Nimanburru

Family
Nyulnyulan
Region
Australia
ISO 639-3
nmp
Location
-17.33°, 123.07°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (186)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar arad arrad inheritance Claire Bowern
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar yadirri XXngl yadirri yadirri inheritance Claire Bowern
1sg yo eu grammar XXngl ngayu ngayu inheritance Claire Bowern
2pl ustedes vocês grammar gor kor inheritance Claire Bowern
2sg xx xx grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar inheritance Claire Bowern
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar ginjin_g kinyingk inheritance Claire Bowern
above encima, arriba acima location galb kalb inheritance Claire Bowern
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Claire Bowern
alive nēndj niinj inheritance Claire Bowern
all todo todos other bondje; bondje-gjangar; djob bonje; bonje-kjangar; job inheritance Claire Bowern
and y e grammar agal; kal(a) akal; kal(a) inheritance Claire Bowern
ankle tobillo tornozelo body melg melk inheritance Claire Bowern
armpit axila, sobaco axila body ninganyburr ninganyburr inheritance Claire Bowern
ashamed xx xx mental idjar ijarr inheritance Claire Bowern
ashes xx xx environment gadjod kajod inheritance Claire Bowern
at en, a em, a location -ug -uk inheritance Claire Bowern
back espalda costas body nēg niik inheritance Claire Bowern
bad mal mal quality rēb riib inheritance Claire Bowern
belly barriga barriga body gabor ^ kaborr inheritance Claire Bowern
below abajo, debajo abaixo location inheritance Claire Bowern
big grande grande quality budu budu inheritance Claire Bowern
bite morder morder body -bundarra- [ma-bondaren] -bundarra- [ma-bondaren] inheritance Claire Bowern
black negro preto colour mang mank inheritance Claire Bowern
blood sangre sangue body gururr kururr inheritance Claire Bowern
blow soplar soprar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
blunt xx xx quality boṇ boṇ inheritance Claire Bowern
bone hueso osso body ga:ndj kaanj inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang xx xx manufacture djēb jiib inheritance Claire Bowern
breast pecho, seno peito body dalngan dalngan inheritance Claire Bowern
breathe respirar respirar body bo"" buu inheritance Claire Bowern
burn quemar queimar environment missing Claire Bowern
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body djaŋ jaŋ inheritance Claire Bowern
child niño, niña criança human ba""be-nin_ baabe-ning inheritance Claire Bowern
climb subir subir motion ma-wanjen ma-wanyen inheritance Claire Bowern
cloud nube nuvem environment missing Claire Bowern
cold frío frio quality bindj binj inheritance Claire Bowern
come venir vir motion dar-m-aran darr-m-arran inheritance Claire Bowern
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ma-loron ma-loron inheritance Claire Bowern
count contar contar mental missing Claire Bowern
cry llorar chorar mental ma-ŋalgan ma-ŋalkan inheritance Claire Bowern
cut xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
die/be dead morir morrer state ma-djimben ma-jimben inheritance Claire Bowern
dig cavar cavar impact ma-geran ma-kerran inheritance Claire Bowern
dingo/wolf fauna gored kored inheritance Claire Bowern
dirty sucio sujo quality ŋōnbe ŋōnbe inheritance Claire Bowern
dream soñar sonhar mental ma-bu""garen ma-buukarren doubtful loan into protolanguage Claire Bowern
drink beber, tomar beber body ma-ge""den ma-kiden inheritance Claire Bowern
dry seco seco quality missing Claire Bowern
dust polvo poeira environment missing Claire Bowern
ear oreja orelha body inheritance Claire Bowern
earth/soil tierra terra environment bo""r% buur inheritance Claire Bowern
eat comer comer body ma-ge""den ma-kiden inheritance Claire Bowern
egg huevo ovo fauna laguurru lakuurru inheritance Claire Bowern
eye ojo olho body nim nim inheritance Claire Bowern
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body bud% ^ bud% inheritance Claire Bowern
fall caer cair motion -jalgi- [ma-j.algen] -jalki- [ma-j.alken] inheritance Claire Bowern
far lejos longe quality māṛ maaṛ inheritance Claire Bowern
fat/grease grasa gordura body lede lede inheritance Claire Bowern
father padre, papá pai kinship gupul kupul inheritance Claire Bowern
fear miedo medo mental -jarg- [ma-j.eregan] -jark- [ma-j.erekan] inheritance Claire Bowern
feather pluma pena fauna wirinjin wirinjin unique Claire Bowern
fire fuego fogo environment djun_g jungk inheritance Claire Bowern
fish xx xx fauna gōmb kōmb semantic shift Claire Bowern
flow fluir fluir motion djoror jorrorr inheritance Claire Bowern
flower flor flor environment bo""b buub inheritance Claire Bowern
fly volar voar motion mogonj mokony inheritance Claire Bowern
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment lanon lanon inheritance Claire Bowern
foot pie body -mbal -mbal inheritance Claire Bowern
fruit fruta fruta flora inheritance Claire Bowern
good bueno bom quality laib laib inheritance Claire Bowern
