Playero

Family
Guahiban
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
gob
Location
6.91°, -71.00°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Huber, R. and Reed, R. (1992). Comparative vocabulary: selected words in indigenous languages of Colombia. ILV, Bogotá.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page Rebecca Khorram
and y e grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment ipúmana See Language page Rebecca Khorram
at en, a em, a location ta See Language page Rebecca Khorram
back espalda costas body pé-húma See Language page Rebecca Khorram
bad mal mal quality a-béhe See Language page Rebecca Khorram
belly barriga barriga body pe-kótsoro See Language page Rebecca Khorram
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Rebecca Khorram
big grande grande quality warabé-wa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
black negro preto colour pe-tsebía-wa (espec.: 'cosa negra' - 'black thing') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
blood sangre sangue body pe-hána See Language page Rebecca Khorram
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
bone hueso osso body pe-píhi-bo See Language page Rebecca Khorram
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
child niño, niña criança human pihitán-jo See Language page Rebecca Khorram
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
cold frío frio quality pé-aké-wa (obj frío ' cold obj') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
day día dia time See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dirty sucio sujo quality a-xuíra See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dry seco seco quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality a-wána-bi See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dust polvo poeira environment átsa tɨskɨ - tsɨkɨn ('haee mucho polvo' - it's very dusty) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
ear oreja orelha body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
earth/soil tierra terra environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
egg huevo ovo fauna See Language page Rebecca Khorram
eye ojo olho body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
far lejos longe quality táhɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fat/grease grasa gordura body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
father padre, papá pai kinship See Language page Rebecca Khorram
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fire fuego fogo environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
flower flor flor environment pe-mátonó-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment nohó-bo See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fruit fruta fruta flora ne-kúibɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
good bueno bom quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hand mano mão body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar báhara-pó-nɨ [he], báhara-po-wá [she] See Language page Rebecca Khorram
head cabeza cabeça body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
heavy pesado pesado quality a-rég-we See Language page Rebecca Khorram
how? como como grammar dahaʧíwa (wanaʧia, ínʧhabai) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
1sg yo eu grammar xáni See Language page Rebecca Khorram
if si se grammar ínʧa konéta japoitán-ʧi ('cuando lo sabemos' - 'when we know it') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ta See Language page Rebecca Khorram
intestines intestinos intestinos body pe-ínɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
lake lago lago environment púka See Language page Rebecca Khorram
leaf hoja folha environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body tsawanáwa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
leg/foot pierna perna body pe-táɨ-to, pe-tópa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment jámaxɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
liver hígado figado body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
long largo comprido, longo quality tsokónio apía See Language page Rebecca Khorram
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna tarɨ-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram
man/male hombre homem human pébi-nɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
meat/flesh carne carne fauna pe-wí-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram
moon luna lua environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page Rebecca Khorram
mouth boca boca body kiwóʔo also, kibóhoto (2) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
name nombre nome human See Language page Rebecca Khorram
near/close cerca de perto quality ké-hewa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
neck cuello pescoço body pe-wi-ʃí-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram
new nuevo novo quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
night noche noite time See Language page Rebecca Khorram
no/not no não grammar bahára See Language page Rebecca Khorram
nose nariz nariz body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
old viejo velho quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
one uno um number See Language page Rebecca Khorram
other otro outro grammar itsá-nɨ ('otro hombre' - other man, iʧa-hawa 'otra cosa' - other thing) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
person/human being persona pessoa human See Language page Rebecca Khorram
rain lluvia chuva environment emá See Language page Rebecca Khorram
red rojo vermelho colour See Language page Rebecca Khorram
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
road/path camino caminho manufacture See Language page Rebecca Khorram
root raíz raiz flora See Language page Rebecca Khorram
rotten podrido podre quality tsabána See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sand arena areia environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality híe-hai See Language page Rebecca Khorram
short corto curto quality marerékike See Language page Rebecca Khorram
shoulder hombro ombro body pe-koϕí, pe-kóϕi See Language page Rebecca Khorram
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
skin piel pele body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sky cielo céu environment ita-boxó-bo See Language page Rebecca Khorram
small pequeño pequeno quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
star estrella estrela environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora né-hewa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
stone piedra pedra environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar bahará-po-móne See Language page Rebecca Khorram
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality ita-jɨ́ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
thin delgado fino quality ita-ϕáϕana See Language page Rebecca Khorram
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
2sg xx xx grammar xámɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
three tres tres number See Language page Rebecca Khorram
thunder truenos trovão environment húru -húru-hái See Language page Rebecca Khorram
bite morder morder body síni See Language page Rebecca Khorram
blow soplar soprar body uϕude ('soplar la candela' - 'blow out a candle' - uϕubare 'sople'-'blow', ita-xúata 'ventear' - 'it's windy') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
burn quemar queimar environment sá-wa, tahúita See Language page Rebecca Khorram
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
climb subir subir motion See Language page Rebecca Khorram
come venir vir motion táhɨ we-poná-rina ('él veien de lejos' - 'he comes from afar') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Rebecca Khorram
count contar contar mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
cut/hack cortar cortar impact ukubabáne ('picar' - 'mince', ukúta, ka-híaka) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
die/be dead morir morrer state See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dig cavar cavar impact áʧa ka-húka (áʧa kúane) See Language page Rebecca Khorram
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
drink beber, tomar beber body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
eat comer comer body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fall caer cair motion ita-hópa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fear miedo medo mental hunáwa, ku-húnawa See Language page Rebecca Khorram
flow fluir fluir motion nawóta-rúka See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fly volar voar motion See Language page Rebecca Khorram
grow crecer crescer state See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hear oír ouvir mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hit golpear, pegar bater impact néhewa-tu, kúenta ('golpear (con palo)', hit (with a stick), akibabáne 'golpeando' - 'hitting' See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other deréna ('tener algo para que no se mueva' - 'hold something so it won't move', babáta, sostener como una canoa para que no se voltea' - 'hold a canoe so it won't turn over') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
kill matar matar impact See Language page Rebecca Khorram
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion bóbena, boka See Language page Rebecca Khorram
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Rebecca Khorram
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page Rebecca Khorram
say decir dizer mental na-ʧi-péba See Language page Rebecca Khorram
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page Rebecca Khorram
see ver ver mental See Language page Rebecca Khorram
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sit sentar(se) sentar state éka See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sleep dormir dormir body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body tuxúba, tuxúne, 'está oliena' - 'he is smelling' See Language page Rebecca Khorram
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact titíka, 'rasgar, romper tela o papel' - 'tear, like cloth or paper' See Language page Rebecca Khorram
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact ϕutsúka ('exprimir la ropa' (wring clothing'), ka-taíta 'apretar' ('squeeze'), dóˀa, seˀá 'exprimir' - 'wring' See Language page Rebecca Khorram
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact hatabakúta See Language page Rebecca Khorram
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state atɨbɨjo únka (accent on the 'ɨ') See Language page Rebecca Khorram
steal robar roubar other See Language page Rebecca Khorram
suck chupar chupar body tsu-tsúba See Language page Rebecca Khorram
swell hincharse inchar body putúna See Language page Rebecca Khorram
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page Rebecca Khorram
think pensar pensar mental na-matábɨ-xáina See Language page Rebecca Khorram
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact na-maxɨ-xua, xúa-lia See Language page Rebecca Khorram
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Rebecca Khorram
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Rebecca Khorram
vomit vomitar vomitar body nakába See Language page Rebecca Khorram
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Rebecca Khorram
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Rebecca Khorram
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
tongue lengua lingua body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
tooth diente dente body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
two dos dois number See Language page Rebecca Khorram
water agua agua environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar waxán-móne See Language page Rebecca Khorram
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
when? cuando quando grammar ínʧa honéta See Language page Rebecca Khorram
where? donde onde grammar ínʧa-hóta dojá See Language page Rebecca Khorram
white blanco branco colour See Language page Rebecca Khorram
who? quien, quién quem grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
wife esposa esposa kinship See Language page Rebecca Khorram
wind viento vento environment howí-bo See Language page Rebecca Khorram
wing ala asa body pe-kóro-ϕé-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram
woman/female mujer mulher human See Language page Rebecca Khorram
yellow amarillo amarelo colour See Language page Rebecca Khorram
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pa-xámɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram
foot pie body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Rebecca Khorram
all todo todos other umóta See Language page Rebecca Khorram
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
bark corteza casca environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
heart corazón coração body See Language page Rebecca Khorram
sun sol sol time See Language page Rebecca Khorram
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Rebecca Khorram
green verde verde quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram
hot caliente quente quality See Language page Rebecca Khorram


