Suyá

Family
Macro-Jean
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
suy
Location
-11.52°, -53.07°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Guedes, Marymarcia. 1992. Suyá: a língua da gente, um estudo fonológico e grammatical. São Paulo: Universidade Estadual de Campinas. (Doctoral disseration).


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Rebekah Evans
and y e grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment tusér tusér See Language page Rebekah Evans
at en, a em, a location See Language page Rebekah Evans
back espalda costas body tuken (dorso) tuken (dorso) See Language page Rebekah Evans
bad mal mal quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
belly barriga barriga body See Language page Rebekah Evans
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Rebekah Evans
big grande grande quality čí čí See Language page Rebekah Evans
black negro preto colour tɨ'glɛ, tɨ'ylɛ tɨ'glɛ, tɨ'jlɛ See Language page Rebekah Evans
blood sangre sangue body kãmró kãmró See Language page Rebekah Evans
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Rebekah Evans
bone hueso osso body See Language page Rebekah Evans
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page Rebekah Evans
child niño, niña criança human See Language page Rebekah Evans
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
cold frío frio quality krɨt krɨt See Language page Rebekah Evans
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
day día dia time See Language page Rebekah Evans
dirty sucio sujo quality tɨk – čí tɨk – čí See Language page Rebekah Evans
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Rebekah Evans
dry seco seco quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
ear oreja orelha body See Language page Rebekah Evans
earth/soil tierra terra environment puka, kuka puka, kuka See Language page Rebekah Evans
egg huevo ovo fauna See Language page Rebekah Evans
eye ojo olho body ndɔ ndɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
far lejos longe quality mũtaye mũtaje See Language page Rebekah Evans
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Rebekah Evans
father padre, papá pai kinship peme peme See Language page Rebekah Evans
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page Rebekah Evans
fire fuego fogo environment kutɨ kutɨ See Language page Rebekah Evans
flower flor flor environment ywĩrã jwĩrã See Language page Rebekah Evans
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
fruit fruta fruta flora ywĩsɨ jwĩsɨ See Language page Rebekah Evans
good bueno bom quality mἑt mἑt See Language page Rebekah Evans
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page Rebekah Evans
hand mano mão body nikra nikra See Language page Rebekah Evans
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar anĩ (ele), tã anĩ (ele), tã See Language page Rebekah Evans
head cabeza cabeça body krã krã See Language page Rebekah Evans
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
how? como como grammar nuká nuká See Language page Rebekah Evans
1sg yo eu grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
if si se grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location keŋá keŋá See Language page Rebekah Evans
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Rebekah Evans
lake lago lago environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
leaf hoja folha environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Rebekah Evans
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page Rebekah Evans
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
liver hígado figado body See Language page Rebekah Evans
long largo comprido, longo quality rɨč rɨč See Language page Rebekah Evans
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna ŋóĵ ŋóĵ See Language page Rebekah Evans
man/male hombre homem human mẽmɨĵe mẽmɨĵe See Language page Rebekah Evans
meat/flesh carne carne fauna ñi ñi See Language page Rebekah Evans
moon luna lua environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Rebekah Evans
mouth boca boca body ĵaĵkwá ĵaĵkwá See Language page Rebekah Evans
name nombre nome human ɨtɨ ɨtɨ See Language page Rebekah Evans
near/close cerca de perto quality kená kená See Language page Rebekah Evans
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Rebekah Evans
neck cuello pescoço body buru, mburu buru, mburu See Language page Rebekah Evans
new nuevo novo quality ĵɨw ĵɨw See Language page Rebekah Evans
night noche noite time akamɔ akamɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
no/not no não grammar kér, két kér, két See Language page Rebekah Evans
nose nariz nariz body See Language page Rebekah Evans
old viejo velho quality ŋέr ŋέr See Language page Rebekah Evans
one uno um number See Language page Rebekah Evans
other otro outro grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body sók sók See Language page Rebekah Evans
person/human being persona pessoa human mẽ mẽ See Language page Rebekah Evans
rain lluvia chuva environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
red rojo vermelho colour nɛpčí nɛpčí See Language page Rebekah Evans
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Rebekah Evans
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page Rebekah Evans
root raíz raiz flora See Language page Rebekah Evans
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
sand arena areia environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
short corto curto quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Rebekah Evans
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
skin piel pele body See Language page Rebekah Evans
sky cielo céu environment kay'kwa kaj'kwa See Language page Rebekah Evans
small pequeño pequeno quality sĩre sĩre See Language page Rebekah Evans
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
star estrella estrela environment kãtečí kãtečí See Language page Rebekah Evans
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora ywɨrɔ jwɨrɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
stone piedra pedra environment kene kene See Language page Rebekah Evans
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page Rebekah Evans
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar níra níra See Language page Rebekah Evans
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
2sg xx xx grammar ka, ga ka, ga See Language page Rebekah Evans
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Rebekah Evans
three tres tres number See Language page Rebekah Evans
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
bite morder morder body kũta kũta See Language page Rebekah Evans
blow soplar soprar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
burn quemar queimar environment krã krã See Language page Rebekah Evans
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
climb subir subir motion See Language page Rebekah Evans
come venir vir motion tẽ tẽ See Language page Rebekah Evans
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Rebekah Evans
count contar contar mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
cry llorar chorar mental mér mér See Language page Rebekah Evans
cut/hack cortar cortar impact See Language page Rebekah Evans
die/be dead morir morrer state See Language page Rebekah Evans
dig cavar cavar impact yuká-krέ juká-krέ See Language page Rebekah Evans
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
drink beber, tomar beber body aĵkõ aĵkõ See Language page Rebekah Evans
eat comer comer body krẽ krẽ See Language page Rebekah Evans
fall caer cair motion teme teme See Language page Rebekah Evans
fear miedo medo mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Rebekah Evans
fly volar voar motion See Language page Rebekah Evans
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Rebekah Evans
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
hide esconder esconder motion nɔr nɔr See Language page Rebekah Evans
hit golpear, pegar bater impact čičík čičík See Language page Rebekah Evans
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Rebekah Evans
kill matar matar impact ywá jwá See Language page Rebekah Evans
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental má, mba má, mba See Language page Rebekah Evans
laugh reír rir mental ikẽ ikẽ See Language page Rebekah Evans
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion ni ni See Language page Rebekah Evans
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Rebekah Evans
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact čičík čičík See Language page Rebekah Evans
say decir dizer mental neĵ neĵ See Language page Rebekah Evans
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Rebekah Evans
