Kakataibo

Family
Panoan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
cbr
Location
-8.70°, -75.42°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Key, Mary Ritchie & R. Michael Tugwell. 2007. Cashibo. Intercontinental Dictionary Series, ed. Mary Ritchie Key. http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/ids/


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location ma'nã See Language page PLE
and y e grammar See Language page PLE
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment či-mapo See Language page PLE
at en, a em, a location See Language page PLE
back espalda costas body kaṣ̌o See Language page PLE
bad mal mal quality ʔaisama See Language page PLE
belly barriga barriga body poko See Language page PLE
below abajo, debajo abaixo location ši'mu; ṣ̌o'po See Language page PLE
big grande grande quality čaa; ʔɨo See Language page PLE
black negro preto colour to'nã See Language page PLE
blood sangre sangue body imi See Language page PLE
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page PLE
bone hueso osso body ṣ̌oo See Language page PLE
breast pecho, seno peito body ṣ̌oma See Language page PLE
child niño, niña criança human βakɨ See Language page PLE
cloud nube nuvem environment nɨtɨ 'kʷĩ See Language page PLE
cold frío frio quality mac̷i; maṣ̌ɨṣ̌ See Language page PLE
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page PLE
day día dia time nɨtɨ See Language page PLE
dirty sucio sujo quality mɨ'paski-ti See Language page PLE
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page PLE
dry seco seco quality ɨ'ɨska-ti See Language page PLE
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page PLE
dust polvo poeira environment mee poto See Language page PLE
ear oreja orelha body pa'βi See Language page PLE
earth/soil tierra terra environment mee See Language page PLE
egg huevo ovo fauna βac̷i See Language page PLE
eye ojo olho body βɨro See Language page PLE
far lejos longe quality ʔura See Language page PLE
fat/grease grasa gordura body ṣ̌ɨni See Language page PLE
father padre, papá pai kinship papa See Language page PLE
feather pluma pena fauna pɨči See Language page PLE
fire fuego fogo environment c̷ii See Language page PLE
flower flor flor environment oa See Language page PLE
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment kʷe'ẽkoro; nɨtɨ koro See Language page PLE
fruit fruta fruta flora βimi See Language page PLE
good bueno bom quality o'pi See Language page PLE
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body βuu See Language page PLE
hand mano mão body mɨ'kɨ̃ See Language page PLE
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar aa See Language page PLE
head cabeza cabeça body maṣ̌'ka; mapuṣ̌oo See Language page PLE
heavy pesado pesado quality ʔiɨ See Language page PLE
how? como como grammar See Language page PLE
1sg yo eu grammar ʔɨ- See Language page PLE
if si se grammar See Language page PLE
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page PLE
intestines intestinos intestinos body poko-ɲaru See Language page PLE
lake lago lago environment ʔi'ã See Language page PLE
leaf hoja folha environment pɨi; pɨči See Language page PLE
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page PLE
leg/foot pierna perna body i'taṣ̌ See Language page PLE
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment ka'na See Language page PLE
liver hígado figado body takʷa See Language page PLE
long largo comprido, longo quality čaṣ̌'kɨ See Language page PLE
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ʔia; suku See Language page PLE
man/male hombre homem human nukɨ βɨnɨ See Language page PLE
meat/flesh carne carne fauna nami See Language page PLE
moon luna lua environment ʔoṣ̌ɨ See Language page PLE
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship tita See Language page PLE
mouth boca boca body kʷɨ'βi See Language page PLE
name nombre nome human anɨ See Language page PLE
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page PLE
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body tɨ'ṣ̌a See Language page PLE
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page PLE
new nuevo novo quality i'o See Language page PLE
night noche noite time i'mɨ See Language page PLE
no/not no não grammar See Language page PLE
nose nariz nariz body rɨ'kĩ See Language page PLE
old viejo velho quality ṣ̌ɨni See Language page PLE
one uno um number 'a'čuuši See Language page PLE
other otro outro grammar See Language page PLE
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body ʔi'sĩ- ~ ʔĩ'sĩ See Language page PLE
person/human being persona pessoa human oni; βɨβo See Language page PLE
rain lluvia chuva environment uɲe; ɨβe; ʔuβe See Language page PLE
red rojo vermelho colour See Language page PLE
right/right hand derecha direita location/body mɨ'kɨ̃kʷe ~ mɨkʷe See Language page PLE
road/path camino caminho manufacture βai See Language page PLE
root raíz raiz flora ta'põ See Language page PLE
rotten podrido podre quality pisi See Language page PLE
sand arena areia environment masi See Language page PLE
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality kʷɨno- See Language page PLE
short corto curto quality mɨ'tu See Language page PLE
shoulder hombro ombro body tɨ'kɨmpata See Language page PLE
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental ra'βĩ- See Language page PLE
skin piel pele body βɨṣ̌'βi; ṣ̌a'ka See Language page PLE
sky cielo céu environment na'i See Language page PLE
small pequeño pequeno quality ču'kuma See Language page PLE
smoke humo fumaça environment c̷ii 'kʷĩ; ko'ĩ See Language page PLE
star estrella estrela environment ʔispa See Language page PLE
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ii See Language page PLE
stone piedra pedra environment ma'ṣ̌aṣ̌; mapara See Language page PLE
tail cola, rabo rabo body ina See Language page PLE
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page PLE
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar ato See Language page PLE
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality kɨṣ̌'to See Language page PLE
thin delgado fino quality βɨ̃'c̷ĩ See Language page PLE
this este/esta este grammar See Language page PLE
2sg xx xx grammar mii See Language page PLE
