Mapoyo

Family
Cariban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mcg
Location
5.97°, -67.26°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Mattei-Muller, Marie Claude 1975. Vocabulario básico de la lengua mapoya. Antropológica 42: 57-78. Caracas.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Melody Ann Ross
and y e grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment kamarastu kamarastu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
at en, a em, a location pona pona See Language page Melody Ann Ross
back espalda costas body kasapai (bai-ri); pumï yë'bë (spine); yeku punu-'bë (lumbar) kasapai (bai-ri); pumʊ jɛ'bɛ (spine); jeku punu-'bɛ (lumbar) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bad mal mal quality sekupïnï (sekuru ?) sekupʊnʊ (sekuru ?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
belly barriga barriga body peEtï-'bë (belly, same as guts); nani, nanï, ñani (stomach); waiwEtï (belly button); surari (ribs); punu-'bë (torso); yekunu (waist) peətʊ-'bɛ (bellj, same as guts); nani, nanʊ, ñani (stomach); waiwətʊ (bellj button); surari (ribs); punu-'bɛ (torso); jekunu (waist) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
below abajo, debajo abaixo location to'nekiri to'nekiri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
big grande grande quality ko'mano ko'mano See Language page Melody Ann Ross
black negro preto colour kërëkë kɛrɛkɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blood sangre sangue body misukuru; miti-'bë (vein) misukuru; miti-'bɛ (vein) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body e'nëpukamiri e'nɛpukamiri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bone hueso osso body yëbë (yë'më) (skeleton) jɛbɛ (jɛ'mɛ) (skeleton) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
breast pecho, seno peito body tereri-'bë (chest); mati-ri (breast); punu-'bë (torso) tereri-'bɛ (chest); mati-ri (breast); punu-'bɛ (torso) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
child niño, niña criança human warastëkomo (masculine); wërya'mu (feminine); muku (neuter) warastɛkomo (masculine); wɛrja'mu (feminine); muku (neuter) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cold frío frio quality i'nëtëke i'nɛtɛke See Language page Melody Ann Ross
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
day día dia time anoi anoi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dry seco seco quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dust polvo poeira environment nono nono See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ear oreja orelha body pana-ri; pana wankiri-'bë (earlobe) pana-ri; pana wankiri-'bɛ (earlobe) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
earth/soil tierra terra environment nono nono See Language page Melody Ann Ross
egg huevo ovo fauna i'mei-bë i'mei-bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
eye ojo olho body yenu-ru-'bë; yenu sipotï (eyebrow, eyelashes); yenu ya'bë (eyeball, pupil, lit. seed of the eye); yenu pi'bë (eyelid, lit. skin of the eye) jenu-ru-'bɛ; jenu sipotʊ (ejebrow, ejelashes); jenu ja'bɛ (ejeball, pupil, lit. seed of the eje); jenu pi'bɛ (ejelid, lit. skin of the eje) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
far lejos longe quality tehpo tehpo See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fat/grease grasa gordura body kauri-'bë (kauri-'më) kauri-'bɛ (kauri-'mɛ) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
father padre, papá pai kinship yumu jumu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
feather pluma pena fauna waanari-'bë waanari-'bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fire fuego fogo environment wa'to wa'to See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flower flor flor environment tëpiri tɛpiri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ye'inë je'inɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fruit fruta fruta flora teperu teperu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
good bueno bom quality nop E nop ə See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body sipotï sipotʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hand mano mão body yeme'kunu (hand); yaapë-ri (arm) jeme'kunu (hand); jaapɛ-ri (arm) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tëi tɛi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
head cabeza cabeça body wastë-ri (wastë-'bë); wastë pu'bë (skull- lit. shell of the head); wastë yamuru-bë (brains); peta-ri (face) wastɛ-ri (wastɛ-'bɛ); wastɛ pu'bɛ (skull- lit. shell of the head); wastɛ jamuru-bɛ (brains); peta-ri (face) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
heavy pesado pesado quality tamï'ne tamʊ'ne See Language page Melody Ann Ross
how? como como grammar tonwari tonwari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1sg yo eu grammar wïhï (wï') wʊhʊ (wʊ') See Language page Melody Ann Ross
if si se grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location a, po, të (without movement); aka (with movement) a, po, tɛ (without movement); aka (with movement) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lake lago lago environment tuna tuna See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leaf hoja folha environment yaari jaari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body paasori (tëëneri) paasori (tɛɛneri) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leg/foot pierna perna body pEtï (petï); pore-ri (knee); pore yï'bï (kneecap); pEtï yë'bë (shin); pEtï punu'bë (calf) pətʊ (petʊ); pore-ri (knee); pore jʊ'bʊ (kneecap); pətʊ jɛ'bɛ (shin); pətʊ punu'bɛ (calf) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ka'tawai (same as thunder) ka'tawai (same as thunder) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
liver hígado figado body i'tere i'tere See Language page Melody Ann Ross
long largo comprido, longo quality tere'ke tere'ke See Language page Melody Ann Ross
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna kaamï kaamʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
man/male hombre homem human warastëkomo warastɛkomo See Language page Melody Ann Ross
meat/flesh carne carne fauna punu-'bë (the same wd appears in many body part entries- leg, calf, gums, belly, torso, etc.) punu-'bɛ (the same wd appears in manj bodj part entries- leg, calf, gums, bellj, torso, etc.) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
moon luna lua environment nuunë nuunɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship saanë-ri saanɛ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mouth boca boca body nda-ri (pota-ri); nda yë'ë (chin, mandible, lit. bone of the mouth) nda-ri (pota-ri); nda jɛ'ɛ (chin, mandible, lit. bone of the mouth) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
