Yir-Yoront

Family
Pama-Nyungan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
yiy
Location
-15.15°, 141.80°
Notes
Features
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (129)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis lalpm; minh- minh-lalpm unique underived 0 1 0 Speared; in Dry, driven by fire to blinds. Post-Wet, peaking in Dry; Pre-Wet 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae mom(; lorr-) & kern; lorr- (lorr-)mom & lorr-kern inheritance *mumu Local PPaman *kar(a)na > kern (black cockatoo) underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus pelkolvlh; minh minh-pelkolvlh unique Sutton: 'pelican' words commonly comtain 'hip'. Should this be classed as calque? compound with pel 'hip' 0 0 0 all seasons, peaking in post-Wet 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii thamvll thamvll unique underived 0 0 Known to be eaten by people to the north 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora ki ki inheritance *kiika local underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia purrq; minh- minh-purr7 unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba thiw; minh- minh-thiw inheritance *ciwa pPama-Nyungan Poss. imitative of call, conventionally voiceless [syiw] underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer kurr; ngar- ngar-kurr inheritance *kurra pPaman To Kukatj kurr: 'perch'; poss. Local underived 1 1 yes, big-time 0 All seasons, peaking in Wet 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp mal; minh- & manglh; minh- & thorn(t); minh- minh-mal & minh-manglh & minh-thornt inheritance *mali pPaman Poss. wider than Paman minh-mal: a small (as yet undentified) insectivorous bat but also poss. generic for bats (poss. incl. fruit-bats); minh-mal is also a gigantic mythic bat-creature; minh-manglh is colloquially identified as a flying fox and is possibly misidentified here. underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris pinti pinti loan English Ultimately, < some southern Aboriginal language underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tholhth; minh- & puth-lon; minh minh-tholhth inheritance *culci pPaman underived /puth-lon/ 'wing-having' 0 0 0 small birds: all seasons 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae weyw; minh- minh-weyw loan direction unknown *waya Kuuk Thaayorre as wey(+w) to KThaay way, waya underived Poss. with derivational /+w/ 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus koqvrrvlh; minh- minh-ko7vrrvlh unique underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis murrql; yo- yo-murr7l unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri pirriyl; yo- yo-pirriyl inheritance *parricVl or poss. *purricVl pYirrka-KKapér underived 0 1 1 sap (red) is a briefly very painful but permanent cure for toothache 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae palpar palpar inheritance *palparV pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species paqarr; minh- minh-pa7arr inheritance *pangkarra pPama-Nyungan Probably much undetected borrowing (poss. through English) in this etymon, especially in western languages. WW %pangkarra underived 0 1 0 Post-Wet, peaking in Dry; Pre-Wet 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii kuqa; minh- minh-ku7a inheritance *kungkaka Protoform poss. sound-symbolic underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 Men use spears; both sexes use nets 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurrqurr(l); minh- minh-kurr7urrl unknown < imitation of call (kurrr, kurrr); a form of this (kurrkurr, korr) is attested as the ordinary word for 'brolga' across a number of languages of this region reduplicated 1 0 0 speared; all seasons, peaking in post-Wet men bush-oven 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus kayar; minh- minh-kayar unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula mirtin; minh- minh-mirtin loan Dyirbal Dyirbal or poss. pre-Yidiny; either or both likely via song underived 0 1 0 grabbed from holes in trees 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) minh-loql; lorr- & minh-pengrr; lorr lorr-minh-lo7l & lorr-minh-pengrr unique compound The specific terms are themselves genus-species compounds: minh-loql 'stinking turtle', Chelodina steindachneri; minh-pengrr Ch. expansa 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius walm; minh- minh-walm unique NOT bush stone-curlew underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis yoq & thampáyk; yoq- & ya-pin; yoq- yo7 & thampáyk; yo7- & ya-pin; yo7- loan English /thampáyk/: English via Kriol, poss. Macassan, and other Aboriginal