see ver ver mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact krwame krwame See Language page Rebekah Evans
sit sentar(se) sentar state nũ (?) nũ (?) See Language page Rebekah Evans
sleep dormir dormir body nɔ~r nɔ~r See Language page Rebekah Evans
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body kupã kupã See Language page Rebekah Evans
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Rebekah Evans
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Rebekah Evans
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Rebekah Evans
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Rebekah Evans
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state rɔtá rɔtá See Language page Rebekah Evans
steal robar roubar other kasosóyo kasosójo See Language page Rebekah Evans
suck chupar chupar body kasosóyo kasosójo See Language page Rebekah Evans
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
swim nadar nadar motion rér rér See Language page Rebekah Evans
think pensar pensar mental See Language page Rebekah Evans
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact krwáme krwáme See Language page Rebekah Evans
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact tɔr tɔr See Language page Rebekah Evans
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Rebekah Evans
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
walk caminar, andar andar motion mrá mrá See Language page Rebekah Evans
work trabajar trabalhar other ywét jwét See Language page Rebekah Evans
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
tongue lengua lingua body See Language page Rebekah Evans
tooth diente dente body See Language page Rebekah Evans
two dos dois number aĵkúr aĵkúr See Language page Rebekah Evans
water agua agua environment ŋó ŋó See Language page Rebekah Evans
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar aĵpá, waywíkire aĵpá, wajwíkire See Language page Rebekah Evans
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
white blanco branco colour See Language page Rebekah Evans
who? quien, quién quem grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
wife esposa esposa kinship See Language page Rebekah Evans
wind viento vento environment kɔy kɔj See Language page Rebekah Evans
wing ala asa body See Language page Rebekah Evans
woman/female mujer mulher human nulmburu nulmburu See Language page Rebekah Evans
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page Rebekah Evans
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
foot pie body See Language page Rebekah Evans
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Rebekah Evans
all todo todos other See Language page Rebekah Evans
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Rebekah Evans
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Rebekah Evans
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Rebekah Evans
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Rebekah Evans
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Rebekah Evans
bark corteza casca environment ŋɔ ŋɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Rebekah Evans
heart corazón coração body See Language page Rebekah Evans
sun sol sol time múφu múφu See Language page Rebekah Evans
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Rebekah Evans
green verde verde quality See Language page Rebekah Evans
hot caliente quente quality See Language page Rebekah Evans


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus rɔpčí rɔpčí See Language page Rebekah Evans
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna séy séj See Language page Rebekah Evans
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Rebekah Evans
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Rebekah Evans
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Rebekah Evans
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ĵúni ĵúni See Language page Widespread Rebekah Evans
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread Rebekah Evans
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica kóĵra kóĵra See Language page Widespread Rebekah Evans
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Rebekah Evans
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae seysaká sejsaká See Language page Rebekah Evans
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah Evans
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family sɨwĵá sɨwĵá See Language page Rebekah Evans
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah Evans
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris rɔpkasɔyre rɔpkasɔjre See Language page Not native; widespread Rebekah Evans
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Rebekah Evans
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tõčí tõčí See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Rebekah Evans
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. miči miči See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebekah Evans
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Rebekah Evans
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna tɛp tɛp See Language page Rebekah Evans
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page Rebekah Evans
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Rebekah Evans
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Rebekah Evans
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Rebekah Evans
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebekah Evans
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Rebekah Evans
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna kaŋã, kãná kaŋã, kãná See Language page Rebekah Evans
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Rebekah Evans
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria kwõči, kayãči kwõči, kajãči See Language page Widespread Rebekah Evans
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Rebekah Evans
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Rebekah Evans
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Rebekah Evans
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Rebekah Evans
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Rebekah Evans
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Rebekah Evans
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Rebekah Evans
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Rebekah Evans
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Rebekah Evans
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Rebekah Evans
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) katɔní katɔní See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Rebekah Evans
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Rebekah Evans
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Rebekah Evans
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Rebekah Evans
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Rebekah Evans
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Rebekah Evans
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. turičí turičí See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Rebekah Evans
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Rebekah Evans
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Rebekah Evans
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays wɔsɨ wɔsɨ See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebekah Evans
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant Rebekah Evans
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna ywĩrɔ jwĩrɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana ywɨ jwɨ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Rebekah Evans
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Rebekah Evans
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Rebekah Evans
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Rebekah Evans
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Rebekah Evans
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Rebekah Evans
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Rebekah Evans
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Rebekah Evans
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Rebekah Evans
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Rebekah Evans
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Rebekah Evans
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Rebekah Evans
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebekah Evans
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum ĵər ĵər See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Rebekah Evans
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant Rebekah Evans
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Rebekah Evans
