Nukak

Family
Kakua-Nukakan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mbr
Location
2.66°, -71.46°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Cabrera, G., Franky, C. and Mahecha, D. 1999. Los nikak: nómadas de la Amazonía colombiana. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Fundación Gaia – Amazonas, Bogotá. Huber, R. and Reed, R. (1992). Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Politis, Gustavo G. 2007. Nukak: Ethnoarchaeology of an Amazonian people.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
all todo todos other dupi1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
and y e grammar missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment hũũʔ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
back espalda costas body kolibaʔ doubtful loan, direction unknown W Tukanoan, Siona gɨrɨbɨ See Language page Lauren Franklin
belly barriga barriga body t∫ɨka4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
big grande grande quality niʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
bite morder morder body tʃããk2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
black negro preto colour hɛ̃lẽ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
blood sangre sangue body mɛʔɛp2 inheritance compare Puinave ma See Language page Lauren Franklin
blow soplar soprar body hei2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
bone hueso osso body mikIwɛ̃p4att unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
breast pecho, seno peito body hõõ3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
breathe respirar respirar body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
burn quemar queimar environment pãũʔ3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
child niño, niña criança human weʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
cloud nube nuvem environment hei2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
cold frío frio quality kɨpɨ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
come venir vir motion hãuʔ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
cook cocinar cozinhar impact missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality huɛʔ2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
count contar contar mental missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
cry llorar chorar mental missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ʔiibm3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
day día dia time dʓa1wap4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
die/be dead morir morrer state bɨɨdn2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
dig cavar cavar impact baadn2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
dirty sucio sujo quality kei2hɨm4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
drink beber, tomar beber body haha2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
dry seco seco quality kala2 loan E Tukanoan: Barasano, Macuna, Tatuyo kara See Language page Lauren Franklin
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ʔɛʔ4ka1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
dust polvo poeira environment ʔuh4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
ear oreja orelha body mũnĩ4 nɨ̃t1 inheritance compare Puinave mut See Language page Lauren Franklin
earth/soil tierra terra environment naah2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
eat comer comer body wam4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
egg huevo ovo fauna tip (M99), t∫ɨka4daʔ4 loan (into protolg?); unique Nadahup See Language page Lauren Franklin
eye ojo olho body ʔɛn4at1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
fall caer cair motion bɨɨgn2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
far lejos longe quality dʒɨɨp2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
fat/grease grasa gordura body jii3 doubtful loan into proto-language E Tukanoan, e.g. Desano ɨji; compare also Puinave ye See Language page Lauren Franklin
father padre, papá pai kinship iip3 loan (into proto-language?) Nadahup, e.g. Hup ʔíp See Language page Lauren Franklin
fear miedo medo mental ʔɨɨm3 doubtful loan into proto-language Nadahup, e.g. Hup ʔɔm See Language page Lauren Franklin
feather pluma pena fauna t∫ẽi3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
fire fuego fogo environment tɨ̃ã4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
fish xx xx fauna a1kaji2 inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion nuuh2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
flower flor flor environment kɛʔɛ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
fly volar voar motion hɛɛn3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment hei2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
foot pie body tʔɨ̃i4att unknown See Language page Lauren Franklin
fruit fruta fruta flora daʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
good bueno bom quality huɛʔ2 unique cf. Puinave See Language page Lauren Franklin
grow crecer crescer state missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tʃẽĩ3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
hand mano mão body teiʔ3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
head cabeza cabeça body wau2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
hear oír ouvir mental hui2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
heavy pesado pesado quality tʃudn4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
hide esconder esconder motion missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
hit golpear, pegar bater impact baak2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other tʃah4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
how? como como grammar dɛdn-pãʔ1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
if si se grammar ti1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location liʔ1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
intestines intestinos intestinos body paan2at1tããʔ2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
kill matar matar impact mau4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
lake lago lago environment iim3bɛʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
laugh reír rir mental missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
leaf hoja folha environment nɨu3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body tʃep4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ɲah4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment hɨdɨʔteu4at1 unique cf. thunder See Language page Lauren Franklin
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
liver hígado figado body t∫alu2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
long largo comprido, longo quality dʒɨɨp2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
lung pulmón pulmão body tʃaa2tʃaa2hat1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
meat/flesh carne carne fauna t∫kɨi2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
moon luna lua environment widʔ4 doubtful loan into proto-language, direction unknown Nadahup wædhɔ, widhɔ See Language page Lauren Franklin
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship iin3 loan into proto-language Puinave, Nadahup See Language page Lauren Franklin
mouth boca boca body paan2at1it1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
name nombre nome human nãuʔ2wa4hat1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
near/close cerca de perto quality dʒɨɨp2ka1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
neck cuello pescoço body ʔeu4 tããʔ2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
new nuevo novo quality kobm4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
night noche noite time t∫ei4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
no/not no não grammar dʒabʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
nose nariz nariz body wɨik2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