grow crecer crescer state gongon ma-djaredjaren konkon ma-jarejaren unique Claire Bowern
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body muwarn XXngl mugarn muwarn inheritance Claire Bowern
hand mano mão body -marl -marl inheritance Claire Bowern
head cabeza cabeça body -alm XXngl marru -alm inheritance Claire Bowern
hear oír ouvir mental missing Claire Bowern
heavy pesado pesado quality ramben ramben inheritance Claire Bowern
hide esconder esconder motion -jarlg- [ma-j.arl.gen] -jarlk- [ma-j.arl.ken] inheritance Claire Bowern
hit golpear, pegar bater impact -dam- [ma-daman] -dam- [ma-daman] inheritance Claire Bowern
hit (with hand) xx xx impact missing Claire Bowern
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other -bad- [ma-baden] -bad- [ma-baden] inheritance Claire Bowern
how? como como grammar missing Claire Bowern
if si se grammar -gar -karr inheritance Claire Bowern
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location gadin kadin inheritance Claire Bowern
intestines intestinos intestinos body bulg bulk inheritance Claire Bowern
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body nileŋar nileŋar unknown Claire Bowern
kill matar matar impact missing Claire Bowern
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ma-leŋgen ma-leŋken inheritance Claire Bowern
lake lago lago environment binin injunu gaajan wuul binin injunu kaajan wuul unique Claire Bowern
laugh reír rir mental -gam- [ma-gaman] -kam- [ma-kaman] inheritance Claire Bowern
leaf hoja folha environment bilibil bilibil inheritance Claire Bowern
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body ŋarlgarrman ŋarlgarrman inheritance Claire Bowern
leg/foot pierna perna body midi midi inheritance Claire Bowern
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ma-djalgen ma-jalken inheritance Claire Bowern
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment binmag binmak inheritance Claire Bowern
liver hígado figado body gabor, gawir kabor, kawir inheritance Claire Bowern
long largo comprido, longo quality nabend nabend inheritance Claire Bowern
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna waŋgarmalinj waŋkarmaliny inheritance Claire Bowern
lung pulmón pulmão body walan walan inheritance Claire Bowern
man/male hombre homem human wamb wamb inheritance Claire Bowern
meat/flesh carne carne fauna bang.g bang.k inheritance Claire Bowern
moon luna lua environment gunjul kunyul inheritance Claire Bowern
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship berai berrayi inheritance Claire Bowern
mouth boca boca body nilirr XXngl nilirr nilirr inheritance Claire Bowern
name nombre nome human missing Claire Bowern
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body buda XXngl nunggarn buda inheritance Claire Bowern
near/close cerca de perto quality yaŋan yaŋan inheritance Claire Bowern
neck cuello pescoço body nimany nimany inheritance Claire Bowern
new nuevo novo quality missing Claire Bowern
night noche noite time ŋimber ŋimber inheritance Claire Bowern
no/not no não grammar are-angg [arriyangg] are-angk [arriyangk] inheritance Claire Bowern
nose nariz nariz body -mal -mal inheritance Claire Bowern
old viejo velho quality djabolj jaboly inheritance Claire Bowern
one uno um number wandjer wanjer inheritance Claire Bowern
open/uncover abrir abrir other lambad lambad inheritance Claire Bowern
other otro outro grammar missing Claire Bowern
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body waṛar waṛar inheritance Claire Bowern
person/human being persona pessoa human waamburinyi waamburinyi inheritance Claire Bowern
pimple xx xx body djodj joj unique Claire Bowern
rain lluvia chuva environment wuul wuul inheritance Claire Bowern
red rojo vermelho colour werer werer inheritance Claire Bowern
right/right hand derecha direita location/body dyurruŋguny dyurruŋguny inheritance Claire Bowern
road/path camino caminho manufacture magar makar inheritance Claire Bowern
roof xx xx manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
root raíz raiz flora nimijilaburdany nimijilaburdany unknown Claire Bowern
rotten podrido podre quality bi""n biin inheritance Claire Bowern
sand arena areia environment band band inheritance Claire Bowern
say decir dizer mental ma-djen ma-jen inheritance Claire Bowern
scratch rascar rasgar impact wer-djon wer-jon inheritance Claire Bowern
see ver ver mental -jal- [mad-j.alen] -jal- [mad-j.alen] inheritance Claire Bowern
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality gardj karrj inheritance Claire Bowern
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Claire Bowern
short corto curto quality missing Claire Bowern
shoulder hombro ombro body langan langan inheritance Claire Bowern
sit sentar(se) sentar state XXngl mijala XXngl mijala inheritance Claire Bowern
skin piel pele body baden, badon baden, badon inheritance Claire Bowern
sky cielo céu environment gorwal gorwal korwal korwal inheritance Claire Bowern