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. hawatʃir-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna boro-ʧí-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. ɨtɨbɨrɨ See Language page Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. siõõn See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. pavo See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ʃi-ʃi-bárɨ-to See Language page Widespread Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes tumúrukukú-to See Language page Widespread Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. máha See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica xúra See Language page Widespread Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae kékere, kekeré See Language page Widespread South America Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba wakará (Zamponi) See Language page Widespread South America Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris awíri See Language page Not native; widespread Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) netsónɨ, tsónɨ See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri tuhúbu See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. maxɨ´nehe See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna bopí See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae wákar-to See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura busú See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. matíwi See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes homowábi See Language page Widespread Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae homowábi See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna homó See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox ja-tʃi-to See Language page Widespread South America Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria hajáka See Language page Widespread Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) pe-púto-to See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pe-atʰítʰí-bɨ See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum musulí-bo-to See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. balatúna-kúito See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) poná-wa See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays hétsa See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum tabáko-baxú-to See Language page plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna né, né-hewa See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana hotʃí-wa See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta uchíhi atʃáka See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta nebɨ´hɨ xáika See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas dáɨtɨ-bɨ nawíta See Language page plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. nó-bɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) tʃoró-bɨ ('gourd', H&R) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi xúipa, tawanapíwa See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae nebɨ-to, jarihí-to (accent on 'ɨ' in 'nebɨ-to') See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis bana-mɨ´-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera dáina-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. wése-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera oɸó-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae homób-to See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca newɨtɨ, neguítɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] nɨ´hɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella papábu See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons papábu See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis bohónawi See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu tʃamúri See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. bɨnɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris homókobi See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) oɸébɨ See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus oríto-jo See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris métsaha See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus owébi See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Rebecca Khorram, Amanda Meeks


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page
firewood leña lenha other See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page
wax cera cera other See Language page
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture pe-mú-to See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page
salt sal sal food sale-wa (SP) See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool tʃoró-bɨ ('gourd', H&R) See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Rebecca Khorram
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Rebecca Khorram
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Rebecca Khorram
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Rebecca Khorram
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Rebecca Khorram
house other See Language page Rebecca Khorram