name nombre nome human yeetï jeetʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Melody Ann Ross
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page Melody Ann Ross
new nuevo novo quality sekarono sekarono See Language page Melody Ann Ross
night noche noite time ko'ba ko'ba See Language page Melody Ann Ross
no/not no não grammar tï'ra tʊ'ra See Language page Melody Ann Ross
nose nariz nariz body yënna-ri jɛnna-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
old viejo velho quality wërya wasonomo-ri (f), yapistomo (m) wɛrja wasonomo-ri (f), japistomo (m) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
one uno um number tëhkenarï tɛhkenarʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
other otro outro grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body t-ere'punu t-ere'punu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
person/human being persona pessoa human wanai wanai See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rain lluvia chuva environment kënëpo kɛnɛpo See Language page Melody Ann Ross
red rojo vermelho colour tapiire tapiire See Language page Melody Ann Ross
right/right hand derecha direita location/body teme'kunu yaperiske wayapë'tëpo (?) teme'kunu japeriske wajapɛ'tɛpo (?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
road/path camino caminho manufacture eema eema See Language page Melody Ann Ross
root raíz raiz flora yëhE miti'-bë jɛhə miti'-bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rotten podrido podre quality sokopaapë (fruit); tuhtuhke (wood/other) sokopaapɛ (fruit); tuhtuhke (wood/other) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sand arena areia environment saasapa saasapa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
short corto curto quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoulder hombro ombro body mota-ri mota-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Melody Ann Ross
skin piel pele body pi'bë; wai'bano (?) (cartilage) pi'bɛ; wai'bano (?) (cartilage) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sky cielo céu environment sakau sakau See Language page Melody Ann Ross
small pequeño pequeno quality wa'kampï wa'kampʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
smoke humo fumaça environment t-ë'in-ë (wa'to yë'inë) t-ɛ'in-ɛ (wa'to jɛ'inɛ) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
star estrella estrela environment sihkë sihkɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora yëhE (stick and wood, same as tree) jɛhə (stick and wood, same as tree) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stone piedra pedra environment tëpu tɛpu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tail cola, rabo rabo body wëkiri-'bë wɛkiri-'bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
that ese/esa esse grammar mëkï (animate); mërï (inaminate) mɛkʊ (animate); mɛrʊ (inaminate) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar naaton (namotomo) naaton (namotomo) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thin delgado fino quality mëtë'E mɛtɛ'ə See Language page Melody Ann Ross
this este/esta este grammar kiirë (animate); mEhE (inanimate) kiirɛ (animate); məhə (inanimate) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
2sg xx xx grammar ërë (mërë) ɛrɛ (mɛrɛ) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Melody Ann Ross
three tres tres number tomiñakënë tomiñakɛnɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thunder truenos trovão environment ka'tawai (same as lightning) ka'tawai (same as lightning) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bite morder morder body -yeeka (-yeka) -jeeka (-jeka) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blow soplar soprar body #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
breathe respirar respirar body satama-ri satama-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
burn quemar queimar environment -yuwa' -juwa' See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body -ya'ma-ri -ja'ma-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
climb subir subir motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross
come venir vir motion wepï-ri wepʊ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cook cocinar cozinhar impact sëtëma-ri sɛtɛma-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
count contar contar mental See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cry llorar chorar mental samë-ri samɛ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cut/hack cortar cortar impact enu'sapë'bë enu'sapɛ'bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
die/be dead morir morrer state tapiki tapiki See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dig cavar cavar impact #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dream soñar sonhar mental wëturi wɛturi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drink beber, tomar beber body #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
eat comer comer body wa'të-ri wa'tɛ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fall caer cair motion puhka puhka See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fear miedo medo mental uyemu'kuru ujemu'kuru See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fly volar voar motion yarini jarini See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hear oír ouvir mental #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hide esconder esconder motion tunami-ri tunami-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hit golpear, pegar bater impact wawë wawɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
kill matar matar impact wawë-ri wawɛ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental wahputu (wahputuru) wahputu (wahputuru) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page Melody Ann Ross
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body anoi-ri anoi-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross
say decir dizer mental See Language page Melody Ann Ross
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross
see ver ver mental -yeni -jeni See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sit sentar(se) sentar state resta-ri resta-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sleep dormir dormir body nïkï-ri nʊkʊ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spit escupir cuspir body sata'ka-ri sata'ka-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact enu'sapë'bë enu'sapɛ'bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact #NAME? #NAME? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page Melody Ann Ross
steal robar roubar other yamato-ni jamato-ni See Language page Melody Ann Ross
suck chupar chupar body cayatanma-ri kajatanma-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
swell hincharse inchar body auta auta See Language page Melody Ann Ross
