact (s)peqi, tu/, mqwa_ni unknown Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment (?)ki\vo_ inheritance Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour (?)hWa/t- “red; blood” inheritance Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body sa\lk?a_ni “right hand”; sa\lkha_no_ “on the right side”, sa\lk?ha_ni “right side” inheritance Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture ?nya/ “road, path” inheritance Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ??i\:msma_:, msma/: inheritance Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality t?e/li “spoiling” unknown Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment (?)ha\chwa_ “sand, gravel” unknown Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental ?i/ inheritance Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact tmo/: unknown Jane Hill
see ver ver mental ?u/: inheritance Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality yo_:va inheritance Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact kYa/: inheritance Jane Hill
short corto curto quality chkro/ty (y is barred i) inheritance Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body slma/ka “shoulder (blade)” unknown Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state wa_ inheritance Jane Hill
skin piel pele body thpi^la “bark, skin” unknown Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment mya::khti^:la “heaven, sky” i has macron and following raised dot inheritance Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body sma/: inheritance Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality ki/ch, qa/ch, ka/ch, ke/ch unknown Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment 7o\hWa/ya unique Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hWi/ inheritance Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body ha\chtu/hi loan direction unknown Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tika/:vi, chIpa:(macron), (m)scha/qi I has subdot, : is macron unknown Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact thkWi_i: “squeeze, wring (out)” inheritance Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact vqa_mi, vqa/mi unknown Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kvskWi_: “standing”, vskWi/(:) “stand up” inheritance Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment ham(m)si_: inheritance Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other kchi_:chi “steal” inheritance Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ??i /: “wood, tree” inheritance Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment wi^:vch (as subject), ?wi/: inheritance Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body chthpa^li “suck, chew (cud)” unknown Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body ny?o\kkWa/ “I'm sweating”, ny?o/ “sweat”, ny?o/ “sweat” unknown Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body ?a_:li “swell, swollen” unknown Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion ?ha\...thpu/(:)yi, ?ha\cha/:vk ya/ki \ grave / acute th is theta unknown Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body vhe/ “tail, skirt” unknown Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar nyu/ch inheritance Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar nytha^chvch inheritance Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ti:nyi ny is IPA symbol unknown Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality the_qi unknown Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental thri_ unknown Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar vya/, nyva/- inheritance Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar ma/:ch, ma/: inheritance Jane Hill
three tres tres number hmu/(:)ki inheritance Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body pa\lqcho^: unknown Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact ta/\:vk inheritance Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment v?u_:v?u_:?ik “thunder sound” unknown Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact chthpa/\li “tie”, kthpa_li “tie”, klkYo^yi “tie around > jail”, qthpa^li “tie up” unknown Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body hi:pa/l, himpa/l, Hipa_l, Himpa\/l inheritance Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body yo/: inheritance Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other sihWi_:ni “turn (car, horse) in motion” unknown Jane Hill
two dos dois number hwa/ki, hwa^ki inheritance Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body yo/qi loan into protolanguage Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion vo/: inheritance Jane Hill
water agua agua environment ?ha inheritance Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar nya/chv- (multiple plural) inheritance Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality pu/li “be wet” unknown Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar ka/(v) unknown Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar kanyyu^me_? inheritance Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar vke/? unknown Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour sa/va, (ny)msa/vi (related to “silver” word wi\:nymsa_va) inheritance Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar vka/ unknown Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship lwa^ unknown Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment ma\the/, ma\tha/ya inheritance Jane Hill
wing ala asa body wa^:lch (subject form), wa/la inheritance Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human msi_ inheritance Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other tha\rha_:r7i loan Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body vcha\ kwa_:k?i?i inheritance Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour (?)qWa/thi inheritance Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ma/chvchi inheritance Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (130)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
