Chumash Cruzeno

Family
Chumash
Region
North America
ISO 639-3
crz
Location
34.05°, -119.86°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
none


Basic Vocabulary (185)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location missing Jane Hill
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar missing Jane Hill
all todo todos other yemBla B is raised lower case b inheritance Klar 1977:63 Jane Hill
and y e grammar hywan (also “but”), ty unknown JPH Jane Hill
ankle tobillo tornozelo body missing Jane Hill
armpit axila, sobaco axila body tok'olol “sobaco” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment iqsha inheritance Klar 1977:67 Jane Hill
at en, a em, a location ni-, ni-mi- inheritance Jane Hill
back espalda costas body pikHnyky (waist to shoulder) inheritance JPH Jane Hill
bad mal mal quality 7anisnemsh unknown JPH Jane Hill
belly barriga barriga body kujash unknown JPH Jane Hill
below abajo, debajo abaixo location kHtoton “low” (initial -) unknown Klar 1977:14, 129 Jane Hill
big grande grande quality 7inu unknown JPH Jane Hill
bite morder morder body missing Jane Hill
black negro preto colour lastHpyn “prieto” unknown JPH Jane Hill
blood sangre sangue body 7axu7lis inheritance JPH Jane Hill
blow soplar soprar body 7aqwuta inheritance Klar 1977:70 Jane Hill
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body missing Jane Hill
bone hueso osso body kukuje unknown JPH Jane Hill
breast pecho, seno peito body tutu inheritance Klar 1977:73 Jane Hill
breathe respirar respirar body pHpoqtok “tu alma o aliento” unknown JPH Jane Hill
burn quemar queimar environment missing Jane Hill
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body missing Jane Hill
child niño, niña criança human ku7Uchu/ “under 10”, kunup unknown JPH Jane Hill
climb subir subir motion missing Jane Hill
cloud nube nuvem environment 7Iq'ts'i inheritance JPH Jane Hill
cold frío frio quality aq(7)t'a “es frio” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
come venir vir motion yet inheritance Klar 1977:77 Jane Hill
cook cocinar cozinhar impact 7awyj “asar” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality lyqshta unknown JPH Jane Hill
count contar contar mental missing Jane Hill
cry llorar chorar mental 7ajan “llora” unknown JPH Jane Hill
cut/hack cortar cortar impact missing Jane Hill
day día dia time pHtanym “the sun, the day” unknown Klar 1977:129 Jane Hill
die/be dead morir morrer state q'ini unknown JPH Jane Hill
dig cavar cavar impact missing Jane Hill
dingo/wolf fauna alaxewel “coyote” (deceiver) unknown JPH Jane Hill
dirty sucio sujo quality missing Jane Hill
dream soñar sonhar mental missing Jane Hill
drink beber, tomar beber body 7aqmil inheritance Klar 1977:22 Jane Hill
dry seco seco quality missing Jane Hill
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality missing Jane Hill
dust polvo poeira environment missing Jane Hill
ear oreja orelha body tu7u, tu loan direction unknown Klar 1977 Jane Hill
earth/soil tierra terra environment shup inheritance Klar 1977:83 Jane Hill
eat comer comer body 7ast'a come! inheritance Jane Hill
egg huevo ovo fauna shtum inheritance JPH Jane Hill
eye ojo olho body tech inheritance Klar 1977:84 Jane Hill
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body chiwanipy7ych “voy a cagar” unknown JPH Jane Hill
fall caer cair motion missing Jane Hill
far lejos longe quality (i)yakay “far”, mykych inheritance Klar 1977 Jane Hill
fat/grease grasa gordura body missing Jane Hill
father padre, papá pai kinship qy unknown Klar 1977:51 Jane Hill
fear miedo medo mental mlity7men “tengo miedo” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
feather pluma pena fauna sqapa loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
fire fuego fogo environment ne inheritance Klar 1977:86 Jane Hill
fish xx xx fauna ple7es unknown JPH Jane Hill
flow fluir fluir motion missing Jane Hill
flower flor flor environment t-spe7-cI (language?? “Old Placido” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
fly volar voar motion no7o mawytwyt “I fly” unknown JPH Jane Hill
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment 7ushkum unknown JPH Jane Hill
foot pie body missing Jane Hill
fruit fruta fruta flora missing Jane Hill
good bueno bom quality jaja unknown JPH Jane Hill
grow crecer crescer state missing Jane Hill
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body tohol “cabello” loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
hand mano mão body pa-tsh-Hpui inheritance Klar 1977:15 Jane Hill