languages underived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis themthem; minh- minh-themthem loan direction unknown Mutual with KThaay themthem reduplicated 0 1 0 speared; all seasins, peaking in Dry men bush-oven or coals 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata wortol; may- may-wortol unique Also /wañcvw/ 'Dioscorea bulbifera' (see KKaper entry): this is the yam that is the standard item of diet underived 0 1 Root cooked in ashes & eaten 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera minh-ngorro; lorr- & themrr; lorr- lorr-minh-ngorro & lorr-themrr calque Other local languages name all or some butterflies as magpie goose; themrr is unique compound The specific term minh-ngorro 'magpie goose' is itself a genus-species compound; themrr 'sulphur-crested cockatoo' is simplex 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota polt; minh- minh-polt inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) kopvrrlh [FW lagoons; flat forehead, thick flat tail] & koqvlt [SW] & kunvlh [FW; Tandanus tandanus] & manl [small; FW & SW] & ngolpuwl [black, a bit big] & ngothor [SW, small mouth] & nhalvlt [blue] & pirrp [short-nosed] & pung [coppery red like sun, big kopvrrlh [FW lagoons; flat forehead, thick flat tail] & koqvlt [SW] & kunvlh [FW; Tandanus tandanus] & manl [small; FW & SW] & ngolpuwl [black, a bit big] & ngothor [SW, small mouth] & nhalvlt [blue] & pirrp [short-nosed] & pung [coppery red like sun, big unique underived all 0 1 0 All seasons, peaking in Wet 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda (minh-)popor; lorr- lorr-(minh-)popor unique compound The specific tem minh-popor 'brownsnake' is itself a genus-species compound. 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes kolorr; minh- minh-kolorr inheritance *kurlu+ pPama-Nyungan Sound-symbolic (dove's call), especially in its tri- and tetrasyllabic attestations. Probably many of the attestations are loans. WW %kurlu+ Also bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) and other G. spp. O. lophotes is said to be a forest country (east of YY country) bird. underived 0 0 0 0 0 Forest country (mostly to east of YY country). no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species ko+kal+w; minh- & kawvnvnh; minh- minh-ko+kal+w & minh-kawvnvnh calque Unknown ko+kal+w to KThaay koow+kirk; calque judgement based on Local distribution; note also Kurrtjar keergh 'darter; spike, sharp spine' compound /kokalvw/ with /ko/ 'nose, beak' + /kal? < /kalq/ 'spear' + adjective-deriving /w/ & /kawvnvnh/ with /kawvn/ 'water' 0 1 all seasons, peaking in post-Wet 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus larty; minh- minh-larty unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 Said to be common in country to the south, on sand-ridges. yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo marrvm; kur- kur-marrvm unique underived generic 'dog' < kurta; marrvm 'wild' in highly specialised contexts 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris kurta kurta inheritance *kutaka pPaman; poss. wider; poss. < 'koala' /kurta/ is used as a generic for a number of domesticated animals of European origin underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae yuwar; minh- & perreyvl; minh- & lirrql; minh- minh-yuwar & minh-perreyvl & minh-lirrql unique *pirriñcVl & *tirrkal Local underived both 0 1 0 eggs during wet earth-oven 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong komorvw; minh- minh-komorvw unique compound With ko 'nose'; mor+w prob. a reference to its shape 1 1 yes 0 harpooned from boats men earth-oven 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta nhorrq (; minh-) (minh-)nhorr7 unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae pirri; minh- minh-pirri inheritance *purriwi pPaman Dixon (review of YY Lexicon) relates this to Mbabaram p3rr 'emu' presumably < *CVpirri & therefore a loan in YY underived Not a 'bird' (minh-puth-lon) older males 2 1 age & gender taboos 2 speared; all seasons men elaborately; bush-oven 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna ngart ngart inheritance *ngata pPaman underived Typically /ngar/ when used as a generic with a simplex specific term. 