abalone flora-fauna Haliotis spp. hàlkrâ:pa blue-green seashell unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 1 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
antelope flora-fauna Antilocapra americana mɂūl antelope inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa mɂu·ł; Does this contain *?-mu(w) “bighorn sheep” with metath? WW %mo: unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
badger flora-fauna Taxidea taxus mhwá· badger inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa mxwaa=pi-y-l=t-kw+yaq; 'Iipay Aa mehwaa unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 yes
bald eagle flora-fauna Haliaeetus leucocephalus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
band-tail pigeon flora-fauna Patagioenas fasciata sàkwīta pigeon unique bird-dove-big unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp qà(·)păɲqa bat inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave qampanyq unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
beaver flora-fauna Castor h.ɲā(·)qa beaver unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
beetle flora-fauna Coleoptera spp čk/qnāna stink bug inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa mes-hanan, Cocopa şxmnan unknown Shaterian 1983 2 0 0 0 0 no
big round tule flora-fauna Schoenoplectus acutus hàmsɂīβ bullrushes unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 2 0 0 no
big skunk flora-fauna Mephitis mephitis khʷíwa skunk inheritance *xwiw (*kłʸikʷ) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:96 (Langdon 1976:873 Metath) unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
big wolf (gray wolf) flora-fauna Canis lupus (ɂ)hàt(ɂ)kʷīla wolf inheritance Proto-Yuman Contains *(č)-xat “dog”; Maricopa hatkult, and see Kiliwa that=kil unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
bighorn sheep flora-fauna Ovis canadensis ɂmú sheep inheritance *?-mu(w) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:80, 91 WW %mo: unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ɂčsá bird inheritance *č-sa Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:81 unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
black ant flora-fauna Camponotus pennsylvanicus/Lasius niger čnᶏhpŭka black ant (small, brown) unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 0 0 0 0 no
black bear flora-fauna Ursus americanus mhwā(·)ta bear inheritance Proto-Yuman badger-big unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
black-tail Jackrabbit flora-fauna Lepus californicus (ɂ)kúla jackrabbit inheritance Proto-Yuman M. ɂakɂuuly; Cocopa kɂuły unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
blackberry flora-fauna Rubus ursinus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
blue grouse flora-fauna Dendrogapus? missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bobcat, lynx flora-fauna Lynx rufus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera hàɲkrâ·pa butterfly unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 0 0 0 0 no
California condor flora-fauna Gymnogyps californianus missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 1 no
California jay flora-fauna Aphelocoma californica? čàsčā·sa blue jay, pinyon jay unique Looks a bit like the cha'i sets in Takic unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
California woodpecker flora-fauna Melanerpes formicivorus? missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
chia flora-fauna Salvia columbariae missing missing missing 1 1 1 0 0 no
chipmunk flora-fauna Tamias spp. hmíra chipmunk inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave humɂiir “squirrel” unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
cliff swallow flora-fauna Petrochelidon pyrrhonota missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
coot flora-fauna Fulica americana missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottontail rabbit flora-fauna Sylvilagus audobonii hló cottontail inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa xa?law; Mojave halyɂaw; Cocopa Cocopa xłyɂa· unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
cottonwood flora-fauna Populus spp. ɂhá(·) cottonwood inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave ɂahɂa, Co. Co. xɂa unknown Shaterian 1983 2 0 2 0 0 no
coyote flora-fauna Canis latrans kθàrɂhāna coyote unique Contains *(č)-xat “dog” unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 no
crow flora-fauna Corvus brachyrhynchos qsăq a has hachek crow loan Other Yuman? Not PY *qaaq unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
datura flora-fauna Datura wrightii smá·lkktū· jimsonweed doubtful loan Hokan Note Mojave ɂamalykatu, Cocopa şmál ka·pí·ţ unknown Shaterian 1983 1 1 1 1 0 yes
deer, mule flora-fauna Odocoileus hemionus (ɂ)kʷ/qʷá:qa deer inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa 'ekwak, Mojave ɂaqwaq unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
digger pine flora-fauna Pinus sabiniana hwá(:)l pine inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave huwaal; ?? Kiliwa ?+xaal ???? unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 2 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kθár dog inheritance Proto-Yuman This isn't xaT. It's from kθā·ri “left (direction)”; same metaphor is in Mojave hukthar “coyote” unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
dogbane flora-fauna Apocynum cannabinum missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna Zenaida macrocoura kwī dove inheritance *k-wi(?) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae qnmó: duck inheritance Mojave hanamo unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