sleep dormir dormir body ma-molgan, ma-molgen, ma-molgon ma-molkan, ma-molken, ma-molkon inheritance Claire Bowern
small pequeño pequeno quality doln_ dolng inheritance Claire Bowern
smell (tr/intr) xx xx body ge""r kirr inheritance Claire Bowern
smoke humo fumaça environment bulgun bulkun inheritance Claire Bowern
spit escupir cuspir body djibel jibel inheritance Claire Bowern
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Claire Bowern
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact duly duly inheritance Claire Bowern
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Claire Bowern
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state missing Claire Bowern
star estrella estrela environment warrabalany warrabalany inheritance Claire Bowern
steal robar roubar other ma-länjben ma-länyben inheritance Claire Bowern
stone piedra pedra environment kungbarra kuŋbarra unknown Claire Bowern
suck chupar chupar body djonj jony inheritance Claire Bowern
sun sol sol time warlg warlk inheritance Claire Bowern
sweat sudar suor, suar body djudugur judukurr inheritance Claire Bowern
swell hincharse inchar body -bunkum- [ma-bongoman] -bunkum- [ma-bongoman] inheritance Claire Bowern
swim nadar nadar motion galgir galgir inheritance Claire Bowern
tail cola, rabo rabo body niwal niwal inheritance Claire Bowern
that ese/esa esse grammar bën bën inheritance Claire Bowern
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Claire Bowern
thin delgado fino quality minjar minyar unique Claire Bowern
think pensar pensar mental -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] -barribarri- [ma-barebaren] inheritance Claire Bowern
this este/esta este grammar missing Claire Bowern
three tres tres number irdjowar irrjowarr inheritance Claire Bowern
throat garganta garganta body nimanj nimany inheritance Claire Bowern
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact missing Claire Bowern
thunder truenos trovão environment djidam jidam inheritance Claire Bowern
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Claire Bowern
tongue lengua lingua body ningal ningal inheritance Claire Bowern
tooth diente dente body jarrunggu XXngl jarringg jarrungku inheritance Claire Bowern
true xx xx quality dargal darkal unique Claire Bowern
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Claire Bowern
two dos dois number gudjar kujar inheritance Claire Bowern
vomit vomitar vomitar body -ganyb- [ma-ga**njben] -kanyb- [ma-kaanjben] inheritance Claire Bowern
walk caminar, andar andar motion ma-galen ma-kalen inheritance Claire Bowern
water agua agua environment wol wol inheritance Claire Bowern
wet mojado molhado quality gōbad kōbad inheritance Claire Bowern
what? que, qué que grammar aŋgi gurrindyin ? aŋgi gurrindyin ? inheritance Claire Bowern
when? cuando quando grammar -gar -karr inheritance Claire Bowern
where? donde onde grammar missing Claire Bowern
white blanco branco colour missing Claire Bowern
who? quien, quién quem grammar ang.g ang.k inheritance Claire Bowern
wife esposa esposa kinship malarr malarr inheritance Claire Bowern
wind viento vento environment waŋal waŋal inheritance Claire Bowern
wing ala asa body minbal minbal inheritance Claire Bowern
woman/female mujer mulher human worinj woriny inheritance Claire Bowern
work trabajar trabalhar other morgol morkol inheritance Claire Bowern
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Claire Bowern
yellow amarillo amarelo colour gumbil kumbil inheritance Claire Bowern


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (139)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
agile wallaby, river wallaby flora-fauna Macropus agilis garabol inheritance 0 1 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian pelican flora-fauna Pelecanus conspicillatus maiad maiad loan Nyikina source a guess WW %mayarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
Australian snubfin dolphin flora-fauna Orcaella heinsohnii badjalbar badjalbar inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
baler shell flora-fauna Melo amphora missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bandicoot flora-fauna Peramelemorphia wurrmarrwurrmarr unique 0 0 0 0 0
barn owl flora-fauna Tyto alba missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
barramundi flora-fauna Lates calcarifer wa:nyja wa:nyja inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp minje minj minye miny loan Karajarri WW %minyaminya reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
bindii, caltrop flora-fauna Tribulus terrestris missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna garambal karambal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-breasted buzzard flora-fauna Hamirostra melanosternon missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-faced cuckoo-shrike flora-fauna Coracina novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
black-headed python flora-fauna Aspidites melanocephalus wolgodanj wolgodanj inheritance underived? 0 2 0 0 0 no
black-soil yam flora-fauna Ipomoea diamantinensis missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