throat garganta garganta body tɨro See Language page PLE
three tres tres number kimiša See Language page PLE
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page PLE
bite morder morder body βɨ'tan-ti; na'tɨṣ̌- See Language page PLE
blow soplar soprar body rɨɨka-ti See Language page PLE
breathe respirar respirar body o'ĩ-ti See Language page PLE
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page PLE
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ča'kuka-ti See Language page PLE
climb subir subir motion 'mapɨra'kɨ-ti See Language page PLE
come venir vir motion o-ti See Language page PLE
cook cocinar cozinhar impact ʔaru-ti See Language page PLE
count contar contar mental See Language page PLE
cry llorar chorar mental ĩ-ti See Language page PLE
cut/hack cortar cortar impact tuka-ti See Language page PLE
die/be dead morir morrer state βama-ti See Language page PLE
dig cavar cavar impact naɨ-ti See Language page PLE
dream soñar sonhar mental na'ma-ti See Language page PLE
drink beber, tomar beber body šɨa- See Language page PLE
eat comer comer body pi-ti; ko- See Language page PLE
fall caer cair motion nipakɨ-ti See Language page PLE
fear miedo medo mental ra'kʷɨ-ti; rato- See Language page PLE
flow fluir fluir motion ši'oβu-ti See Language page PLE
fly volar voar motion no'ã-ti See Language page PLE
grow crecer crescer state kani-ti See Language page PLE
hear oír ouvir mental kʷa-ti See Language page PLE
hide esconder esconder motion onɨ-ti See Language page PLE
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pɨ'ɨ̃ka-ti See Language page PLE
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tuĩ-ti See Language page PLE
kill matar matar impact rɨ-ti See Language page PLE
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental ʔo'nã-ti See Language page PLE
laugh reír rir mental ʔo'sã See Language page PLE
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ra'ka-ti See Language page PLE
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page PLE
open/uncover abrir abrir other βɨ'oka-ti See Language page PLE
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page PLE
say decir dizer mental ka-ti See Language page PLE
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page PLE
see ver ver mental is-ti See Language page PLE
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact ni-ti See Language page PLE
sit sentar(se) sentar state c̷o'o-ti See Language page PLE
sleep dormir dormir body ʔoṣ̌-ti See Language page PLE
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body ṣ̌ɨ-ti See Language page PLE
spit escupir cuspir body tušuka-ti See Language page PLE
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact tuka-ti See Language page PLE
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact βi'taṣ̌-ti; čɨ'ɨka-ti See Language page PLE
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact čači- See Language page PLE
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ni-; niru-ti See Language page PLE
steal robar roubar other mɨkama-ti See Language page PLE
suck chupar chupar body ʔoɲoka-ti See Language page PLE
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page PLE
swim nadar nadar motion mɨɲo-ti See Language page PLE
think pensar pensar mental si'nã-ti See Language page PLE
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact po- See Language page PLE
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact nɨa-ti See Language page PLE
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other maia-ti See Language page PLE
vomit vomitar vomitar body a'na-ti See Language page PLE
walk caminar, andar andar motion niti See Language page PLE
work trabajar trabalhar other ɲuu mɨɨti See Language page PLE
yawn bostezar bocejar body ṣ̌aβa-ti See Language page PLE
tongue lengua lingua body ana See Language page PLE
tooth diente dente body ṣ̌ɨta See Language page PLE
two dos dois number ra'βɨ See Language page PLE
water agua agua environment ʔõ'paṣ̌ See Language page PLE
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page PLE
wet mojado molhado quality ča'βa- See Language page PLE
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page PLE
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page PLE
where? donde onde grammar See Language page PLE
white blanco branco colour oṣ̌o See Language page PLE
who? quien, quién quem grammar ui See Language page PLE
wife esposa esposa kinship ṣ̌a'βiõkɨ See Language page PLE
wind viento vento environment soɲo; punapuna See Language page PLE
wing ala asa body See Language page PLE
woman/female mujer mulher human ṣ̌ano See Language page PLE
yellow amarillo amarelo colour pã'šĩã See Language page PLE
2pl ustedes vocês grammar mic̷o See Language page PLE
foot pie body taɨ See Language page PLE
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page PLE
all todo todos other kamaβi See Language page PLE
ankle tobillo tornozelo body taɨ či'tuṣ̌kã See Language page PLE
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page PLE
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body poi- See Language page PLE
lung pulmón pulmão body kaṣ̌aɨṣ̌ See Language page PLE
sweat sudar suor, suar body niča-ti See Language page PLE
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ṣ̌oa- See Language page PLE
bark corteza casca environment ṣ̌a'ka See Language page PLE
fingernail uña unha body ʔõ'c̷is See Language page PLE
heart corazón coração body nuitu See Language page PLE
sun sol sol time βari See Language page PLE
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment βaši; ma'nã See Language page PLE
green verde verde quality See Language page PLE
hot caliente quente quality ʔi'c̷is See Language page PLE


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. kašã ~ kãša See Language page Also kaĩša (dial.); kaia (dial.). *Panoan *kaši. PLE
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna ʔisa See Language page *Panoan *ʔiʔsaka 'small bird'. PLE
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia PLE
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões PLE
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges PLE
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread PLE
