Camsa

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
kbh
Location
1.15°, -76.89°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Huber, R. and Reed, R. (1992). Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá. Monguí, José. 1981. La lengua kamentzá. Fonética-Fonología-Textos. Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Bogotá.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location tsxuan-óka, tsbanán-oka tsxuan-óka, tsbanán-oka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
and y e grammar See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment xatinjá xatinjá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
at en, a em, a location See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
back espalda costas body stɨtɕá-xa stɨtɕá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
bad mal mal quality baká, bákna sóje baká, bákna sóje See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
belly barriga barriga body wabsbiá wabsbiá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
below abajo, debajo abaixo location tsɨtx-óka, tsman-óka, bʃants-óka tsɨtx-óka, tsman-óka, bʃants-óka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
big grande grande quality bɨts bɨts See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
black negro preto colour btsénga btsénga See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
blood sangre sangue body buìɲe buìɲe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
bone hueso osso body betá-ɕe, betá-bxa betá-ɕe, betá-bxa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
breast pecho, seno peito body kocháñ kotʃaɲ See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
child niño, niña criança human báse-tema báse-tema See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
cloud nube nuvem environment xantɕetí-ʃe ('clouds at rest') xantɕetí-ʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
cold frío frio quality ʃék-bana ʃék-bana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality tɕabá tɕabá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
day día dia time bɨnɨ-té, té bɨnɨ-té, té See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dirty sucio sujo quality tsénga, tsengá tsénga, tsengá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dry seco seco quality boxóxo, buaʃána boxóxo, buaʃána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality ndɨ-ngmɨtʃɨ-bxa ('embotado') ndɨ-ngmɨtʃɨ-bxa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dust polvo poeira environment polbí-ʃe (from span.) polbí-ʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
ear oreja orelha body matskuáz matskuas See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
earth/soil tierra terra environment bʃántse bʃántse See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
egg huevo ovo fauna ʃɨmnɨ-bé ʃɨmnɨ-bé See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
eye ojo olho body bɕnɨ-bé bɕnɨ-bé See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
far lejos longe quality bɨn-óka bɨn-óka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fat/grease grasa gordura body minjiká minjiká See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
father padre, papá pai kinship taitá (Quechua loan) taitá (Quechua loan) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
feather pluma pena fauna plumi-bxuá (from SP) plumi-bxuá (from SP) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fire fuego fogo environment íɲe, níɲe íɲe, níɲe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
flower flor flor environment wantɕebxú-ʃa wantɕebxú-ʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment xantɕetɨ-ʃe xantɕetɨ-ʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fruit fruta fruta flora ʃaxuan-bé ʃaxuan-bé See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
good bueno bom quality tɕabá, tɕábe tɕabá, tɕábe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body stxɨní-xa stxɨní-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hand mano mão body kukuá-tɕe kukuá-tɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tʃá tʃá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
head cabeza cabeça body béstzaze bestʂase See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
heavy pesado pesado quality teʃut, úta teʃut, úta See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
how? como como grammar ntɕámo ntɕámo See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
1sg yo eu grammar átz ats See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
if si se grammar se, sna se, sna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location óka, íɲe, éntɕe óka, íɲe, éntɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
intestines intestinos intestinos body tʃuntʃulji-xua-ngá tʃuntʃulji-xua-ngá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
lake lago lago environment wabxaxóna-je wabxaxóna-je See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
leaf hoja folha environment tsubaná-tʃe tsubaná-tʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body waɲikuaj-ói-ka waɲikuaj-ói-ka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
leg/foot pierna perna body mɨntxá-xa mɨntxá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment tkuínje tkuínje See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
liver hígado figado body bekotʃká bekotʃká See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
long largo comprido, longo quality bín bín See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna mɨtsána mɨtsána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
man/male hombre homem human entɕá entɕá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
meat/flesh carne carne fauna mɨntɕéna mɨntɕéna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
moon luna lua environment xuaʃkóna xuaʃkóna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship bebmá, máma, mamá bebmá, máma, mamá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
mouth boca boca body wajá-ɕa wajá-ɕa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
name nombre nome human wabáina wabáina See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
near/close cerca de perto quality béko-ɲe béko-ɲe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body bexíngua-xa (the neck region) bexíngua-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
neck cuello pescoço body tamoɕá-xa tamoɕá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
new nuevo novo quality tsím tsím See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
night noche noite time ibéta ibéta See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
no/not no não grammar ndóɲe ndóɲe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
nose nariz nariz body tsxá-ɕe tsxá-ɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
old viejo velho quality bɨtsananá bɨtsananá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
one uno um number kánje kánje See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
other otro outro grammar ínje, injá ínje, injá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
person/human being persona pessoa human entzá entʂa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
rain lluvia chuva environment wabténa wabténa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
red rojo vermelho colour buángana buangana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