bloodwood flora-fauna Eucalyptus (Corymbia) bleeseri ŋareban inheritance 0 1 1 0 0 no
blowfly maggots flora-fauna Diptera, Sarcophagidae bi""n bi""n inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
blue-tongue lizard flora-fauna Tiliqua species luŋgud luŋgud inheritance WW %lungkurt underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
blue-winged kookaburra flora-fauna Dacelo leachii missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bluebone flora-fauna Choerodon cyanodus golaŋan golaŋan inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
brolga flora-fauna Grus rubicunda kurdukurany kurdukurany inheritance derived 1 0 0 0 0 no
brown goshawk flora-fauna Accipiter fasciatus dindjal dindjal inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
brush-tailed possum flora-fauna Trichosurus vulpecula laanggurr laanggurr inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush cockroach flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
bush stone-curlew flora-fauna Burhinus grallarius windog windok loan into protolanguage WW %wintuku underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
bush tobacco flora-fauna Lobelia quadrangularis mōḷ-djon mōḷ-djon unique derived 0 0 0 1 0 no
bush turkey, Australian bustard flora-fauna Ardeotis australis bagar bakar doubtful loan WW %pakara underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
bush yam flora-fauna Vigna lanceolata var. lanceolata missing missing 0 1 2 0 1 no
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
carpet snake flora-fauna Morelia spilota baninybor inheritance 0 1 0 0 0
caterpillar flora-fauna Lepidoptera missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
catfish flora-fauna (many species) bingemer bingemer inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna Chilopoda, Myriapoda mirgol mirgol inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
channel-billed cuckoo flora-fauna Scythops novaehollandiae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
crested pigeon flora-fauna Ocyphaps lophotes missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
darter/cormorant flora-fauna Anhinga melanogaster, Phalacrocorax species missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
death adder, five-minute snake flora-fauna Acanthophis praelongus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
dingo flora-fauna Canis familiaris dingo gored gored inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis familiaris yēl yēl inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae waylbala waylbala unique underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
dugong flora-fauna Dugon dugong wadabar wadabar inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
earthworm flora-fauna Annelida, Oligochaeta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
emu flora-fauna Dromaius novaehollandiae ganaŋandj ganaŋandj loan WW %karnanganytya derived 2 1 2 0 0 no
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna gōmb gōmb semantic shift underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
flower flora-fauna (NA) bōb bōb loan direction unknown WW WW %pupu reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera mogonj mogonj inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
flying-fox (generic) flora-fauna (many species) wadjon nimanbur inheritance NN/Nim underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus johnstoni guwaniya guwaniya loan Marrngu WW %kuwaniya 0 0 0 0 0 no
freshwater mussel flora-fauna Velesunio wilsoni missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
freshwater prawn flora-fauna Macrobrachium rosenbergii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frill-necked lizard flora-fauna Chlamydosaurus kingii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
frog (generic) flora-fauna (many species) dyergabinj dyergabinj semantic shift underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
galah flora-fauna Eolophus roseicapilla missing 0 0 0 0 0
turtle (generic) flora-fauna (many species) gulibil gulibil inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
ghost gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus papuana (Corymbia bella) missing missing 2 0 1 0 0 no
goanna (generic) or sand goanna flora-fauna Varanus spp djididjon unique 0 1 2 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (NA) maarra maarra loan with meaning change Worrorran WW %maarra underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
grasshopper flora-fauna Orthoptera dinj dinj diny diny inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
great bowerbird flora-fauna Chlamydera nuchalis gorawal semantic shift? 1 0 0 0 0 no
green ant flora-fauna Oecophylla smaragdina missing missing 0 2 2 0 0 no
green sea turtle flora-fauna Chelonia mydas gulebil gulebil inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 0 no
green tree snake flora-fauna Dendrelaphis punctulata banagu juurru banagu juurru unique phrase 0 2 0 0 0 no