swim nadar nadar motion pënemi pɛnemi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
think pensar pensar mental senuma senuma See Language page Melody Ann Ross
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Melody Ann Ross
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
vomit vomitar vomitar body wEnaru (noun); nahka-ri (verb) wənaru (noun); nahka-ri (verb) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
walk caminar, andar andar motion pirini pirini See Language page Melody Ann Ross
work trabajar trabalhar other sanmaka-ri sanmaka-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yawn bostezar bocejar body da'yaraka-ri da'jaraka-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tongue lengua lingua body nuru; nda punu-'bë (lit. skin of the outh) nuru; nda punu-'bɛ (lit. skin of the outh) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tooth diente dente body yë-ri; yëh punu-'bë (gums, lit. meat of the tooth); yë-''bë (claw) jɛ-ri; jɛh punu-'bɛ (gums, lit. meat of the tooth); jɛ-''bɛ (claw) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
two dos dois number sakenarï sakenarʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
water agua agua environment tuna tuna See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar naha naha See Language page Melody Ann Ross
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar e'në e'nɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Melody Ann Ross
what? que, qué que grammar ëtïna ɛtʊna See Language page Melody Ann Ross
when? cuando quando grammar tonwaraya tonwaraja See Language page Melody Ann Ross
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white blanco branco colour tarimu'ne tarimu'ne See Language page Melody Ann Ross
who? quien, quién quem grammar nakena nakena See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wife esposa esposa kinship eriri (?) (sepansapë ?) eriri (?) (sepansapɛ ?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wind viento vento environment kamere kamere See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wing ala asa body yaapë-ri jaapɛ-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
woman/female mujer mulher human wërya'mu wɛrja'mu See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yellow amarillo amarelo colour sipiire sipiire See Language page Melody Ann Ross
2pl ustedes vocês grammar ankotomo ankotomo See Language page Melody Ann Ross
foot pie body ta-ri (u-ta-'bë); teperu-'bë (toe); yeme'kunu yumu (big toe, lit. father of the foot) ta-ri (u-ta-'bɛ); teperu-'bɛ (toe); jeme'kunu jumu (big toe, lit. father of the foot) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Melody Ann Ross
all todo todos other oi'bëtëërï oi'bɛtɛɛrʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ankle tobillo tornozelo body wahkë-ri (also means heel) wahkɛ-ri (also means heel) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ya'ta-ri ja'ta-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Melody Ann Ross
lung pulmón pulmão body mbakuna-ri (pl) mbakuna-ri (pl) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sweat sudar suor, suar body Saramu'ka-ri ʃaramu'ka-ri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body pi'be woni pi'be woni See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bark corteza casca environment yëhE pi'bë (lit. skin of the tree) yɛhə pi'bɛ (lit. skin of the tree) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fingernail uña unha body tah pu'bë (?) (fingernail); yaponi (index finger); tere'kemi (middle finger); tï'bambi-kë (ring finger); wa'kambi-kë (little finger) tah pu'bɛ (?) (fingernail); yaponi (index finger); tere'kemi (middle finger); tʊ'bambi-kɛ (ring finger); wa'kambi-kɛ (little finger) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
heart corazón coração body nëni nɛni See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sun sol sol time miroi miroi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment yipï yipʊ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
green verde verde quality tukare (same as blue) tukare (same as blue) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hot caliente quente quality ta'tune ta'tune See Language page Melody Ann Ross


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. rere rere See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna konoro (sëkui) konoro (sɛkui) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. sa'we (sa'wE) sa'we (sa'wə) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Melody Ann Ross
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. o'kira; paisi (night guan) o'kira; paisi (night guan) See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Melody Ann Ross
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae tëkui tɛkui See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes ko'ba muusi-ri (crow = muusi, owl lit. means 'crow of the night') ko'ba muusi-ri (crow = muusi, owl lit. means 'crow of the night') See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. oroma, reewa oroma, reewa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kamaya kamaya See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae waku'a waku'a See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wirihpaya wirihpaya See Language page Melody Ann Ross
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family paato (sp. Borrowing) paato (sp. Borrowing) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae kamaiwa kamaiwa See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris weeroro weeroro See Language page Not native; widespread Melody Ann Ross
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis weeroro weeroro See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ansa (white-faced); warihi (black-faced) ansa (white-faced); warihi (black-faced) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Melody Ann Ross
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri kasikamo kasikamo See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. arue (caiman) arue (caiman) See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Melody Ann Ross
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna moroko moroko See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae pEnE pənə See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. waipu waipu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. ëkërë pi'bë (striped catfish- ëkërë = tiger, pi'bë = skin, lit. Skin of the tiger) ɛkɛrɛ pi'bɛ (striped catfish- ɛkɛrɛ = tiger, pi'bɛ = skin, lit. Skin of the tiger) See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura kuura; poroi (frog); warakai (small frog) kuura; poroi (frog); warakai (small frog) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Melody Ann Ross
