Yuhup

Family
Nadahupan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
yab
Location
0.25°, -69.81°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Martins, Valteir. 2005. Reconstrução fonológica do Protomaku Oriental. Ph. D. diss., Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. Amsterdam: LOT. Ospina Bozzi, Ana Maria. 2002. Les structures élémentaires du Yuhup Makú, langue de l’Amazonie Colombienne: Morphologie et syntaxe. PhD Thesis, Université Paris 7—Denis Diderot. Silva, Cácio and Silva, Elisângela. 2012. A língua dos Yuhupdeh. São Gabriel da Cachoeira, AM.


Basic Vocabulary (192)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
all todo todos other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
and y e grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armpit axila, sobaco axila body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tuh tuh semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
at en, a em, a location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
back espalda costas body cĩʔæ̌h ~ciʔæ̌h doubtful loan Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
belly barriga barriga body pǐn ~pǐd unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
below abajo, debajo abaixo location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
big grande grande quality pog pog inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bite morder morder body k'ǝc k'ǝc inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black negro preto colour c'âh c'âh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blood sangre sangue body dîw dîw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blow soplar soprar body pũhũt ~puhut inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bone hueso osso body kǝʔ kǝʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breast pecho, seno peito body hɔ̃ʔtǝ̂g ~hɔʔ-tǝ̂g unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breathe respirar respirar body haŋ-cak- ~hag-cak- inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
burn quemar queimar environment hɔ̃ ~hɔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
child niño, niña criança human dóʔ dóʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
climb subir subir motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cloud nube nuvem environment c'ɨ́k kudú c'ɨ́k kudú loan Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cold frío frio quality tǔt tǔt unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
come venir vir motion dæ̃d ~dæd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cook cocinar cozinhar impact cɨw cɨw unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality hub' hub' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
count contar contar mental d'ihpǒdni d'ihpǒd-~di unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cry llorar chorar mental ʔɔt ʔɔt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cut/hack cortar cortar impact hɔ̃k, tǝc ~hɔk, tǝc inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
day día dia time wag wag inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
die/be dead morir morrer state loan Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dig cavar cavar impact hat hat inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dingo/wolf fauna missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dirty sucio sujo quality c'ǎw' c'ǎw' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream soñar sonhar mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drink beber, tomar beber body ʔǝg ʔǝg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dry seco seco quality hǝb hǝb unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dust polvo poeira environment c'ɨ̂k c'ɨ̂k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ear oreja orelha body bu'dɔk bu'dɔk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
earth/soil tierra terra environment c'ah c'ah inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eat comer comer body wæd wæd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
egg huevo ovo fauna tîp tîp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eye ojo olho body tǝʔbǝ́g tǝʔbǝ́g unknown See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body jæ̂Ɂ jæ̂Ɂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fall caer cair motion dɔ̃h ~dɔh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
far lejos longe quality w'ěh w'ěh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fat/grease grasa gordura body dã̌g dã̌g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔîp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fear miedo medo mental ʔɔm ~ʔɔb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather pluma pena fauna hũ pã̌t ~hu ~pǎt unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fire fuego fogo environment têg têg inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish xx xx fauna hɔ̃́p ~hɔ́p inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
flow fluir fluir motion hi, cædǝh-hi hi, cædǝh-hi inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flower flor flor environment c'ɔ̂h c'ɔ̂h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fly volar voar motion missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment c'ɨ̌k c'ɨ̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
foot pie body c'îb c'îb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fruit fruta fruta flora ʔag ʔag inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
good bueno bom quality dã̌w ~dǎw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grow crecer crescer state cap cap unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pã̌t ~pǎt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hand mano mão body pɔ̃̂h ~pɔ̂h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
head cabeza cabeça body dũ̌h ~dǔh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hear oír ouvir mental pãh ~pah semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heavy pesado pesado quality wik wik inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hide esconder esconder motion jǝ̂d jǝ̂d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hit golpear, pegar bater impact ʔũb ~ʔub inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
how? como como grammar nɨ̌h ~dɨ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
if si se grammar missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
intestines intestinos intestinos body pĩ̌d ~pǐd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body c’uk c’uk inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kill matar matar impact ʔũb ~ʔub semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lake lago lago environment bɔ̃̌h ~bɔ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
laugh reír rir mental nɔhɔ̃ ~dɔhɔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf hoja folha environment k'æ̂t k'æ̂t inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body cɔ̃hɔ̃ma ~cɔhɔba inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion jæt, k'ãʔ jæt, ~k'aʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment cǝ́p cǝ́p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ni ~di doubtful loan into protolanguage Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