elder flora-fauna Sambucus tàttăla elderberry unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 1 0 0 no
elk flora-fauna Cervas elaphus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ɂčí· fish inheritance *?-či· Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FISH unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna Siphonaptera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
flicker flora-fauna Colaptes sp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera θmpû·rka fly n. inheritance *smpul Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FLY *şlmu; (*smpul “mosquito”) unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
foothills yucca flora-fauna Yucca whipplei mnāt yucca inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave vaanat unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
fox flora-fauna Vulpes, Urocyon qqór fox inheritance *p-rxa·w/m-rxa·w Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FOX unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna hàɲkŏ, hàɲâ breve is hachek frog 1, frog 2 inheritance *xa-nya Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:637 FROG unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
golden eagle flora-fauna Aquila chrysaetos ɂsá eagle unique unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 1 no
gooseberry flora-fauna Ribes spp. missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
gopher snake, bull snake flora-fauna Pituophis catenifer hàtᶏmā·la a squiggle is a subdot gopher snake unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) ɂìwīla grass unique Note Mojave ɂichɂivily unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Caelifera kąpámka Grasshopper inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa xnkpaap, Cocopa Cocopa łxmpaţ unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray ground squirrel flora-fauna Sphermophilus sp. hmílta Harris ground squirrel unique Probably chipmunk -big unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
gray tree squirrel flora-fauna Sciurus spp. hmíra squirrel inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave humɂiir “squirrel” unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
great horned owl flora-fauna Bubo virginianus ɂyu· owl unique unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 2 0 1 no
grizzly bear flora-fauna Ursus arctos horribilis missing missing missing 1 2 0 0 0 yes
horned toad flora-fauna Phrynosomatidae tlkʷăm breve is hachek horned toad unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 2 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus ɂhát horse semantic shift *(č)-xat “dog” Proto-Yuman as “dog” Mixco 1978:83 unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae mìnmí·na hummingbird unique unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana spp. ɂū:βa tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman unknown IA ɂup; C. ɂu·p, etc. and cf. Karuk 7uhípih, Chimariko h-óphat ‘smoking’, Proto-Palaihnihan *o:xpi WW %7u:p unknown Shaterian 1983 1 1 1 1 0 yes
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 variable
junco flora-fauna Junco sppp missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
juniper flora-fauna Juniperus californica čóqa juniper unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 1 0 0 no
louse flora-fauna order Phtiraptera hɂél louse unique Resembles Cocopa ɂiɂíÍłʸ but not cognate? unknown Shaterian 1983 2 0 0 0 0 no
mallard flora-fauna Anas platyrhynchos missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
manzanita flora-fauna Arctostaphylos spp. čmpûk manzanita unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, broad leaf flora-fauna Asclepias eriocarpa missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
milkweed, narrow leaf flora-fauna Asclepias fascicularis missing missing missing 0 1 1 0 0 no
mission tule flora-fauna Juncus ɂhtá reed inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 Metath; Mojave hatav'iily unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 2 0 0 no
mockingbird flora-fauna Mimus polyglottos ɂčsàkwīla mockingbird inheritance *č-sa - kwila Proto-Yuman contains *č-sa “bird”; this combo in Yav, Cocopa, 'Iipay Aa unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna Heterocera missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
mountain lion flora-fauna Puma concolor ɲmīta mountain lion inheritance *nymi-tay Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:638 LION, Mixco 1978:91 unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
mountain quail flora-fauna Oreortyx pictus ɂhmá quail inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:871 Metath unknown 2 1 0 0 0 no
mussel flora-fauna Mytilus spp. missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
olivella (olive snail) flora-fauna Callianax biplicata missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 1 no
pinyon jay flora-fauna Cyanocitta stelleri? čàsčā·sa pinyon jay, blue jay unique Note 'Iipay Aa kulashaash “bluejay” unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
pinyon pine flora-fauna Pinus monophylla ɂkʰō pinyon pine, nut inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+khiiw; ?+xiw unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 2 0 1 no
pismo clam flora-fauna Tivella stultorum missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
pocket gopher flora-fauna Thomomys kotú gopher inheritance Proto-Yuman Langdon 1976:872 Metath unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
poison oak flora-fauna Toxicodendron diversilobum missing missing missing 2 2 2 0 0 yes
rattlesnake flora-fauna Crotalus spp. ɂlwĭ appears in word for “snake rattles” inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? unknown Shaterian 1983 1 2 0 0 0 yes