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata makai (ma'kai) makai (ma'kai) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. supari supari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura kayakani kayakani See Language page Melody Ann Ross
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes wiyu wiyu See Language page Widespread Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae amanta amanta See Language page Melody Ann Ross
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna ëkëi (ëkkëi) ɛkɛi (ɛkkɛi) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox samaraka (rattlesnake) samaraka (rattlesnake) See Language page Widespread South America Melody Ann Ross
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria pehE (sea turtle?); taEru (turtle? Spanish: terecay); kaani (morrocoy) pehə (sea turtle?); taəru (turtle? Spanish: terecay); kaani (morrocoy) See Language page Widespread Melody Ann Ross
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis tuna yumu (father of the water; tuna=water, yumu=father) tuna yumu (father of the water; tuna=water, yumu=father) See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Melody Ann Ross
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Melody Ann Ross
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Melody Ann Ross
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. kupa kupa See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Melody Ann Ross
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa attawai attawai See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Melody Ann Ross
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Melody Ann Ross
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Melody Ann Ross
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes pïpïri pʊpʊri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua amoto, peri amoto, peri See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Melody Ann Ross
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Melody Ann Ross
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) këta'të kɛta'tɛ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Melody Ann Ross
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra makka makka See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Melody Ann Ross
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kimïi kimʊi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Melody Ann Ross
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus ënure ɛnure See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum rëu rɛu See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Melody Ann Ross
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. kamburi, mansana; yaarapi (cambur amarillo), paaru (plantain) kamburi, mansana; yaarapi (cambur amarillo), paaru (plantain) See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Melody Ann Ross
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. pirisoso pirisoso See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) yurari yurari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ë'nai ɛ'nai See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Melody Ann Ross
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum kawai kawai See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna yëhE (same as stick and wood) yɛhə (same as stick and wood) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana anoto anoto See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Melody Ann Ross
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Melody Ann Ross
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Melody Ann Ross
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Melody Ann Ross
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Melody Ann Ross
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum kororoi kororoi See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Melody Ann Ross
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana karutu karutu See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Melody Ann Ross
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Melody Ann Ross
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Melody Ann Ross
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Melody Ann Ross
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Melody Ann Ross
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta sere (tsere) sere (tsere) See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Melody Ann Ross
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta amaka amaka See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Melody Ann Ross
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Melody Ann Ross
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas saku (tsaku) saku (tsaku) See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Melody Ann Ross
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. waraimë waraimɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) wanata ('totuma') wanata See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Melody Ann Ross
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. kaha'ra ('calabaza') kaha'ra See Language page plant Melody Ann Ross
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. minatë minatɛ See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Melody Ann Ross
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. kaari, yaapi (domestic) kaari, yaapi (domestic) See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Melody Ann Ross
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Melody Ann Ross
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Melody Ann Ross
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata mi'sakë; sauko (flying ant) mi'sakɛ; sauko (flying ant) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. mi'sakë; sauko (flying ant) mi'sakɛ; sauko (flying ant) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis waanë waanɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Melody Ann Ross
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Melody Ann Ross
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Melody Ann Ross
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora môtô (earthworm) môtô (earthworm) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda kërëpë kɛrɛpɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera sikë (sand flea) sikɛ (sand flea) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera werewere werewere See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. si'suru si'suru See Language page Melody Ann Ross
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. mapuri; perEku (small mosquito) mapuri; perəku (small mosquito) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera mukë mukɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea tu'rema; kui (chupasangre?) tu'rema; kui (chupasangre?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita ëkëmo ɛkɛmo See Language page Melody Ann Ross