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) kernterr & thaw; par- kernterr & par-thaw unique underived /par/ 'head', /thaw/ 'mouth' 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera nhen nhen inheritance *ñi:ni local problematic underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) kiltin; minh- minh-kiltin unique Not a generic as far as I can tell. See 'bat' above regarding minh-manglh. underived 0 0 cooked on open fire or in earth-oven 0 shotguns; sticks; Post-Wet, peaking in Dry, Pre-Wet men; ?women cooked on coals or in earth-oven 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni kanharr; minh- minh-kanharr inheritance *kañarra pPaman Attestations on the east coast of CYP refer to the saltwater crocodile underived 0 0 0 Wet season 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni wirq; kumn & mirtangrr kumn-wir7 & mirtangrr unique compound kumn 'thigh', wirq 'bone (as felt from outside)' 0 1 0 all seasons, peaking in Wet 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii pothn pothn inheritance *pucin local underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii kalvlh; minh minh-kalvlh unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) thertl thertl inheritance *cata pPaman; poss. pre-Pama-Nyungan (cognates in Gunwinyguan) The protoform *catal is Local underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla kalvmvr kalvmvr inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) pengrr; minh- & loql; minh- minh-pengrr & minh-loql inheritance *pangVrr pSWPaman KThaay to Kurrtjar along the coast; not inland There is no generic term for turtles/tortoises, but /minh-penrr/ is poss. prototypical. underived 0 1 0 Dug from mud with yamstick; post-Wet, Dry, & pre-wet. Eggs post-Wet & Dry women; also men cooked in ashes 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) pororrl; yo- yo-pororrl unique underived 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp ngarrchw; minh- minh-ngarrchw inheritance *ngarrcim(pV) local derived Probably with derivational +w 0 1 2 All seasons, peaking in Dry; eggs Post-Wet & Dry 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) warrq warr7 inheritance *warrka local Pos. pPama-Nyungan if 'hair' senses are included grasses and sedges underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera pirtilt; lorr- lorr-pirtilt inheritance *punti+ pPama-Maric, with likely cognates as far away as Karnic phonological history in YYoront is problematic underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis thenvwthan; minh- minh-thenvwthan unique compound /then/ 'penis' with derivational /+w/ and /than/ 'stand', poss. a reference to the not-always visible pink crest as like an erect penis 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina thiqvrrowr thiqvrrowr unique compound With +(rr)owr 0 2 1 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas parmvn; minh- minh-parmvn unique underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata missing missing missing missing 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus kaq kaq inheritance *kaku pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yarrvmvn & karntl; kurta- yarrvmvn & kurta-karntl loan languages to south and east (yarrvmvn) WW %yarraman underived kurta-karntl lit. 'big dog', with kurta as generic for domesticated mammalian spp 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae thathorrnh or thathorrvnyvrr thathorrnh or thathorrvnyvrr calque mutual calque, Local; KThaay thaa+thomp to YYoront, or vice versa compound /tha/ 'mouth' + /thorrnh ~ thorrnyrr/ < /thorrchn/ 'smoke, vapour', an allusion to its spouting 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic lorr lorr inheritance *tu:rru or *tu:kurr pPama-Nyungan HIGHLY PROBLEMATIC Most insects but not hornets (/ponh/), sugarbag bees (/may-), edible grub (/ngarllúq/, mosquitos, flies; used of centipede; variable with /maqar/ 'spider'; not with /waln/ 'tick', /thonhthvn/ 'scorpion'. underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus mor; minh- minh-mor inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet thurrqn; minh- minh-thurr7n inheritance *currkan local Poss. pPaman underived 0 1 0 all seasons; eggs pre-Wet, peaking in Wet 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae porr; minh- minh-porr inheritance *purru pPama-Nyungan pPama-Nyungan status very shaky, hinging among other things on 19th-C transcriptions that fail to distinguish r/rr. NOT generic; grey kangaroo only; see Other Notes underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda koporr koporr unique underived Poss. w. /ko/ 'nose' 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata ngorro; minh- minh-ngorro inheritance *ngurrumpa pPama-Nyungan pPNy poss. *kurrumpa underived both 0 1 eggs, mosquito-bitten young, & adults 0 eggs during Wet; eggs & mosquito-bitten young snatched from nest; adults speared women & men gather, men spear adult: earth-oven 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. parn+yirrin; minh- minh-parn+yirrin unique Agamidae except frill-lizard compound parts not recorded elsewhere 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera korll korll inheritance *ku(:)tir(V) local problematic, but poss. cognates underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) ponh ponh inheritance *pu:ñi pPaman underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) ngamvlwurrvw; may- may-ngamvlwurrvw inheritance *wurrupa pPaman Sound correspondences are problematic and attestation is sparse. compound ngaml (poss. 