red ant flora-fauna Solenopsis spp čmyúl red or fire ant inheritance Proto-Yuman Co. šmuyúły, Mo. Mo. chamaduuly unknown Shaterian 1983 1 0 1 0 0 no
red-shouldered blackbird flora-fauna Agelaius phoeniceus missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
red-tailed hawk flora-fauna Buteo jamaicensis skwāla large hawk inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa pkwalu, 'Iipay Aa ɂepkwall; UA *kwa'a “large hawk” should be considered as a source (S716) unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
roadrunner flora-fauna Geococcyx californianus tlpū road runner loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Takic Langdon 1976:873 Metath; see notes on Iipay Aa WW %pu: unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
ruddy duck flora-fauna Oxyura jamaicensis missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
sage herb flora-fauna Artemisia californica missing missing missing 2 2 1 0 0 no
salmon/steelhead flora-fauna Oncorhynchus mykiss missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
scaly lizard flora-fauna Pygopus lepidopodus? thθí(·)la lizard inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Mojave ahatath'ily unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
small bird flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
small brown lizard flora-fauna missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ɂlwĭ breve is hachek snake inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Kiliwa ?+wi? unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
soaproot flora-fauna Chlorogalum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sour berry flora-fauna Rhus trilobata missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
sparrow hawk flora-fauna Falco ɂčkyô·č diver or chicken hawk unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae nĭ·sa spider unique unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 2 0 0 variable
spotted skunk flora-fauna Spilogale gracilis sᶏkmāka squiggle is subdot skunk unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna Bufonidae missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) ɂɂí· tree inheritance Proto-Yuman Note 'Iipay Aa ɂily unknown Shaterian 1983 0 0 2 0 0 no
tree yucca flora-fauna Yucca schidegera missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
turkey buzzard flora-fauna Cathartes aura sé· buzzard inheritance Proto-Yuman Note Co. C. šayí·, Mojave ?ase unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
turtle (generic) flora-fauna Testudines kpít turtle inheritance Note Mojave kapet unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 1 no
valley live oak flora-fauna Quercus agrifolia missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley oak flora-fauna Quercus lobata tɲík white oak unique unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 2 0 1 no
valley quail flora-fauna Callipepla californica missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 0 no
Washington clam flora-fauna Saxidomus nuttalli missing missing missing 2 1 0 0 1 no
Western Canada goose flora-fauna Branta canadensis qnmò·θūlβa goose, lame duck unique unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
whale flora-fauna Eschrichtius robustus missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 1 no
white pelican flora-fauna Pelicanus erythrorhynchos missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
wild grapevine flora-fauna Vitis californica missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild oats flora-fauna Avena (introduction) missing missing missing 2 1 2 0 0 no
wild rose flora-fauna Rosa californica missing missing missing 0 1 2 0 0 no
wild sunflower flora-fauna Helianthus (and other genera) (ɂ)qáta sunflower unique unknown Shaterian 1983 0 1 0 0 0 no
willow flora-fauna Salix spp. ɂyó·, ɂyó: willow inheritance with *-yaaw Proto-Yuman JHH, mentioned somewhere by Langdon with no recon unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 1 0 0 no
wood rat, round-tail flora-fauna Neotoma spp. (ɂ)mālka wood rat inheritance Proto-Yuman Kiliwa ?+maql, 'Iipay Aa ɂemallk unknown Shaterian 1983 2 1 0 0 0 no
worm, hairy caterpillar flora-fauna Arctiidae (many species) missing missing missing 2 2 0 0 0 no
worm, smooth caterpillar flora-fauna Trichoplusia ni (?) cabbage looper ɂɂî·la worm inheritance *?-?il Proto-Yuman Langdon 1979:639 WORM unknown Shaterian 1983 2 2 0 0 0 no
yellow jacket flora-fauna Vespula spp., Dolichovespula spp. missing missing missing 2 0 0 0 0 no
yellowbird flora-fauna Dendroica petechia missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
yerba santa flora-fauna Eriodictyon californicum missing missing missing 2 1 1 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna chmyu/l “red or fire ant” inheritance Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ?chsa/ ? is glottal stop inheritance Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna thmpu^:rka, thImpu^:rka I is i subdot unknown Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna ktha/r inheritance Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna ?i\wi_la, ?i\wi^l unknown Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna ?kwa/:ka inheritance Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ?lwi\/, ?lwi/ inheritance Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna ni^:sa, ni_:sa unknown Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (115)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
acorn mush food 7ì:hmī:ya ñhya acorn soup unknown phrase acorn soup Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
ball game food missing missing Jane Hill
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology myā:khtî:la heaven, sky unknown compound Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
feather headband dress missing missing Jane Hill