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) yuñí juñí See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Rebekah Evans
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Rebekah Evans
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Rebekah Evans
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Rebekah Evans
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Rebekah Evans
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Rebekah Evans
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Rebekah Evans
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Rebekah Evans
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Rebekah Evans
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis mbɛni mbɛni See Language page Rebekah Evans
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Rebekah Evans
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Rebekah Evans
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera wewe, veve wewe, veve See Language page Rebekah Evans
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Rebekah Evans
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Rebekah Evans
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Rebekah Evans
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Rebekah Evans
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Rebekah Evans
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Rebekah Evans
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Rebekah Evans
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Rebekah Evans
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Rebekah Evans
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ko ko See Language page Rebekah Evans
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Rebekah Evans
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea te te See Language page Rebekah Evans
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Rebekah Evans
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Rebekah Evans
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page Rebekah Evans
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Rebekah Evans
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha kukwéĵe kukwéĵe See Language page Rebekah Evans
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Rebekah Evans
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page Rebekah Evans
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Rebekah Evans
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Rebekah Evans
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Rebekah Evans
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis nečí nečí See Language page Rebekah Evans
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Rebekah Evans
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Rebekah Evans
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Rebekah Evans
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Rebekah Evans
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Rebekah Evans
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page Rebekah Evans
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Rebekah Evans
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Rebekah Evans
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page Rebekah Evans
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Rebekah Evans
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Rebekah Evans
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page Rebekah Evans
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus ŋračí ŋračí See Language page Rebekah Evans


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material kweteké kweteké See Language page Rebekah Evans
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
canoe canoa canoa transport ywĩ-ŋɔ jwĩ-ŋɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Rebekah Evans
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Rebekah Evans
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Rebekah Evans
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology kučé kučé See Language page Rebekah Evans
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Rebekah Evans
firewood leña lenha other ywĩ-ŋró jwĩ-ŋró See Language page Rebekah Evans
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Rebekah Evans
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Rebekah Evans
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Rebekah Evans
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Rebekah Evans
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
machete machete facão culture-material krɨtyɔ krɨtjɔ See Language page Rebekah Evans
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool tuči tuči especially for clearing fields See Language page Rebekah Evans
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool mẽ mẽ hunting, warfare See Language page Rebekah Evans
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
bow arco arco subsistence tool krwá krwá arco See Language page Rebekah Evans
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Rebekah Evans
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ŋwəĵe ŋwəĵe See Language page Rebekah Evans
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Rebekah Evans
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology nɨti nɨti See Language page Rebekah Evans
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
wax cera cera other See Language page Rebekah Evans
honey miel mel food mέĵa mέĵa only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Rebekah Evans
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture kató kató See Language page Rebekah Evans
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Rebekah Evans
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
school escuela escola acculturation rowahutudzé rowahutudzé See Language page Rebekah Evans
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Rebekah Evans
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Rebekah Evans
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
chicken gallina galinha acculturation kárakarakó (same term for both) kárakarakó (same term for both) See Language page Rebekah Evans
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Rebekah Evans
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Rebekah Evans
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Rebekah Evans
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Rebekah Evans
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Rebekah Evans
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Rebekah Evans
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Rebekah Evans
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation tute tute See Language page Rebekah Evans
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Rebekah Evans
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Rebekah Evans
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Rebekah Evans
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
salt sal sal food katua katua See Language page Rebekah Evans
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Rebekah Evans
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Rebekah Evans
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Rebekah Evans
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Rebekah Evans
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Rebekah Evans
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Rebekah Evans
hunt cazar caçar food pawkó pawkó See Language page Rebekah Evans
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Rebekah Evans
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool yuñí juñí See Language page Rebekah Evans
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Rebekah Evans
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Rebekah Evans
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Rebekah Evans
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Rebekah Evans
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Rebekah Evans
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food kamí kamí agriculture See Language page Rebekah Evans
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Rebekah Evans
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Rebekah Evans
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Rebekah Evans
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Rebekah Evans
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Rebekah Evans
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Rebekah Evans
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Rebekah Evans
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Rebekah Evans
house other rukwã rukwã See Language page Rebekah Evans