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae koyoi koyoi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Melody Ann Ross
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Melody Ann Ross
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] arawata arawata See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons pisa pisa See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus warakaru warakaru See Language page Melody Ann Ross
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Melody Ann Ross
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Melody Ann Ross
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu pakira pakira See Language page Melody Ann Ross
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari poinke poinke See Language page Melody Ann Ross
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Melody Ann Ross
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. akuri akuri See Language page Melody Ann Ross
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Melody Ann Ross
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) oroma oroma See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Melody Ann Ross
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae wayari wayari See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Melody Ann Ross
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus See Language page Melody Ann Ross
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Melody Ann Ross


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material poroko poroko See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ë'watë ɛ'watɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material aponi aponi See Language page Melody Ann Ross
canoe canoa canoa transport kuryara kuryara See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Melody Ann Ross
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology wayetepato wih koroki-ri (lit. 'my thing to touch') wayetepato wih koroki-ri (lit. 'my thing to touch') See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Melody Ann Ross
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology ka'-ri (also means material and blanket) ka'-ri (also means material and blanket) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fence, palisade cerco cerca other yawatapï'bë (?) yawatapʊ'bɛ (?) may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
firewood leña lenha other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology ñëni-'bë ñɛni-'bɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology maiwaka, kaato (for the men) maiwaka, kaato (for the men) In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology te'rua; puhki (other type) te'rua; puhki (other type) multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology te'rua; puhki (other type) te'rua; puhki (other type) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Melody Ann Ross
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
knife cuchillo faca culture-material marya marya See Language page Melody Ann Ross
machete machete facão culture-material maba'ra maba'ra See Language page Melody Ann Ross
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool pata pata especially for clearing fields See Language page Melody Ann Ross
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool rëu rɛu hunting, warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spear lanza lança subsistence tool pua pua See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bow arco arco subsistence tool aka'ra aka'ra arco See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paddle/oar remo remo transport yetu'apëbë yetu'apɛbɛ See Language page Melody Ann Ross
plate plato prato culture-material karapi (clay) karapi (clay) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool uturuku (clay); ërinë (aluminum) uturuku (clay); ɛrinɛ (aluminum) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material waaku waaku See Language page Melody Ann Ross
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool tari tari [loan Warekena?] agriculture? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
wax cera cera other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
honey miel mel food wanë wanɛ only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Melody Ann Ross
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture pi'bë (of hide) pi'bɛ (of hide) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Melody Ann Ross
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
salt sal sal food See Language page Melody Ann Ross
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Melody Ann Ross
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool rahsa rahsa currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Melody Ann Ross
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool para'maha para'maha esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Melody Ann Ross
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Melody Ann Ross
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Melody Ann Ross
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool wanata ('totuma') wanata See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool tawaye (grater); serekinï (serekitëpuha) (manioc grater) tawaye (grater); serekinʊ (serekitɛpuha) (manioc grater) esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Melody Ann Ross
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool përëkëtë (millstone- also means wheel, car, and bike) pɛrɛkɛtɛ (millstone- also means wheel, car, and bike) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture sukuta sukuta prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food sere nanapi-ri (manioc flour); nanapi (flour) sere nanapi-ri (manioc flour); nanapi (flour) agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food sere; pati (generic flatbread); tata'pï (generic bread) sere; pati (generic flatbread); tata'pʊ (generic bread) usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Melody Ann Ross
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Melody Ann Ross
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Melody Ann Ross
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Melody Ann Ross
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross
digging stick subsistence tool yëhE (stick- same as wood and tree) jɛhə (stick- same as wood and tree) See Language page Melody Ann Ross
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Melody Ann Ross
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Melody Ann Ross
house other yëiti; ëhtë (hut) jɛiti; ɛhtɛ (hut) See Language page Melody Ann Ross