right/right hand derecha direita location/body katʃbi-ói-ka katʃbi-ói-ka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
road/path camino caminho manufacture benátʃe benátʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
root raíz raiz flora tbɨtí-xa tbɨtí-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
rotten podrido podre quality xanguána xanguána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sand arena areia environment kaskáxo (from sp) kaskáxo (from sp) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality bɕá-xa, ngmitʃí-bxa bɕá-xa, ngmitʃí-bxa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
short corto curto quality béko béko See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
shoulder hombro ombro body tantɕá-xa tantɕá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
skin piel pele body bobátʃe bobátʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sky cielo céu environment sel-óka sel-óka See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
small pequeño pequeno quality báse, bíntʃe báse, bíntʃe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
smoke humo fumaça environment ngóna ngóna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
star estrella estrela environment estrelʲa-téma (from sp) estrelʲa-téma See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora niɲɨ-ɕe niɲɨ-ɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
stone piedra pedra environment nde.tzbé ndətʂbe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
tail cola, rabo rabo body waskuatɕi-xuá waskuatɕi-xuá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
that ese/esa esse grammar tʃí tʃí See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar chat tʃat See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality xoʃá xoʃá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
thin delgado fino quality báse xoʃá báse xoʃá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
this este/esta este grammar kem kem See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
2sg xx xx grammar ek ek See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
three tres tres number únga únga See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
thunder truenos trovão environment waxuesajá waxuesajá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
bite morder morder body xaxantsána xaxantsána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
blow soplar soprar body xangowána xangowána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
burn quemar queimar environment xtsejiɲána xtsejiɲána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
climb subir subir motion See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
come venir vir motion xabána xabána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
count contar contar mental See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
cut/hack cortar cortar impact xatɨtɕána xatɨtɕána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
die/be dead morir morrer state xóbanana xóbanana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dig cavar cavar impact xaxutxuána, xatíbxuána xaxutxuána, xatíbxuána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
drink beber, tomar beber body xatmuána, xobɕiána xatmuána, xobɕiána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
eat comer comer body jasám χasám See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fall caer cair motion xotsatɕána xotsatɕána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fear miedo medo mental xtsawatxána xtsawatxána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
flow fluir fluir motion xtsobuána xtsobuána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fly volar voar motion ʃatsibiána ʃatsibiána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hear oír ouvir mental xowenána xowenána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hit golpear, pegar bater impact xuénanana, xáxantɕetana xuénanana, xáxantɕetana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other xotbajána, xtsatbinána xotbajána, xtsatbinána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
kill matar matar impact xóbana xóbana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental xtsetatɕmbuána xtsetatɕmbuána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion xtsexáxonana xtsexáxonana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body ainá (alive) ainá (alive) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact xuénanana, xáxantɕetana xuénanana, xáxantɕetana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
say decir dizer mental xajanána xajanána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
see ver ver mental xinjána xinjána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sit sentar(se) sentar state xotbemána xotbemána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sleep dormir dormir body xómanana xómanana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body xongɨtsetɕiána xongɨtsetɕiána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact xaʃtɨtɕána xaʃtɨtɕána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact xatɨbána xatɨbána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact xangɨsɨtxuána xangɨsɨtxuána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state xotsajána xotsajána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
steal robar roubar other See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
suck chupar chupar body xobkuakuajána xobkuakuajána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
swell hincharse inchar body xabʃatʃána xabʃatʃána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
swim nadar nadar motion xatʃbabána xatʃbabána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
think pensar pensar mental xenóxuabojana, xaxuabojána xenóxuabojana, xaxuabojána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact xutɕenána xutɕenána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact mujésebatse (they tied him) muhésebatse (they tied him) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
vomit vomitar vomitar body xáʃkonana xáʃkonana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
walk caminar, andar andar motion xtsanána xtsanána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
work trabajar trabalhar other inatrabajái (he worked) (Spanish loan) inatrabahái (he worked) (Spanish loan) See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
tongue lengua lingua body bitʃtá-xa bitʃtá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
tooth diente dente body xuatsá-ɕe xuatsá-ɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
two dos dois number úta úta See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
water agua agua environment buyísh buχiʃ See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar be.ndát bəndat See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
wet mojado molhado quality btʃékuana btʃékuana See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
what? que, qué que grammar ndajá ndajá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
when? cuando quando grammar or or See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
where? donde onde grammar ndm-óka, ndaj-éntɕe ndm-óka, ndaj-éntɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