'big') + wurrvw 0 0 0 chop tree down; pre-Wet & Wet 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus thiq; minh- minh-thi7 inheritance *cika pPNy Questionable underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus purrq; minh- minh-purr7 inheritance *purrka Eastern; poss. pPNy underived 0 1 0 Dry season only 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius kalirrn ~ kalvtn; may- may-kalirrn ~ may-kalvtn unique compound kal+yirrn 0 1 nuts from pod; exuded sap eaten like lolly no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia kalpmthann; yo-/may- & lar; yo- yo-/may-kalpmthann & yo-lar unique compound Poss. kalpn 'hard, fast', than 'to stand' 0 1 black fruit, like plum 0 Pre-Wet 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis kunhthn kunhthn inheritance *kunca pPama-Nyungan Attestation only in Arnhem land and western CYP underived 1 1 the nut/fruit, may-ngarqrr, is eaten 0 takes some doing 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya pethw; yo- & waqarr; (yo-) yo-pethw & (yo-)waqarr unique underived Prob /peth/ ('fishing rod') + /w/. 0 0 Leaves used to give flavour in cooking and as plate to put food on 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida kolorr; minh- minh-kolorr inheritance *kurlu+ pPama-Nyungan Sound-symbolic (dove's call), especially in its tri- and tetrasyllabic attestations. Probably many of the attestations are loans. WW %kurlu+ underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp wol wol unique underived wol can be used as a generic. 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca lilqlir; minh- minh-lil7lir unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus pin+lenh; ngar- ngar-pin+lenh unique compound /pin/ probably 'ear'; /+lenh/ not determined 0 1 0 0 0 Both salt- and fresh-water. no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea minh-kothorr; lorr- lorr-minh-kothorr unique compound The specific term minh-kothorr 'saltwater crocodile' is itself a genus-species compound. 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species lorrvyvl; minh- & kurrq(n); minh- minh-lorrvyvl & minh-kurrq(n) inheritance To UOyk /erryal/. underived both 0 0 0 0 0 /minh-lorrvyvl/ is from dry country; /minh-kurrqn/, its mate, is from wetter country no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis porqol, yo- yo-por7ol inheritance *porko+ pYirrka-KKaper underived 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi kern kern inheritance *kar.na or *karana ; cognates in Gunwinyguan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus palq; ngar- ngar-pal7 unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum thawirll; yo- yo-thawirll unique compound /tha/ 'mouth' (poss. 'flower' in this context) + /wirll/ (sense not ascertained) 0 0 2 0 1 Not to people
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda kuparrl; yo-/may- & thethw; yo-/may- & therteyrr; yo-/may- yo-/may-kuparrl & yo-/may-thethw & yo-/may-therteyrr unique underived /therteyrr/ with /thert/ in derived forms meaning 'rough' & /thethw/ with /theth/ (elsewhere 'pus', for the milky sap) 0 1 0 Dry (thethvw) 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta wartawurrl; minh- minh-wartawurrl unique compound /warta/ 'river' + /wurrl/ 'crosswise' (?) 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus kothorr; minh- minh-kothorr unique underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae wert wert unique underived 0 1 0 all seasons, peaking in Wet 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata wurryvm; ngar- ngar-wurryvm unique underived 1 0 0 speared (usually from hand); beginning in Post-Wet & peaking in Dry & Pre-Wet 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones thonhthvn thonhthvn inheritance *cuncun pPaman; poss. (as *cuncu+) pPama-Nyungan underived Poss. redupication 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha worrqo; ngar- ngar-worr7o semantic shift various spp. underived worrqo 'elder brother' as in address 0 0 0 speared (usually from hand); beginning in Post-Wet & peaking in Dry & Pre-Wet 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus kalqperr; minh- minh-kal7perr calque Unknown YYoront to KThaay or vice versa; HOWEVER, in view of Kukatj kalkapurrk 'echidna', possibilities also include independent invention and (assuming trandcription vagaries) full cognation (*kalka+pirrki) compound /kalq/ 'spear' < *kalka; /perr/ poss. < *pirrki or*pikirrkalq 'spear' < *kalka; perr poss. < *pirrki or*pikirr. /kalq/ 'spear' is a reference to the spines 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna tholqorr; minh- minh-thol7orr unique underived tholqorr 'long': minh-tholqorr (like the respect-language equivalent wirqvyvw ('bony one', referring to the many ribs) is a coinage of convenience; there is, properly speaking, no generic term for 'snake' 0 1 0 Post-Wet, peaking in Dry; Pre-Wet. Eggs Post-Wet & Dry 0 0 many spp
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia missing missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae maqar ma7ar unique Poss. source of loan to KThaay ma'ar 'spider, or vice versa underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species missing missing missing missing 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia ko+mervlh; minh- minh-ko+mervlh unique compound With /ko/ 'nose, beak' plus /mer+lh/ (sense not determined, but undoubtedly a reference to the shape) 0 0 0 all seasons, peaking in post-Wet 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae thip; ngar- ngar-thip calque *ngata, *cipa *ngata (fish) pPaman; *cipa (liver) pPama-Nyungan and poss. pre-PNy (cognates in Gunwinyguan) Unknown Protoform poss. *kipa; 'liver' is a reference to the prominence of the liver in preparation as food. Mutual calque, Local; OR loan with source undeterminable. YYoront OR KThaay Various spp; can also refer to sharks, hence generic for elasmobranch fish. underived 0 1 All rays are prepared for eating in an elaborate manner prominently involving the liver (thip), hence the name 0 speared (usually from hand); beginning in Post-Wet & peaking in Dry & Pre-Wet 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna maq; may- may-ma7 unique underived maq poss. 'bottom' 1 1 0 chop tree down 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita themrr themrr unique *cimVrr Local underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea memr memr inheritance *mimint pYirrka-Kok-Kapér underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides law; minh- minh-law inheritance *tawa/u pPama-Nyungan Outside Local (*tawa), only attestation is Djapu /rdawurtawu/ 'tawny frogmouth' underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera lipn & mu-pel & yo-yethrr lipn & mu-pel & yo-yethrr inheritance *tipa (antbed) & *mungku/a (antbed) & *pirlu (hip) pPama-Nyungan (all) compound /mu-pel/ & /yo-yethrr/ are stress-second compounds; /lipn/ is simplex 0 0 1 eaten by women with newborns to stimulate lactation 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) mom; lorr lorr-mom inheritance *mumu local underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina waln waln unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru waw; min- minh-waw unique sound-symbolic underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) yoq yo7 inheritance *yuku pPaman poss. pPama-Nyungan underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma thenhthrr; may- & kunkalmvlh; may- & parn; may- may-thenhthrr & may-kunkalmvlh & may-parn unique underived /kunkalmvlh/ prob. /kun/ 'bottom' + /kalm/ + /lh/ 0 1 various parts, separately named 2 Post-Wet (kunkalmvlh); stems (may-kach, may-kewrr) Post-Wet peaking in Dry; peak in Post-Wet extending into Dry (thentherrl) 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis missing missing missing missing 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax wangrr; minh & larrpo; minh- minh-wangrr & minh-larrpo calque < /wangrr/ 'ghost' in YY < pPama-Nyungan *wangarr ('totem' or 'ghost'); /minh-wangarr/ is a mutual calque with KThaay /minh-wang/ underived both 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys thithvrrowr; minh- minh-thithvrrowr inheritance *thitharr local local but likely pPamn, poss. pPama-Nyungan compound With /(rr)owr/, a formative of undetermined significance 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) ngar-luq (; lorr) (lorr-)ngar-lu7 unique compound /ngarllú'/ contains /ngar-/ 'fish'; man-luq is an abdominal organ, not determined 0 1 2 cooked in ashes 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no


Cultural Vocabulary (87)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology yuw+kuw 'far to the west', only in pam-yuw+kuw yaw '(persons who have) gone far to the west' unknown Barry Alpher