old viejo velho quality maa3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
one uno um number miik3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
other otro outro grammar biiʔ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
person/human being persona pessoa human nɨ4kãk1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact baak2 ('hit', H&R) missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
rain lluvia chuva environment kaan2de1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
red rojo vermelho colour mɛ̃lu2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
right/right hand derecha direita location/body bakaʔ1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
road/path camino caminho manufacture nama2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
root raíz raiz flora naʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
rotten podrido podre quality duiʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
sand arena areia environment ʔuun3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
say decir dizer mental niih2 doubtful loan (into proto-language?) Tukanoan, e.g. Tukano nii 'say'; see also Quechua See Language page Lauren Franklin
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
see ver ver mental ʔen4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality ʔɛʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
short corto curto quality dʒɨɨp2ka1 ['not long'] unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
shoulder hombro ombro body pelu4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
sit sentar(se) sentar state wɨɨ2jah4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
skin piel pele body nɨi3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
sky cielo céu environment hea2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
sleep dormir dormir body ʔɨ̃ũ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
small pequeño pequeno quality bai2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
smoke humo fumaça environment hei2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body wĩĩh3 loan Tukanoan: e.g. Desano, Wanano, Macuna wĩhĩ See Language page Lauren Franklin
spit escupir cuspir body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact bɨɨʔ3 unknown See Language page Lauren Franklin
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact bui3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact tah4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state ɲaʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
star estrella estrela environment kɨi3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
steal robar roubar other missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tɨ4naʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
stone piedra pedra environment hee2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
suck chupar chupar body ɸiibʔ3 doubtful loan Tukanoan: Wanano wĩmĩ; Cubeo vivi See Language page Lauren Franklin
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
swell hincharse inchar body ʔolo2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
swim nadar nadar motion pɨgʔ4 teu4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
tail cola, rabo rabo body tããʔ2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
that ese/esa esse grammar kan4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality min4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
thin delgado fino quality bai2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
think pensar pensar mental hɛnaʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
this este/esta este grammar nin4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
2sg xx xx grammar mɛɛm2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
three tres tres number missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact dʒuʔ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
thunder truenos trovão environment hɨhɨ2at1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact hiign3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
tongue lengua lingua body nɨik2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
tooth diente dente body mau3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
two dos dois number t∫ɛne1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
vomit vomitar vomitar body ʔɛɛgn3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
walk caminar, andar andar motion hibm4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
water agua agua environment kaan2de1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
wet mojado molhado quality bɛbe4 unknown See Language page Lauren Franklin
what? que, qué que grammar dee2de inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
when? cuando quando grammar dee3maniʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
where? donde onde grammar dedn4-diʔ1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
white blanco branco colour pat∫e3waʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
who? quien, quién quem grammar dɛʔɛ4 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
wife esposa esposa kinship tãʔ4bɨʔ4 unknown See Language page Lauren Franklin
wind viento vento environment huʔ4at1 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
wing ala asa body mɨ4ɸããp3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
woman/female mujer mulher human nɨ4mat1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
work trabajar trabalhar other missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
yellow amarillo amarelo colour dʓole2 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
bad mal mal quality jee3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar kaan2, kaanʔ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
1sg yo eu grammar wɛɛm2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
leg/foot pierna perna body naat3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
man/male hombre homem human t∫aʔ4bu1 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar kɛɛt2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental heiʔ3 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ɸiit² inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
2pl ustedes vocês grammar jɛɛbm2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin
bark corteza casca environment tɨ4naʔ4 nɨi3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
fingernail uña unha body teiʔ3 nɨi3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
heart corazón coração body haa3attdaʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
sun sol sol time widʔ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment bii3 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
green verde verde quality hɛ̃lẽ4 unique See Language page Lauren Franklin
hot caliente quente quality hihiI unknown See Language page Lauren Franklin


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana mée; mɛkũnde (H&R) inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. chitá: inga alba; wapdeja: inga fastuosa unique; doubtful loan cf. Piaroa wipoʔruæ, Arawak wiru uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mú (Politis) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. ʧakun2de1 (H&R); wuw (Politis) loan - WW; inheritance TG %jakare uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus dɨlɨ1 boʔ4 unique missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes mɨh4 buu2 li4 unique morphologically complex, in Kakua would mean (river-loc-obj) see also yuhup: m'æh pog ['big water snake'] compound See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae hõĩ4 doubtful loan Puinave hui uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) pẽõʔ2 ni4 de1 unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri núu (Politis) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum dii inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. ji-ni, hiʔni (H&R) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift.