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes noo ʔaɨ; popo See Language page Widespread noo ʔai (dial.). *Panoan *popo. PLE
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica βoo See Language page Widespread Also tumi 'parrot with a blue head'; βorɨsĩ ~ βoorɨ̃si (dial.) 'large yellow parrot'. *Panoan *βawa. *Panoan *pic̷o 'parakeet'. PLE
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae ɲumakuru; kuma See Language page numakuru (dial.). PLE
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae tɨ'tɨ See Language page *Panoan *tɨtɨpa. PLE
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ṣ̌ɨtɨ See Language page Widespread South America Also iš'mi 'condor'. *Panoan *ʔišmi[n/mV] or *ʔišamĩ 'condor'. *Panoan *ṣ̌ɨtɨ. PLE
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family no'nõ See Language page *Panoan *nonoma. PLE
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America PLE
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris ka'mõ See Language page Not native; widespread *Panoan *kamano with related meanings 'demon, tiger-like creature, wild dog, felon'. PLE
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands PLE
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia PLE
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi PLE
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page PLE
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page PLE
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page PLE
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page PLE
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana PLE
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata ʔi'pũ ṣ̌ãkara; ṣ̌ɨ'kɨ See Language page ṣ̌o'očača 'small lizard'; ɲũkɨ 'green lizard'; ṣ̌ɨ'mɨ̃ 'lizard with dangling neck'. *Panoan *ṣ̌ɨkɨ[CV]. PLE
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. ʔii See Language page *Panoan *ʔiwi with related meaning 'spindle'. PLE
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page PLE
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia PLE
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page PLE
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna rono; pis'ka See Language page Also ru'nĩ 'anaconda'; si'taru, si'tarunu (dial.); pis'ka; kanarũ, kanaru (dial.); ka'moṣ̌ 'kind of snake'. *Panoan *rono; *pisika. PLE
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America PLE
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ṣ̌aɨ See Language page Widespread ṣ̌a'ɨõ 'large water turtle'. *Panoan *ṣ̌awɨ. PLE
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls PLE
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) kono; ču'rã See Language page *Panoan *kono with related meanings 'mildew, fungus'. PLE
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua PLE
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia PLE
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch PLE
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm PLE
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm PLE
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes banin (Smith2014) See Language page PLE
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries PLE
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant PLE
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) ṣ̌apo See Language page secondary scrub vegetation *Panoan *ṣ̌apo; *waṣ̌mɨnɨ. PLE
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree PLE
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden *Panoan *yoči. PLE
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant PLE
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant PLE
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant PLE
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. no'õsi See Language page Means 'banana'. Also kapakuča 'kind of red banana'. *Panoan *mani 'banana leaf'. PLE
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant PLE
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) βasi; čuku; ṣ̌uβi See Language page *Panoan *wasi. PLE
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays ṣ̌ɨki See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains 'To shell corn' ṣ̌ɨmɨ-. *Panoan *ṣ̌ɨʔmɨ-. *Panoan *ṣ̌ɨki. PLE
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum romɨ See Language page *Panoan *romɨ. PLE
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ii See Language page *Panoan *iwi with related meanings 'wood, stick, pole'. PLE
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub PLE
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) PLE
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree PLE
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree PLE
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree PLE
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties PLE
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub PLE
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree PLE
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree PLE
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant PLE
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape PLE
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta ʔac̷a See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. *Panoan *ʔac̷a. PLE
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety PLE
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato PLE
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kari See Language page *Panoan *kari. PLE
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant PLE
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page PLE
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) ṣ̌ampa; ṣ̌o'pã; ma'sɨ̃ See Language page indigenous gardens *Panoan *ma[s]ɨ[n/mV]; *šatano; *ṣ̌opa[n/mV]. PLE
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. βa'rã See Language page *Panoan *wara[n/mV]. PLE
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. nisi; ic̷i See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine PLE
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. ʔa'ṣ̌ã-ti See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation *Panoan form is *ʔaṣ̌ã-. PLE
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine PLE
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page PLE