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar tuwu unknown JPH Jane Hill
head cabeza cabeça body p-isp'uluwa unknown JPH Jane Hill
hear oír ouvir mental takHwi inheritance JPH Jane Hill
heavy pesado pesado quality missing Jane Hill
hide esconder esconder motion missing Jane Hill
hit golpear, pegar bater impact pikna JPH Jane Hill
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other 7ush7il “agarra” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
how? como como grammar missing Jane Hill
1sg yo eu grammar no7o loan JPH Jane Hill
if si se grammar missing Jane Hill
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location ni-mawa unknown JPH Jane Hill
intestines intestinos intestinos body koni “tripas” unknown Jane Hill
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body missing Jane Hill
kill matar matar impact 7ala-nits'y “lo mato/” unknown JPH Jane Hill
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental Xupe “saber” unknown JPH Jane Hill
lake lago lago environment missing Jane Hill
laugh reír rir mental missing Jane Hill
leaf hoja folha environment tsuluqap loan JPH Jane Hill
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body kawach mano izquierda inheritance JPH Jane Hill
leg/foot pierna perna body nimel (foot, leg), pHkyt?? 0121R unknown JPH Jane Hill
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion tikla unknown JPH Jane Hill
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment squnt'aw inheritance JPH Jane Hill
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body missing Jane Hill
liver hígado figado body cal inheritance Klar 1977:95 Jane Hill
long largo comprido, longo quality luluje inheritance JPH Jane Hill
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna missing Jane Hill
lung pulmón pulmão body missing Jane Hill
man/male hombre homem human 7alamujun unknown JPH Jane Hill
meat/flesh carne carne fauna le7esh unknown JPH Jane Hill
moon luna lua environment 7awhay' loan Klar 1977:91 Jane Hill
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship lo unknown Klar 1977:51 Jane Hill
mouth boca boca body 7ych inheritance Klar 1977:50, 99 Jane Hill
name nombre nome human te inheritance Klar 1977:18 Jane Hill
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body ne inheritance JPH Jane Hill
near/close cerca de perto quality kaham unknown JPH Jane Hill
neck cuello pescoço body ne inheritance Klar 1977:19 Jane Hill
new nuevo novo quality missing Jane Hill
night noche noite time laXimaj unknown JPH Jane Hill
no/not no não grammar -ani-, he "No" inheritance Klar 1977:59 Jane Hill
nose nariz nariz body p-ishchono unknown JPH Jane Hill
old viejo velho quality 7aquchu (and “old man”) unknown JPH Jane Hill
one uno um number ismala unknown Klar 1977:120 Jane Hill
open/uncover abrir abrir other missing Jane Hill
other otro outro grammar pali unknown JPH Jane Hill
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body 7akunisy7 unknown JPH Jane Hill
person/human being persona pessoa human 7alajew “gentes” unknown JPH Jane Hill
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact hiwekH “machucar” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
rain lluvia chuva environment tuhuy inheritance Klar 1977:24 Jane Hill
red rojo vermelho colour lishHy “colorado” unknown JPH Jane Hill
right/right hand derecha direita location/body quluja “mano derecha” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
road/path camino caminho manufacture missing Jane Hill
root raíz raiz flora ts'aqpilil “root, nerve, bowstring” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
rotten podrido podre quality missing Jane Hill
sand arena areia environment missing Jane Hill
say decir dizer mental 7i inheritance Klar 1977:109 Jane Hill
scratch rascar rasgar impact missing Jane Hill
see ver ver mental tyl unknown JPH Jane Hill
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality missing Jane Hill
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact missing Jane Hill
short corto curto quality missing Jane Hill
shoulder hombro ombro body missing Jane Hill
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental missing Jane Hill
sit sentar(se) sentar state 7ishkHnyhyj “sientate”, pishknyhyt “tu te sientas” unknown JPH Jane Hill
skin piel pele body missing Jane Hill
sky cielo céu environment nawani unknown JPH Jane Hill
sleep dormir dormir body we loan JPH Jane Hill
small pequeño pequeno quality kuch'u loan JPH Jane Hill
smoke humo fumaça environment loxkHsho unknown JPH Jane Hill
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body missing Jane Hill