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool 7pá arrow, pointed weapon inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH derived pá 'to stick' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
arrow straightener other missing missing Jane Hill
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
school escuela escola acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
stone bowl culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material k7ú: basket, plate unknown swā 'basket, pot' 522 simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
basketry hat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material sk7û:la hnáqča bead inheritance Proto-Yuman k7úli round > beads 393; hnaq 'necklace'; same word for bead in IA, C, M WW phrase Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
ochre culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
bow arco arco subsistence tool tβču:ña ñ is turned ŋ arc-shaped ->bow unique hpùčñâ(:)kva p. 374, hpùtβču:ña p. 436 derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
canoe canoa canoa transport khló boat, canoe inheritance Proto-Yuman see discussion with Mojave derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
carrying net subsistence tool kWè:mθá:rv7íča net unknown derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
bottle botella garrafa acculturation hàčáyi water pot, thermos bottle unknown compound Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
paper papel papel acculturation papé:la, kapé:l paper loan Spanish WW %papel simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology màk7yō:ra chief loan Spanish could this be loan from mayor with some kind of infix??? WW %alcalde mayor simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool pà:7āvi club unknown simplex verb is the same Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kImAhWírvi I, A are lower-case with subdots loin cloth unknown compound Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
cook food food nwī:ri cook (sg.) inheritance *wi Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
corpse food pà:pī corpse inheritance *pi 'die' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 derived pí 'die' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
dance (generic) culture-mythology imá dance inheritance *ma(7) Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool 77ì:pòqpôqa digging stick unique compound 77i: 'wood' pòqpóq 'slender' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
dipper subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology tsmá:či dream inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH always from 'sleep' simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
drone pipe culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology 7kWè:t7úmi drum unknown reminiscent of the tuma 'foot-drum' words??? compound Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
chicken gallina galinha acculturation qoloyáwa chicken loan Mojave this is NOT from gallina, contra Shaterian -- probably semantic shift on another bird, maybe caracara?? simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
earring other smâlki earring inheritance *$mal(k) 'ear' Proto-Yuman Mixco 1978:84 derived smalka 'ear' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology myē(:) ghost, (bad) spirit unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
fire drill subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fire-tender culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
fireplace hogar lareira other missing missing Jane Hill
firewood leña lenha other 77í:tqWātča firewood inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH compound 77i: 'wood', tqwātči 'they light' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing missing Jane Hill
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food 7čì:s7ôni to fish unique has 7chi: 'fish' compound 7či: 'fish (n)' 7óni 'trap' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
fish hook subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
acorn bread food missing missing Jane Hill
wheat food missing missing Jane Hill
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology lūllūl7ì flute inheritance Proto-Yuman Iipay Aa helul (but maybe just onomatopoeia) derived, reduplicated Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
gambling sticks other missing missing Jane Hill
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food kWè:thóva th is theta (seems to be no contrast) meat; game unknown derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology myē(:) ghost, (bad) spirit unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
glue subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology pà:tmārčò: grave unknown derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
alcohol food (7)hàráva whiskey semantic shift just like C, M compound water red Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
Datura wrightii narcotics smá:lktū: jimsonweed inheritance possibly Proto, see discussion with Mojave, etc. derived smálka 'ear' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology pà:čθéqa blood sucker, medicine man kθí:yi (Indian) doctor p. 392 also pà:tpûyi 'witch doctor', pà:kčē:βa 'healer', 7pâ:kθī:yi "Indian doctor", 7pà:smāča "medicine man" derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
honey miel mel food missing missing Jane Hill
house other 7wâ house inheritance *wa(7) Proto-Yuman JHH simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
hunt cazar caçar food 7č...ñé hunt (for something) derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
initiate boy culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
initiate girl culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