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page PLE
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae ku'tiš See Language page čũkira 'a black ant'; naku'aṣ̌ 'termite, white ant'; βona and ku'tiṣ̌ 'isula'; čišmãkuru, c̷i'mãkakɨ (dial.), and c̷i'mãkuru (dial.) 'kind of large ant like the isula'. Other kinds of ants: nima; ma'is, ma'ɨs (dial.). ma'is, ma'ɨs and ima. *Panoan *mawisi PLE
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata ku'tiṣ̌ See Language page PLE
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page PLE
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis βina; ni'šaβu See Language page βɨ'ṣ̌aβu 'kind of small bee'; βuɲa 'arambasa' (bee)' *Panoan *βina with related meaning 'wasp'. *Panoan *βõpa with related meanings, 'a kind of beetle, kind of wasp'. PLE
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page PLE
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae koki See Language page Also means 'flashlight'. *Panoan *koki; *koko[šs]i. PLE
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera pɨmpɨṣ̌oo See Language page PLE
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page PLE
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora ṣ̌ɨβɨβɨi; no'ĩ See Language page Also ṣ̌ɨna. *Panoan *noʔi[n/mV]. PLE
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda ṣ̌akurũ See Language page PLE
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ču'nookuru; ni'βãta See Language page *Panoan *niβo. PLE
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page PLE
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page PLE
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera nakʷa; sia See Language page Latter is 'small fly'; ʔampa; puiβɨra; sa'mũ 'large fly'. *Panoan *nakʷa; *šio. PLE
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page PLE
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page PLE
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page PLE
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. βii See Language page *Panoan *βii. PLE
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page PLE
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page PLE
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita βina See Language page 'A kind of small wasp'; ṣ̌o'õβina 'kind of large wasp'; βi'noõ ' (wasp)'; βaa 'larva or egg of wasp'. PLE
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda nočo; noβo See Language page Latter is 'large river snail'. Also ʔa'βũku 'kind of snail'; pi'nĩ; či'rumpini (dial.) 'land snail'; βu'tũ, u'tũ (dial.) (congompe) a large snail'. *Panoan *noʔčo; *noβo. PLE
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ṣ̌ɨ'tã ʔa'kanãkɨ See Language page 'A kind of large spider'; ʔam'ɨ̃čaru 'kind of spider that walks on water'. *Panoan *šina. PLE
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page PLE
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page PLE
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page PLE
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page PLE
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page PLE
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page PLE
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page PLE
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ma'ṣ̌u See Language page PLE
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page PLE
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page PLE
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page PLE
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page PLE
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page PLE
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page PLE
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page PLE
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page PLE
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page PLE
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page PLE
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ma'kõ See Language page *Panoan *maka; *ṣ̌oya. PLE
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page PLE
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page PLE
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus čaṣ̌o See Language page *Panoan *čaṣ̌o. PLE


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material ka'kã; ta'sa ka'ki 'rope basket'; tamakariokɨ 'woven basket or mat'; pɨ'ku 'small basket made of cane or leaves'; si'tã 'small basket made of cane'. *Panoan *kakano; *tasa. See Language page PLE
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page PLE
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material muru Beads, [kind of] seeds [strung for decoration]'. See Language page PLE
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page PLE
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material *Panoan *nisši is 'hammock' with related meaning 'vine'. See Language page PLE
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material kʷɨ'nã *Panoan *kʷɨna[n/mV], 'bench, stool'. See Language page PLE
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page PLE
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page PLE
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page PLE
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology *Panoan *yoβɨka. See Language page PLE
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page PLE
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page PLE
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology čupa; ha'pa *Panoan *tari 'tunic'. See Language page PLE
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page PLE
firewood leña lenha other karo *Panoan *ka[a]ro. See Language page PLE
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page PLE
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page PLE
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page PLE
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology rɨɨ *Panoan *rɨwɨ. See Language page PLE
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page PLE
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page PLE
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page PLE