head/body lice flora-fauna Pediculus capitis, Pediculus humanus wīṇg wīṇg inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus yawarda yawarda loan WW WW %yawarta underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna Trochilidae missing missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
humpback whale flora-fauna Megaptera novaeangliae minimb minimb doubtful loan into protolanguage Bardi WW %miinimbi missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic djur% djur% inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
jabiru flora-fauna Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus lindilindi inheritance 0 0 0 0 0
jungle-fowl (scrub-fowl) flora-fauna Megapodius freycinet djamaŋg djamaŋg inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna Macropodidae burug burug inheritance underived 2 1 0 0 0 no
land snail flora-fauna Gastropoda missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
magpie goose flora-fauna Anseranas semipalmata missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
military dragon flora-fauna Ctenophorus isolepis, Diporiphora spp., Lophognathus spp. missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles spp, Isoptera nilangol nilangol inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
mud wasp, hornet flora-fauna (many species) mōr mōr unique underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
native bee flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
native cat flora-fauna Dasyurus missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
northern brown bandicoot flora-fauna Isoodon macrourus wurrmarrwurrmarr wurrmarrwurrmarr unique reduplicated 0 1 0 0 0 no
northern kurrajong flora-fauna Brachychiton diversifolius missing missing 0 1 no? 0 0 no
nut tree flora-fauna Terminalia grandifolia dalwar dalwar inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 no
octopus flora-fauna Octopus australis mirdjanj mirdjanj inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pandanus palm flora-fauna Pandanus spiralis manbaŋ manbaŋ inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
paperbark flora-fauna Melaleuca sericea, Melaleuca stenostachya bagal bagal inheritance CF.pakarli in NGY etc. WW %pakari underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
peaceful dove flora-fauna Geopelia placida djogog djogog inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
pearlshell flora-fauna Pinctada spp goan goan inheritance underived 1 1 0 0 1 no
peewee flora-fauna Gryllina cyanoleuca missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
pied butcherbird flora-fauna Cracticus nigrogularis gurrawul gurrawul inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
pike eel flora-fauna Muraenesox arabicus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna Mantodea gologoloman gologoloman inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
prickle bush flora-fauna Sclerolaena bicornis missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
quail (generic) flora-fauna Coturnix species, Turnix species missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
red river gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus camaldulensis missing missing 2 0 1 0 1 no
red-tailed black-cockatoo flora-fauna Calyptorhynchus banksi lermar lermar inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
riflefish, archerfish flora-fauna Toxotes chatareus missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
river mangrove flora-fauna Aegicera corniculatum missing missing 0 0 2 0 1 no
rock fig flora-fauna Ficus brachypoda missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sacred kingfisher flora-fauna Todiramphus sancta missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
saltwater crocodile flora-fauna Crocodylus porosus guwaniya guwaniya semantic shift underived 2 2 0 0 0 yes
saltwater mussel flora-fauna Mytilidae missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
sawfish flora-fauna Pristis pectinata missing missing 1 0 0 0 0 yes
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna Arachnida, Scorpiones baarn baarn loan into protolanguage WW WW %paarn underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
shark (generic) flora-fauna Selachimorpha lolol lolol inheritance reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 variable
shell (generic) flora-fauna yambol yambol semantic shift cf Bardi ambool baler underived 0 1 0 0 1 no
short-beaked echidna flora-fauna Tachyglossus aculeatus gamaraŋinj gamaraŋinj loan WW %kamaranginy underived 0 2 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna djur% djur% inheritance underived 0 1 0 0 0 N/A
snappy gum flora-fauna Eucalyptus brevifolia gonor gonor inheritance underived 0 0 1 0 0 no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnida, Araneae golboniler golboniler unique compound compound 0 0 0 0 0 no
spinifex flora-fauna Triodia species woral woral unique underived 0 0 2 0 0 no