knife cuchillo faca culture-material čkYáti knife, ax inheritance Proto-Yuman Cocopa ch7ka:t 'axe"; also (7)kHwá'metal, iron, knife' 398, 403 simplex vb is čkYāti 'cut w/ knife' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
mat culture-material missing missing Jane Hill
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool 7Uhmū mortar inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; also kWè:túyi p. 400 simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
necklace other hnáq necklace inheritance Proto-Yuman WW simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
needle/awl subsistence tool 7čvnâmmi needle unknown also vāka awl > mosquito 433 derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing missing Jane Hill
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool hàvčā(:) v=beta (seems to be no difference) mano unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
pinole food smUkWīna U is l.c. with subdot gruel unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other *7ò)mlhū pipe inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave malyho simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
pitch food missing missing Jane Hill
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool hmát clay pot, water pot semantic shift *mat 'earth, clay' Proto-Yuman this is just 'clay' simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
quiver subsistence tool pàkWīrβčkwāye quiver unknown compound pàkWīrβa 'arrow' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology 7hná:l gourd rattle inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa; semantic shift turtleshell rattle> gourd rattle simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
red paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
salt sal sal food 7thí: salt inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
seed beater subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology wívi clothes unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
sinew-backed bow subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material vhé skirt inheritance Proto-Yuman Mojave avhay 'dress' simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
snare subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
stirring stick food missing missing Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture 7û:li string unknown simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
bag, sack culture-material 7hmál sack, bag, pocket inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
string of shell money other missing missing Jane Hill
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation myû(:)la sugar semantic shift inheritance myul sweet, see 'Iipay Aa derived myuli 'sweet' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
sweathouse other t7ōli boil->sweat house unknown Mojave 7ilol 'to boil'??? derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
tell history culture-mythology kná:vi tell inheritance Proto-Yuman see Mojave form; this is right: derived nominalization is 'story' p. 400 simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
cremate culture-mythology pà:tū:či cremate unknown compound pa: 'person' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
tobacco (native) narcotics 7ū:va tobacco loan into protolanguage Proto-Yuman Hokan JHH WW %7u:p simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
tule boat transport missing missing Jane Hill
white paint culture-mythology missing missing Jane Hill
winnowing basket culture-material k7ù:yûkyûka oblong basket unknown derived k7u 'basket' Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
wood tray subsistence tool missing missing Jane Hill
shoes zapatos sapatos dress ñhñó shoe inheritance Proto-Yuman JHH; see Kiliwa simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
medicine narcotics 7ìsOmā: medicine, cf. root, sinew simplex pi 1 'die'?? Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
cradleboard culture-material hmàñqwâr7i cradle unknown derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
policeman polícia policía acculturation missing missing Jane Hill
soldier soldado soldado acculturation sultá:va soldier, scout loan Spanish simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
corn food tyá(:)č corn inheritance Proto-Yuman simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
beans food mrí:ka bean inheritance Proto-Yuman unknown WW %mun simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
cat gato gato acculturation ñmí cat Semantic shift Proto-Yuman wildcat word simplex ñmīta 'mountain lion' (a marking reversal?) Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation kqWáθ, qqWâth rifle unknown perhaps from cracking sound, see second form on p. 410 derived Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
hat sombero chapéu dress púr hat semantic shift see Mojave kupuur, etc. simplex Shaterian 1983 Jane Hill
clapper acculturation 77ī:tâpstâps7īča wood rattle unknown compound 77i: 'wood' Shaterian Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material cha/:he “top, roof” unknown Jane Hill
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture ?u^:li “string”, yu_:l “rope made of cowhide” inheritance Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture ?hpi/ metate inheritance Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool ??i\:po\qpo/\qa /\ is circumflex unique Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture chvu^:yi “sift, separate seed”, ha\mthi_ , hammsi^“sift” unknown Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ha\vcha_(:), ha\v?cha/ , ha\vcha/(:), ha\v?cha_“mano” inheritance Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool tvchu_:nya “bow” unknown Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ?pa/ “arrow”, (?)pa\kwi:rva v is beta loan Jane Hill
house other ?wa^ inheritance Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
medium AG low seasonal no