liver hígado figado body hɔ̂ hɔ̂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
long largo comprido, longo quality w'ǝt w'ǝt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna dɛ̃̂b ~dæ̂b inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lung pulmón pulmão body pu pûh pu pûh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
meat/flesh carne carne fauna d'ǎp d'ǎp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moon luna lua environment wædhɔ̌ wædhɔ̌ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ʔín ~ʔíd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouth boca boca body dɔ̃hk'od ~dɔh-k'od inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
name nombre nome human hât hât inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
near/close cerca de perto quality mah-ãp ~bah-~ap unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neck cuello pescoço body ʔǽd tɨ̌t ʔǽd tɨ̌t unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
new nuevo novo quality dǝʔǝ́y dǝʔǝ́y unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
night noche noite time c'ǝb c'ǝb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
no/not no não grammar ni-nɨh [Neg exist] ~di-~dɨh [Neg exist] unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nose nariz nariz body tôɟ tôɟ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
old viejo velho quality wah (animate) wah (animate) inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
one uno um number cãh, cãhyãpã ~cah, ~cahjapa unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
open/uncover abrir abrir other poʔ poʔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
other otro outro grammar cãh-ãp ~cah-~ap inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
person/human being persona pessoa human juhup juhup inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rain lluvia chuva environment d'oɉ d'oɉ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
red rojo vermelho colour hěɟ hěɟ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
right/right hand derecha direita location/body mihnɨ̌ŋ ~bihdɨ̌g unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
road/path camino caminho manufacture tîw tîw inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
root raíz raiz flora tîc tîc inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rotten podrido podre quality d'ɔ̌h d'ɔ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sand arena areia environment wæ̂g wæ̂g unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
say decir dizer mental ~dɔ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scratch rascar rasgar impact cæ̃w' ~cæw' semantic shift See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
see ver ver mental key kej inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality c'ɨg c'ɨg unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact teg-b'uh teg-b'uh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
short corto curto quality w'ǝt-nɨh w'ǝt-~dɨh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoulder hombro ombro body các các unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sit sentar(se) sentar state pæ̃b ~pæb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skin piel pele body b'ɔ̌k b'ɔ̌k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sky cielo céu environment poh poh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sleep dormir dormir body ʔɔ̃h ~ʔɔh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small pequeño pequeno quality hĩ́p ~híp unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
smoke humo fumaça environment c'ɨ́k c'ɨ́k inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spit escupir cuspir body c’ɔ̂c c’ɔ̂c inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact pob pob inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact wiɟ wiɟ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact cɔh cɔh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state k’ed' k’ed' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
star estrella estrela environment wedo b'ɛ̃̌h wedo ~b'æ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
steal robar roubar other c'ej c'ej inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora tég tég inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone piedra pedra environment pâc pâc inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
suck chupar chupar body ʔũn' ~ʔud' inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swell hincharse inchar body puh puh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swim nadar nadar motion c'ɔm ~c'ɔb inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tail cola, rabo rabo body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
that ese/esa esse grammar n'í ~d'í inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality k'ǝ̌Ɂ k'ǝ̌Ɂ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thin delgado fino quality cǝ̂p cǝ̂p inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
think pensar pensar mental japãh ~japah unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
this este/esta este grammar n'ɨ̌h ~d'ɨ̌h unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2sg xx xx grammar ʔãb ~ʔab inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
three tres tres number mɔdɨg-w’áp mɔdɨg-w’áp inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throat garganta garganta body missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact b'uh b'uh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thunder truenos trovão environment pæ̃j ~pæj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tab tab inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tongue lengua lingua body dɔ̃hk'æ̂d ~dɔh-k'æ̂d inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tooth diente dente body tǝ̌g tǝ̌g inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other k'ot-doʔ k'ot-doʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
two dos dois number b’ǝ́́ʔ b’ǝ́́ʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vomit vomitar vomitar body hɔ̃d ~hɔd inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
walk caminar, andar andar motion ham ~hab inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
water agua agua environment dêh dêh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wet mojado molhado quality weʔ (tuk loan) weʔ (tuk loan) loan Tukanoan See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
what? que, qué que grammar n'ɨ̌h ~d'ɨ̌h inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
when? cuando quando grammar hɨ̃-tɔh ~hɨ-tɔh unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
where? donde onde grammar hɨ̃t ~hɨt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white blanco branco colour tohoh tohoh inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
who? quien, quién quem grammar ʔúj ʔúj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wife esposa esposa kinship missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wind viento vento environment wohôt wohôt inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wing ala asa body kǽ kǽ inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woman/female mujer mulher human ʔã̂ːj ~ʔâːj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