spoonbills (yellow-billed spoonbill, black-billed spoonbill) flora-fauna Platalea flavipes, Platalea regia missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Dasyatidae yamban yamban inheritance perhaps with meaning change underived 0 1 0 0 0 variable
stripe-faced dunnart flora-fauna Sminthopsis macroura missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
sugarbag wax flora-fauna missing missing 1 1 0 0 0 no
sulphur-crested cockatoo flora-fauna Cacatua galerita missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
swamp eel flora-fauna Ophisternon gutturale missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
swamp leech flora-fauna Annelida, Hirudinea missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
tawny frogmouth flora-fauna Podargus strigoides mukmuk mukmuk unique MUKMUK elsewhere onomat reduplicated 0 0 0 0 0 no
termite mounds, ant hills flora-fauna Isoptera djididjon djididjon inheritance derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna (many species) missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 no
ti-tree flora-fauna Melaleuca bracteata missing missing 0 0 1 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna Arachnida, Acarina gambe-djon gambe-djon unique derived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tiger shark flora-fauna Galeocerdo cuvier missing missing 0 0 0 0 0 yes
torresian crow flora-fauna Corvus orru waŋged waŋged inheritance WW %wangkurri underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna (NA) badaŋg badaŋg inheritance underived 0 0 0 0 0 no
waterlily flora-fauna Nymphaea macrosperma loŋomb loŋomb inheritance underived 0 1 2 0 0 no
wattle flora-fauna Acacia difficilis irgil irgil loan into protolanguage areal WW underived 0 0 1 0 1 no
wedge-tailed eagle flora-fauna Aquila audax walawor walawor loan direction unknown WW %walakurru underived 1 0 0 0 0 no
willie wagtail flora-fauna Rhipidura leucophrys djindibereber djindibereber loan into protolanguage WW %tyintipirri reduplicated partial 1 0 0 0 0 no
witchetty grub flora-fauna (many species) galbedjon galbedjon inheritance derived 0 1 2 0 0 no
woma flora-fauna Aspidites ramsayii missing missing 0 1 0 0 0 no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna badan_g badangk inheritance Claire Bowern
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna boi boi inheritance Claire Bowern
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna garambal karambal inheritance Claire Bowern
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna momor momor unique Claire Bowern
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yēl yiil inheritance Claire Bowern
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna maarra maarra semantic shift Claire Bowern
kangaroo (generic) flora-fauna marringgile marriŋkile inheritance Claire Bowern
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna djur% jurr inheritance Claire Bowern
spider araña aranha flora-fauna golboniler kolboniler unique Claire Bowern


Cultural Vocabulary (111)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
armband dress kankol inheritance Claire Bowern
awl subsistence tool waraŋaj inheritance Claire Bowern
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool damiyon inheritance Claire Bowern
bag (string) culture-material inbukunujin semantic shift Claire Bowern
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool laŋar inheritance Claire Bowern
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material binjen inheritance Claire Bowern
body feather decorations culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool ji:b inheritance Claire Bowern
boomerang (number 7) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
boomerang (small) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
bowl (coolamon) culture-material walad inheritance Claire Bowern
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing Claire Bowern
canoe canoa canoa transport barawar doubtful loan Worrorran Claire Bowern
cicatrice culture-mythology babor inheritance Claire Bowern
clapsticks culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
club (nulla-nulla) subsistence tool naol inheritance Claire Bowern
cook food food ma-loron semantic shift burn Claire Bowern
cook in earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
damper food mademare loan Claire Bowern
dance (generic) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
dipper (small coolamon) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology -bukarri- [ma-bu:.karen] (dr) CHECK - verb not noun Claire Bowern
dreaming culture-mythology banman loan WW %barnman Claire Bowern
drone pipe culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
fire drill subsistence tool yi:ne inheritance Claire Bowern
fire-saw other wungka:la inheritance Claire Bowern
fireplace hogar lareira other lalb inheritance Claire Bowern
firewood leña lenha other missing Claire Bowern
fish poison barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó subsistence tool yelŋam inheritance Claire Bowern