knife cuchillo faca culture-material či'čika See Language page PLE
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page PLE
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool roɨ; manɨ Respectively: 'stone ax; metal ax and things of foreign origin'. *Panoan *roɨ; *manɨ. *Panoan *yami with related meanings 'iron, machete, metal'. See Language page PLE
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool pia *Panoan *pia. See Language page PLE
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ma'sĩβũ ma'siβũ (dial.). Also means 'arrow with points at each end'. See Language page PLE
bow arco arco subsistence tool kãti *Panoan *kan[o/a]ti. See Language page PLE
paddle/oar remo remo transport ina-ti *Panoan *wina-. See Language page PLE
plate plato prato culture-material kɨ̃'ča *Panoan *kɨ̃ča[CV]. See Language page PLE
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ɲutɨ; manɨ kɨ̃ti Latter is 'metal cooking pot'. *Panoan *kɨ̃; *kɨṣ̌ɨ; *kɨ̃ti[CV] 'pot, bowl, potsherd'. See Language page PLE
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material kɨ̃'ča See Language page PLE
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page PLE
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page PLE
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page PLE
wax cera cera other βo'i *Panoan *βoičo with related meaning 'resin'. See Language page PLE
honey miel mel food rɨpa only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page PLE
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page PLE
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture nisi mɨṣ̌i 'bowstring'; ic̷i 'rope made of twisted vine'. *Panoan *risβiči. See Language page PLE
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page PLE
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material ṣ̌ɨo See 'weave, hammock, net bag'. See Language page PLE
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page PLE
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page PLE
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page PLE
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page PLE
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page PLE
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page PLE
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page PLE
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page PLE
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology na'ma-ti kamɨ-ti, ka'mɨ-ti (dial.) 'to dream that others are dead'. *Panoan *nama-. See Language page PLE
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page PLE
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page PLE
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page PLE
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation ṣ̌ai *Panoan *ṣ̌awi. See Language page PLE
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page PLE
shoes zapatos sapatos dress taṣ̌aka See Language page PLE
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page PLE
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page PLE
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page PLE
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation ʔirapa Also ii tɨn'tũɲu. See Language page PLE
hat sombero chapéu dress maɲo-ti Means 'headdress, headband'. *Panoan *maiti. See Language page PLE
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology ʔapu [Quechua loan] See Language page PLE
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool ino sɨkʷɨrɨnti, ṣ̌ɨkʷɨrɨn-ti (dial.) 'club, hammer'. *Panoan *wino. See Language page PLE
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page PLE
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page PLE
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page PLE
salt sal sal food taši; ta'šĩ-ti nami tašĩ-ti 'to salt meat' [lit. 'meat (to) salt']. *Panoan *taši. See Language page PLE
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology tupu-ti ša'ku-ti 'sing for the dance before a fight'. See Language page PLE
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page PLE
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page PLE
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page PLE
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page PLE
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page PLE
hunt cazar caçar food ɲua-ti ɲuu βari-ti 'to hunt' [ɲuu 'thing']. See Language page PLE
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food ɲuina Also ɲoina 'animal (possibly only edible animal)'. See Language page PLE
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ṣ̌ampa; ṣ̌o'pã; ma'sɨ̃ *Panoan *ma[s]ɨ[n/mV]; *šatano; *ṣ̌opa[n/mV]. See Language page PLE
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page PLE
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool Platform' is tapo. *Panoan *taʔpas[V] with related meanings 'hanging shelf, shelter, house, roof'. *Panoan *tapo with related meanings 'platform, raised floor, bridge'. See Language page PLE
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page PLE
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page PLE
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page PLE
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page PLE
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page PLE
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page PLE
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page PLE
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page PLE
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page PLE
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page PLE
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page PLE
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page PLE
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page PLE
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page PLE
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page PLE
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page PLE
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page PLE
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page PLE
house other ṣ̌oβo; ma'pũkɨ Also ma'pũki (dial.). *Panoan *ṣ̌oβo with related meanings 'shelter, blind for hunting'. See Language page PLE