white blanco branco colour bxántse bxántse See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
who? quien, quién quem grammar ndá, ndmuá ndá, ndmuá See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
wife esposa esposa kinship ʃéma ʃéma See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
wind viento vento environment bínjia bínjia See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
wing ala asa body xuatingmiá-ʃa xuatingmiá-ʃa See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
woman/female mujer mulher human ʃembása ʃembása See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
yellow amarillo amarelo colour tsɨɕijána tsɨɕijána See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
2pl ustedes vocês grammar tɕɨngabtánga tɕɨngabtánga See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
foot pie body ʃekuá-tɕe ʃekuá-tɕe See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar ínye ínje See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
all todo todos other njétska, njetská-nga njétska, njetská-nga See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
lung pulmón pulmão body béxnatse béxnatse See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
heart corazón coração body See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
sun sol sol time See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
green verde verde quality See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
hot caliente quente quality See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. tʃimbiláko tʃimbiláko See Language page Daniel Valle
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna See Language page Daniel Valle
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. tʃúmbo tʃúmbo See Language page Amazonia Daniel Valle
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. pikúdo pikúdo See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Daniel Valle
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. kukuána kukuána See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Daniel Valle
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ngɨntsiána ngɨntsiána See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes koskúngo ('owl') koskúngo ('owl') See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ʃatúo, ʃatú ʃatúo, ʃatú See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Daniel Valle
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Daniel Valle
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae ngalʲináso (SP loan) ngalʲináso (SP loan) See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Daniel Valle
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris kes; kéɕe kes; kéɕe See Language page Not native; widespread Daniel Valle
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Daniel Valle
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri armadilʲo-bé armadilʲo-bé See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Daniel Valle
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Daniel Valle
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna beóna beóna See Language page Daniel Valle
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura sápo(SP loan) sápo(SP loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Daniel Valle
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Daniel Valle
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Daniel Valle
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes amarón [Quechua loan] amarón See Language page Widespread Amazonia Daniel Valle
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna mɨtɕkuáje mɨtɕkuáje See Language page Daniel Valle
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America Daniel Valle
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria tortúga-ɕe (Spanish loan) tortúga-ɕe (Spanish loan) See Language page Widespread Daniel Valle
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Daniel Valle
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Daniel Valle
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Daniel Valle
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Daniel Valle
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Daniel Valle
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Daniel Valle
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Daniel Valle
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Daniel Valle
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Daniel Valle
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Daniel Valle
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) tongéntse-ʃe tongéntse-ʃe See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Daniel Valle
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Daniel Valle
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens tsɨtɕá tsɨtɕá See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Daniel Valle
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Daniel Valle
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Daniel Valle
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum ɕɨ́-ɕe(‘sugar cane’) ɕɨ́-ɕe(‘sugar cane’) See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Daniel Valle
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. blandɨ́-tɕa blandɨ́-tɕa See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Daniel Valle
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Daniel Valle
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) ʃákuana ʃákuana See Language page Daniel Valle
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays mátse mátse See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Daniel Valle
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tbáko(SP loan) tbáko(SP loan) See Language page plant Daniel Valle
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna beti; betíje, betijé-ʃe beti; betíje, betijé-ʃe See Language page Daniel Valle
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana mandorɨ́-ʃa [loan Quechua] mandorɨ́-ʃa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Daniel Valle
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Daniel Valle
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Daniel Valle
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Daniel Valle
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Daniel Valle
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Daniel Valle
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Daniel Valle
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Daniel Valle
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Daniel Valle
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Daniel Valle
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Daniel Valle
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Daniel Valle
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta bʃendɨ́-ɕe (‘general’) bʃendɨ́-ɕe (‘general’) See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Daniel Valle
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Daniel Valle
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas mijá mijá See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Daniel Valle
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. tʃaná(‘yam’) tʃaná(‘yam’) See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) taus-bé ('gourd') taus-bé ('gourd') See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Daniel Valle