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing Claire Bowern
fish (with spear) food missing Claire Bowern
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool welewel loan Kriol WW %wilwili Claire Bowern
fishtrap (permanent) subsistence tool mar inheritance Western Nyulnyulan Claire Bowern
fishtrap (woven) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
flour (European) food missing Claire Bowern
flour (bush) food missing Claire Bowern
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food wi:l inheritance Claire Bowern
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology banbalk doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
glue subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
grog food missing Claire Bowern
hair belt dress ba:l inheritance Claire Bowern
headband dress missing Claire Bowern
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology jalngkokorr loan areal WW %jalngga Claire Bowern
honey miel mel food moŋ semantic shift Claire Bowern
house (European) other missing Claire Bowern
hunt cazar caçar food ma-jolben inheritance Claire Bowern
initiation (circumcision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
initiation (subincision) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
knife cuchillo faca culture-material jombarere, jomborere loan Malay Claire Bowern
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress kamal unique Claire Bowern
love song culture-mythology kaljend inheritance Claire Bowern
mangrove raft transport biyal biyal semantic shift Claire Bowern
message stick culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
nosepeg other missing Claire Bowern
paddle/oar remo remo transport missing Claire Bowern
ochre culture-mythology dokol doubtful inheritance Claire Bowern
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology -burr- [ma-boran] inheritance Claire Bowern
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other baib loan English WW pipe Claire Bowern
public song cycle culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
red paint culture-mythology bidimarr inheritance Claire Bowern
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool kem loan English Claire Bowern
salt sal sal food missing Claire Bowern
shelter (native) other missing Claire Bowern
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
song (for entertainment) culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool jinal loan WW WW %jinal not certain Claire Bowern
spear (fighting) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spear (fishing) subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yankal doubtful loan Claire Bowern
speartip subsistence tool missing Claire Bowern
string (from hair) culture-material burrurr inheritance Claire Bowern
string (from vine) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
sugar acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tea food belebel semantic shift ‘leaf’ Claire Bowern
tobacco (European) narcotics mōrl-jon unique Claire Bowern
tobacco (native) narcotics missing Claire Bowern
spirit child culture-mythology rai loan areal WW %raya Claire Bowern
wax cera cera other wark inheritance Claire Bowern
white paint culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
windbreak other missing Claire Bowern
yandy (n) culture-material missing Claire Bowern
school escuela escola acculturation missing Claire Bowern
net subsistence tool ma:rra semantic shift ‘grass’ Claire Bowern
bottle botella garrafa acculturation missing Claire Bowern
paper papel papel acculturation milimil loan English WW %milimili Claire Bowern
corpse food karrikan loan Marrngu Claire Bowern
chicken gallina galinha acculturation missing Claire Bowern
tree coffin culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing Claire Bowern
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing Claire Bowern
shoes zapatos sapatos dress missing Claire Bowern
medicine narcotics missing Claire Bowern
earth oven food missing Claire Bowern
policeman polícia policía acculturation limb semantic shift Claire Bowern
cat gato gato acculturation minyaw loan Kriol WW %minyaw Claire Bowern
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation jileman loan Kriol Claire Bowern
hat sombero chapéu dress jangkor [jangkurr] inheritance Claire Bowern
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture meredj merej inheritance Claire Bowern
bottom grinding stone manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
digging stick subsistence tool XXngl milkin milkin inheritance Claire Bowern
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Claire Bowern
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture [absent] missing Claire Bowern
spearthrower subsistence tool yangal yankal inheritance Claire Bowern
spear lanza lança subsistence tool djinal jinal inheritance Claire Bowern
house other missing Claire Bowern


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG dense sedentary no