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. nɨ̃ũʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Ocaina nõõï̃, nõã́ã́ʔɸiʔtʸa uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis ʔԑwe4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna nɨ1jɨputu4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala wipichacum (duguetia spixiana sp); maám-ára (duguetia hirsuta sp) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba yáab butu (P07) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) dárua unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha pátchu (Politis) doubtful loan - WW %tʃuru; prob origin Quechua Matses poʃtó uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata wãb (Cabrera et al) inheritance uncoded See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris kԑʧuʔ4 loan (into protolg?) Arawak uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. buu (Heteropsis tenuispadix sp) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca tudãʔci inheritance missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu píka doubtful loan Jivaroan paki see Jivaro, Carib paki uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) paab3 (H&R) inheritance possibly semantic shift uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given')
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ʤuwe3 unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus wãã2 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris nɨ2 jɨp4 ʧeI hooˀ2 ʤi4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna a1 kaji2 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. nuún (P07) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera tãŋãp2 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera heno1 ni4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) dʒilip (H&R) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens biaʔ (H&R; Tukanoan loan), tubni-dé loan East Tukanoan bia; see also tubni-dé '? pain' uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] mɨ̃ʔ1 a4 bu4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae buʔ jup4 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca hio2 inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra puyú (P07) unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. yúbudi (P07) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. wekiri (P07) unique [loan or morph complex?] uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. jauʔ3 inheritance uncoded See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays weá, kánáʔ (P07) loan - WW; loan - WW Tukanoan; Arawak wea = Cubeo or West Tukanoan; kana = Arawak WW %kana uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta tũĩ; yedn-yíbu, kahiwa (dialectal variants; Cab et al) unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta missing uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa eú, uj unknown uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ʤɨbɨ1 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis wԑn4 daawa4 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes muni4bu4 doubtful loan Witoto, e.g. Murui monuiθɯ Murui Witito monuiθɯ or Ocaina (Bora) mṍṍn̵õhõ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) kԑԑbm2 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ʔԑlԑʔ4 loan - WW from Secoya or Ocaina ere? see alsoʔeleʔ forms in Guicuruan, Matacoan see Secoya ɛrɛ uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea huruda-wa (P07) doubtful loan Ocaina tʲoroodʲo, Aguaruna kuun(ta) compare Ocaina tʲoroodʲo uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes búyup, huyuni (P07) unique uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus chuú, cupuri doubtful loan (into protolanguage?) - WW %tʃihõ see Huambisa tʃiu uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae ʔԑʔ4 ni4 (H&R); dãt (Cabrera et al) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region]
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua yáab (P07) missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mãĩ4 inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae pɨ̃pɨ̃ʔ4 loan East Tukanoan, prob. Cubwo e.g. Desano bʉpʉ uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas kɨɨdn2 (H&R) doubtful loan into protolanguage Bora kʰɯni uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris kioʔI ni4 deI unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera nããnˀ3 unique uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura bubu1 daʔ loan Cubeo bʉbʉ-kɔ or other Tukanoan uncoded See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum húup (P07); ɲɨna (H&R) doubtful loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Puinave hǝp uncoded See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria ɲãkoʔ4 doubtful loan cf. Warao naku, Puinave juk semantic shift? See crab in Kakua uncoded See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. nih inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna tɨnaʔ4 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella wuaáp (Politis) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae jaa2ka4paa2ni4de1 unique uncoded See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari múu (Politis) inheritance missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia méu (P07) inheritance uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. turú, mamu4 (yam H&R) doubtful loan Baniwa torówali; inherited form mamo also exists (Huber & Reed 1992) uncoded See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna nɨ2jɨ4tʃe1hooʔ2dʒi4 unique See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna wãã2 inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material jũ: unique See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material missing See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material ɲahat unique See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material ʔimdʒi unique See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material missing See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport tɨnaʔaa; ha (Cab et al) unique See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture missing Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology missing See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology missing In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material missing See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology missing See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other missing may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page
firewood leña lenha other tɨa inheritance See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology missing See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology missing In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology pɛt dãʔ unique multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material iibmatdaʔ unknown calque Kakua? See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material missing See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool ʔɛʔniʔ; cʌk (Cab et al) unknown; inheritance especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool dii unique hunting, warfare See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ɲumoʔ2 unique See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool tɨweidɨʔ unique arco See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport pɨgʔatnɨi unique See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material missing See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool waam doubtful loan, direction unknown Puinave wãm See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material missing See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool missing agriculture? See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology missing See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool missing See Language page
wax cera cera other missing See Language page
honey miel mel food missing only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tããʔ2 unique See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material nɛɛʔ3at1 unknown See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation missing See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kajuʔ2 loan Cubeo kájukore See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation mɛlɛʔ4 'cane' (H&R) See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material missing See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation missing See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation missing See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation missing See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress missing See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology missing See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool baakatnaʔ See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress dɨʔ See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page
salt sal sal food taadn (H&R) unique See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology missing See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ʔɨɨʔ inheritance currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool tɛru hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool missing esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food missing See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food pujat unique See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food missing See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food missing Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool dárua unique See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool missing esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool missing See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool wɛɛdʌʔ, tegnĩ (dialectal variants; Cab et al) unique See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture missing prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food missing agriculture See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food missing usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food missing See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food missing agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food missing word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool parupi' (Politis07) unique hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool werep, dugup (dialectal variants, Cab et al) doubtful loan; unknown Tupi-Guarani agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Lauren Franklin
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Lauren Franklin
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Lauren Franklin
house other mɨɨ2 inheritance See Language page Lauren Franklin


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
300 small HG low mobile Interfluvial