armband dress puy-kunhthn pandanus armband inheritance *puñca (arm), *kuncan (pandanus) pPaman, pPMy Not reconstructible as a compound to any depth Barry Alpher
awl subsistence tool missing Barry Alpher
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool kay unknown Barry Alpher
bag (string) culture-material kunh (also thawl, ngow, depending on weave) netting stitch dillybag inheritance *kuña pPama-Maric, Mayi Barry Alpher
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool pu7 inheritance *puka (rotten) pPNy Barry Alpher
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material missing Barry Alpher
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Barry Alpher
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool wern unique Barry Alpher
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Barry Alpher
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Barry Alpher
bowl (coolamon) culture-material pinarr inheritance *pinarri (pertaining to ears) pPNy Etymology tentative; material (Vespertilio) is yo-pinarr Barry Alpher
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Barry Alpher
canoe canoa canoa transport missing Barry Alpher
cicatrice culture-mythology lilpm inheritance *tilpa Local YY, YMel, UOyk, UOlk Barry Alpher
clapsticks culture-mythology murrn inheritance *murra pEastern Etymology problematic; YY has two senses: clapsticks, and thrown club; putative cognates are 'throwing stick' Barry Alpher
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool nawulu loan Local Barry Alpher
cook food food wur burn (vt) inheritance *wita ppNy Etymology (WD wita-) is underattested Barry Alpher
cook in earth oven food kaw inheritance *ka:mpa- pPNy Original sense poss. 'to burn', both vt & vi Barry Alpher
damper food missing Barry Alpher
dance (generic) culture-mythology woy dance, song, ceremony inheritance *wuuci Local To KThaayorre wuuc. Barry Alpher
digging stick subsistence tool kathn digging stick, yamstick inheritance *kacin pPaman Barry Alpher
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Barry Alpher
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology pitharr dream (a personage in a dream) inheritance *picarra pPaman At least as far south as Gumbainggir and Muruwari Barry Alpher
dreaming culture-mythology purrn totem unique Possibly Local, and possibly with cognates as far south as NE NSW, meaning 'shield' Barry Alpher
drone pipe culture-mythology pamp didgeridoo loan Ultimate source English. Barry Alpher
fire drill subsistence tool koc firesticks; lizard sp. loan unknown Shared with WMungknh; connection of senses in YY via sorcery Barry Alpher
fire-saw other missing Barry Alpher
fireplace hogar lareira other thum-thaw unique ('fire' - 'mouth') Barry Alpher
firewood leña lenha other thum fire, firewood inheritance *cuma pPaman Cognates meaning 'smoke' at least as far away as Gumbainggir; poss. also Pilbara thama 'fire' Barry Alpher
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool missing Barry Alpher
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food lalhthnh pow Barry Alpher
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food ngart wañ unique Lit. 'throw fish' Barry Alpher
fish (with spear) food ngart kal Barry Alpher
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool yoporr string Barry Alpher
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool worr fishweir *wurri Local Barry Alpher
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool lart fish-trap (type) unique Barry Alpher
flour (bush) food may-kaprr flour inheritance *kamparr pPaman To Yidiny gambarr 'fine sawdust (from grubs, fine haze, fine dust' Barry Alpher
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food minh game animal (etc) inheritance *miña pPaman To PPaman in this sense; much more widespread (if cognate) as 'what' Barry Alpher
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology wangarr ghost inheritance *wangarr pPNy Poss. a Wanderwort, not pPNy (NE Arnhem & CYP only) Barry Alpher
glue subsistence tool missing As in Palta pe nhungnh 'buried' Barry Alpher
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology palt earth, earth as place of burial unique Barry Alpher
grog food kawn-wil grog, beer, etc. unique water - bitter / sour Barry Alpher
hair belt dress maq belt (of possum-fur string), waist-string semantic shift *mangka pPaman Original sense 'bottom'; connection claim tentative Barry Alpher
headband dress missing Barry Alpher
headband dress missing Barry Alpher
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology wangarr+wirvw doctor (traditional or MD) unique With wangarr 'ghost' Barry Alpher