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Daniel Valle
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Daniel Valle
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi biaxíje biaxíje See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Daniel Valle
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Daniel Valle
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Daniel Valle
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae xuána xuána See Language page Daniel Valle
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Daniel Valle
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis txowána txowána See Language page Daniel Valle
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Daniel Valle
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Daniel Valle
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Daniel Valle
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Daniel Valle
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Daniel Valle
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Daniel Valle
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera nzantsána nzantsána See Language page Daniel Valle
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera ʃatsɨbiána ʃatsɨbiána See Language page Daniel Valle
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Daniel Valle
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Daniel Valle
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. ʃɨ́ngna-bxa ʃɨ́ngna-bxa See Language page Daniel Valle
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Daniel Valle
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Daniel Valle
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Daniel Valle
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Daniel Valle
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae báxna, batʃná-ɕe [cf. Quechua] báxna, batʃná-ɕe See Language page Daniel Valle
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca tígre (SP loan) tígre (SP loan) See Language page Daniel Valle
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Daniel Valle
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Daniel Valle
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Daniel Valle
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella komendéro (SP loan, ’cebus monkey’) komendéro (SP loan, ’cebus monkey’) See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page Daniel Valle
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Daniel Valle
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Daniel Valle
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis salado-bé(‘otter’) salado-bé(‘otter’) See Language page Daniel Valle
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page Daniel Valle
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Daniel Valle
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Daniel Valle
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Daniel Valle
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Daniel Valle
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. entsóje-ɕe entsóje-ɕe See Language page Daniel Valle
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Daniel Valle
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Daniel Valle
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) mɨ́maɕe mɨ́maɕe See Language page Daniel Valle
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus ʃiéna ʃiéna See Language page Daniel Valle
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Daniel Valle
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris bɨtsijá bɨtsijá See Language page Daniel Valle
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus biángana, móngoxo biángana, móngoxo See Language page Daniel Valle
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Daniel Valle


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page Daniel Valle
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Daniel Valle
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology zé.njanabe sənχanabe See Language page Daniel Valle
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Daniel Valle
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Daniel Valle
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Daniel Valle
firewood leña lenha other See Language page Daniel Valle
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Daniel Valle
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Daniel Valle
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Daniel Valle
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
knife cuchillo faca culture-material kuchillitém (Sp.) kutʃiʎitem See Language page Daniel Valle
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Daniel Valle
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page Daniel Valle
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Daniel Valle
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Daniel Valle
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
wax cera cera other See Language page Daniel Valle
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Daniel Valle
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture biá-xa biá-xa See Language page Daniel Valle
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material tsíxnaɲe, bonxanána tsíxnaɲe, bonxanána See Language page Daniel Valle
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Daniel Valle
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Daniel Valle
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Daniel Valle
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Daniel Valle
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Daniel Valle
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Daniel Valle
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Daniel Valle
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Daniel Valle
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
salt sal sal food See Language page Daniel Valle
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Daniel Valle
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Daniel Valle
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Daniel Valle
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Daniel Valle
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Daniel Valle
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Daniel Valle
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Daniel Valle
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool taus-bé ('gourd') taus-bé ('gourd') See Language page Daniel Valle
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Daniel Valle
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture bukói bukoi prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Daniel Valle
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Daniel Valle
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page Daniel Valle
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Daniel Valle
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Daniel Valle
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Daniel Valle
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Daniel Valle
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Daniel Valle
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino
house other yébe.na χebəna See Language page Daniel Valle, Anissa Capuchino