work trabajar trabalhar other bɨʔ bɨʔ unique See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yawn bostezar bocejar body nɔ̃h k'ah ~dɔh k'ah inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yellow amarillo amarelo colour missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bad mal mal quality tæ̃hæ̃ ~tæhæ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tɨh tɨh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1sg yo eu grammar ʔãh ~ʔah See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
man/male hombre homem human jîʔ jîʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar hɨ̌d hɨ̌d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental pãh ~pah See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar ʔɨ̃d ~ʔɨd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2pl ustedes vocês grammar dɨ̌̃g ~dɨ̌g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bark corteza casca environment b'ɔk b'ɔk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fingernail uña unha body pɔ̃hb'ɔk, bɔ̃hb'ɔk ~pɔh-b'ɔk, ~bɔh-b'ɔk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heart corazón coração body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sun sol sol time wædhɔ̌ wædhɔ̌ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green verde verde quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot caliente quente quality k'ɨ k'ɨ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (138)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana hɤ̂w hɤ̂w inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. bĩ̂d bĩ̂d inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bɛ̃̂t bɛ̃̂t inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Throughout Amazonia no? Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes m'æh pog ['big water snake'] m'æh pog unique big water snake' phrase See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) bɯ̌g bɯ̌g doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw East Tukanoan e.g. Tukano bɨko underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonian lowlands no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tatu-galinha jêw (tatu-galinha) inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread in Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum k’ig tég ('shoot-arrow stick') k’ig tég unique shoot-arrow stick' compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 tropical regions, especially river banks no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana jũhũ̌b jũhũ̌b inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. wɯhɯ̌t, pãdãh wɯhɯ̌t, pãdãh semantic shift doubtful, from wild heliconia sp.; also loan pãdãh underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. wɤ̌b wɤ̌b inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hĩ̌h hĩ̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wêt wêt inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala cɯ̂p, cɛ̌h cɯ̂p, cɛ̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests, native to Brazil no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba wawǒh, wîb wawǒh, wîb inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon no may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) b'ɔʔ b'ɔʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 indigenous gardens no plant; tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] tɨ̌w tɨ̌w unique Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha ʔɔ̌h ʔɔ̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata wíw wíw inheritance underived See Language page 2 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera bebep, totóh bebep, totóh unique Hup-Yuhup reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum jãhã̌b jãhã̌b unique Hup-Yuhup underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens no tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium giganteum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, Guyana no
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. jǔb jǔb inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forest, floodplain no vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca cohó cohó unique underived See Language page 1 0 0 1 1 secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria dahdǎp dahdǎp inheritance reduplicated maybe See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tɔ̃hbɛ̃t tɔ̃hbɛ̃t inheritance pig-agouti?' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua cûh cûh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) wûk wûk inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 1 secondary scrub vegetation no plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae cũ̌ɟ', ɤdîd' cũ̌ɟˀ, ɤdîdˀ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus bɔ̃hɔ̃j bɔ̃hɔ̃j-c'ǎh (catingueiro), bɔ̃hɔ̃j-hɤ̂w (mateiro) unique underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris yaʔambéh yaʔambéh semantic shift jaguar + ?' compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Not native; widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wɛ̃h wɛ̃h inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna hɔ̃́p hɔ̃́p inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (large type) paiche, pirarucú o arapaima pirarucu flora-fauna Arapaima gigas missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 big rivers only no
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. d'ûc dˀûc inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation yes [used to poison people] shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana deh d'ád deh d'ád unique Hup-Yuhup water genipap' Narrower (may be specific type of genipap?) compound See Language page 1 0 0 0 0 widespread lowland SA no shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. jêc jêc inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Different types have different localized ranges no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi missing missing See Language page 1 0 0 1 0 semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW no vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wîh wîh inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens kɔ̌w kɔ̌w inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] tûg tûg inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae cǔg cǔg inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca jãʔã̌b jãʔã̌b inheritance underived See Language page 1 2 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura wǎk wǎk inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no large tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra wúk wúk inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. k'ædʔág k'ædʔág unique Hup-Yuhup ? fruit' compound See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. c'ãh cˀãh loan into protolanguage Unknown e.g. Candoshi tʃámó; doubtful underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. hǔd, wɤk, wɤg hǔd, wɤk, wɤg inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae huhûj huhûj inheritance reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. missing missing See Language page 1 1 0 0 1 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays hóka hóka loan Tukano Tukano ohôka underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 widespread, esp. in river floodplains no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta jâk jâk inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. no Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta jak wǽd ('manioc eat') jak wǽd unique Hup-Yuhup 'manioc eat' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere no No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa c'âk c'âk inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps no trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. k'i k'i missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) pǝb' pǝb' inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis jɔk jɔk inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes pɤpɤ̌p pɤpɤ̌p doubtful loan into protolanguage North Arawak? e.g. Yucuna pupú; likely onomatopoeic; doubtful loan WW %pupu reduplicated See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana mɔy-k'ǽt mɔy-k'ǽt unique 'house-leaf' compound See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests no palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica c'ɔj' cˀɔjˀ inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea púp púp loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw North Arawak e.g. Baniwa poópa underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes c'ɯ̂w c'ɯ̂w inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea yæʔ tutúʔ ('feces into ground') jæʔ tutúʔ unique Hup-Yuhup feces into ground' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus jɔ̂j jɔ̂j loan into protolanguage, direction unknown Puinave Puinave ioi underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no [not in this region] Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae pûg pûg inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 secondary scrub vegetation no compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones caj caj semantic shift doubtful, from 'centipede' underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua wǎh wǎh inheritance underived See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia no may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox b'ǎw b'ǎw inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America yes Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae jɔ̌ʔ, cũ̌h jɔ̌ʔ, cũ̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. bɔʔ-wǽd bɔʔ-wǽd semantic shift 'eating gourd' compound See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas jɔʔhǝ̌h jɔʔhǝ̌h unique no info See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tâh tâh inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera b'uʔ bˀuʔ doubtful loan into protolanguage Hup-Yuhup-Daw East Tukanoan e.g. Tukano butu underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea cêb cêb inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura missing missing See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hũ̂t hũ̂t inheritance underived See Language page 1 0 0 0 1 no plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria missing missing See Language page 2 1 0 0 0 Widespread no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. cɔhkɤt cɔhk ɤt inheritance compound old lexicalization? See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna têg têg inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella wâc wâc inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cunuri (tree) cunuri cunuri flora-fauna Cunurea spruceana péd péd inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 Amazonia no
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui bɯ̃h bɯ̃h inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions no other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wãʔ wãʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread South America no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita jɔ̌ʔ jɔ̌ʔ inheritance underived See Language page 0 2 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons bɔ̃̂j bɔ̃̂j inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari tɔ̃̌h tɔ̃̌h inheritance underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia missing missing See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times no a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae missing missing See Language page 0 0 0 0 0 Widespread Amazonia no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. káb káb doubtful loan East Tukanoan Carapana kapɔ 'sweet potato' underived See Language page 0 1 0 0 0 no Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna yaʔambéh yaʔambéh inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna bɔ̃hɔ̃j ~bɔhɔj inheritance See Language page Epps Research Team


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material mǎj ~bǎɟ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material yǎg jǎg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
canoe canoa canoa transport hɔ̂h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology jûd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firewood leña lenha other dˀuh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology pĩ̌h multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
machete machete facão culture-material wã̌d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spear lanza lança subsistence tool cɔh(teg) cɔh-teg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bow arco arco subsistence tool kˀigwah arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool bˀɔk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool b'ɔkʔáh agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wax cera cera other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture tɨt tɨt See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material mɔy-k'ǽt ~bɔy-k'ǽt See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
salt sal sal food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool bˀǎk currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool bˀɔʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɨ̃p hɯ̃̌p esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool wǎb See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture ʔǝ́g ['drink.NMZ'] prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food cak pój ['mash toasted'] agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food b'âʔ, k'ǒj b'âʔ, k'ǒj usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food dũ̂h dũ̂h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food wɔ́n' agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottom grinding stone manufacture missing if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture missing use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spearthrower subsistence tool missing See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
house other mɔ̃̂j, mã̂j ~bɔ̂j, ~bâj inheritance See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
400 small HG low mobile Interfluvial Clan exogamy