honey miel mel food may-ngaml+wurvw sugarbag unique With +wurw poss. *wur(r)upa Barry Alpher
house (European) other ngolt house (traditional [generic] and European) unique Barry Alpher
hunt cazar caçar food kurr=tha forage; hunt, gather unique With tha 'go up' Barry Alpher
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Barry Alpher
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Barry Alpher
knife cuchillo faca culture-material ngart+yenn knife calque Local To KKaper (pa-) koy+yakéñ 'knife' (fish+cutter, with special reference to grass-culm sliver used to cut stingray liver, but extended to any knife); not clear which language originated. Also /nayp/ < English. Barry Alpher
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress missing Barry Alpher
love song culture-mythology missing Barry Alpher
mangrove raft transport won swimming log unique Made from yo-won (kapok mangrove, Camptostemon schultzii; not fabricated into a raft) Barry Alpher
message stick culture-mythology kolpm message stick loan direction unknown *kulpu To Mayi-Thakurti kulpu 'letter stick'; Wanderwort status is a guess. Barry Alpher
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool lith-mart top grindstone unique With lith 'beach-stone', mart 'small'; contrast lith-ngamayrr 'bottom grindstone' Barry Alpher
nosepeg other kow-yum nasal septum ornament unique With kow 'nose', yum 'bamboo'; can also be bone Barry Alpher
paddle/oar remo remo transport pell [pedl] oar loan English paddle Barry Alpher
ochre culture-mythology missing Barry Alpher
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology missing Barry Alpher
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool lith-ngamayrr bottom grindstone unique With lith 'beach-stone', ngamayrr 'mother; biggest in a set' Barry Alpher
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other payp pipe loan English pipe Barry Alpher
public song cycle culture-mythology woy song, song-cycle; dance; ceremony inheritance *wu:ci Local Only to YY, TMel, KThaayorre; poss. to Pakanh wu:ci 'taboo' Barry Alpher
red paint culture-mythology wo7 red paint unique Barry Alpher
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing Barry Alpher
salt sal sal food missing Barry Alpher
shelter (native) other ngolt house (generic) unique Barry Alpher
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology woy song, song-cycle; dance; ceremony inheritance *wu:ci Local Only to YY, TMel, KThaayorre; poss. to Pakanh wu:ci 'taboo' Barry Alpher
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology woy song, song-cycle; dance; ceremony inheritance *wu:ci Local Only to YY, TMel, KThaayorre; poss. to Pakanh wu:ci 'taboo' Barry Alpher
spear lanza lança subsistence tool kal7 spear inheritance *kalka pPaman Poss. pPNy Barry Alpher
spear (fighting) subsistence tool kal7 spear inheritance *kalka pPaman Poss. pPNy Barry Alpher
spear (fishing) subsistence tool kal-thaw four-prong spear unique *kalka, *ca:wa With kal < kalka; thaw 'mouth' Barry Alpher
spearthrower subsistence tool thol spearthrower, woomera inheritance *culi pPaman Poss. to Karnic *thurli 'mussel', relating to the shell (usually bailer-shell) counterweight attached to spearthrowers in CYP Barry Alpher
speartip subsistence tool kothamlh barb unique With ko < kow 'nose' Several near-synonyms Barry Alpher
string (from hair) culture-material yoporr strng unique Barry Alpher
string (from vine) culture-material perrprr string Barry Alpher
sugar acculturation may-thortm sugar unique With thortm 'sand' Barry Alpher
tea food may-yap tea leaves unique With yap 'leaves'; may-tiy is the meal 'tea'. Barry Alpher
tobacco (European) narcotics yo7-ya-pin tobacco (plant) unique With ya(p)-pin leaves' Barry Alpher
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Barry Alpher
totem (conception) culture-mythology lerrn-erp spirit-child A unique species (e.g. leech), remembered by a person Barry Alpher
wax cera cera other minmangn ironwood wax unique With +mangn, in several 'wax' terms The most frequently mentioned; other common types are ngurrmangn (beefwood), marrwarrn (sugarbag), purryimangn (pandanus), and there are several others from sugarbag. Barry Alpher
white paint culture-mythology mul white paint inheritance *mula pPaman Reflexes meaning 'pus', 'blood', 'honey', slime', 'oil'; as far south as Yuwaalaraay Made from burnt threadfin salmon bone. Barry Alpher
windbreak other wurrl windbreak unique Barry Alpher
yandy (n) culture-material missing Barry Alpher


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
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