spit escupir cuspir body missing Jane Hill
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact missing Jane Hill
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact missing Jane Hill
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact missing Jane Hill
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state kHakan “parado” 7alakHaka “el sta/ parado” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
star estrella estrela environment 7aHli7k'i, 7aqli7k'i7 at 0302 unknown JPH Jane Hill
steal robar roubar other missing Jane Hill
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora pon' “stick, wood, tree” inheritance Klar 1977:116 Jane Hill
stone piedra pedra environment wa (appears as pa-wa) unknown JPH Jane Hill
suck chupar chupar body tipaLjet “yo chupo” unknown JPH Jane Hill
sweat sudar suor, suar body missing Jane Hill
swell hincharse inchar body missing Jane Hill
swim nadar nadar motion 7alachu (?) unknown JPH Jane Hill
tail cola, rabo rabo body (c)itp'ap'a unknown JPH Jane Hill
that ese/esa esse grammar tu7wi “ese, aquel” unknown JPH Jane Hill
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar missing Jane Hill
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality missing Jane Hill
thin delgado fino quality missing Jane Hill
think pensar pensar mental missing Jane Hill
this este/esta este grammar 7iju unknown JPH Jane Hill
2sg xx xx grammar pi7i inheritance JPH Jane Hill
three tres tres number masyx inheritance Klar 1977:121 Jane Hill
throat garganta garganta body oqHjoku7ush “garganta” unknown JPH Jane Hill
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact 7iwatije! (of harpoon) unknown JPH Jane Hill
thunder truenos trovão environment hoqk'ohon inheritance JPH Jane Hill
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact missing Jane Hill
tongue lengua lingua body 7elew inheritance JPH Jane Hill
tooth diente dente body cHa7a, -asa inheritance Klar 1977:113 Jane Hill
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other missing Jane Hill
two dos dois number 7ishchom inheritance Klar 1977:29, 120 Jane Hill
vomit vomitar vomitar body missing Jane Hill
walk caminar, andar andar motion je7e “anda” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
water agua agua environment mihi inheritance Klar 1977:82 Jane Hill
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar missing Jane Hill
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mashche (pl) unknown JPH Jane Hill
wet mojado molhado quality missing Jane Hill
what? que, qué que grammar weta, nuwash7a unknown JPH Jane Hill
when? cuando quando grammar homi7inI inheritance JPH Jane Hill
where? donde onde grammar nuka-, we-, we7e inheritance JPH Jane Hill
white blanco branco colour 7alapipiw “es blanco” unknown JPH Jane Hill
who? quien, quién quem grammar missing Jane Hill
wife esposa esposa kinship alwitanin unknown JPH Jane Hill
wind viento vento environment aqta-kyt inheritance Klar 1977:70 Jane Hill
wing ala asa body snaqteks “wings” unknown JPH Jane Hill
woman/female mujer mulher human hemych unknown JPH Jane Hill
work trabajar trabalhar other missing Jane Hill
yawn bostezar bocejar body missing Jane Hill
yellow amarillo amarelo colour lisqejen “green/blue, yellow” unknown JPH Jane Hill
2pl ustedes vocês grammar pishche (2), piche (pl) inheritance JPH Jane Hill


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (8)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna tishy7lyl “any ant” unknown JPH Jane Hill
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna wish “any bird” loan direction unknown JPH Jane Hill
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna 7ulupawapawA inheritance JPH Jane Hill
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna wuchu unknown JPH Jane Hill
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna swyly unknown JPH Jane Hill
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna missing Jane Hill
spider araña aranha flora-fauna missing Jane Hill


Cultural Vocabulary (10)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture missing Jane Hill
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material 7ulushaw unknown JPH Jane Hill
bottom grinding stone manufacture 7alqap inheritance JPH Jane Hill
digging stick subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
winnow aventar, tirar (sementes) joeirar manufacture missing Jane Hill
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture ts'unijyk “mano de mortero” inheritance JPH Jane Hill
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool missing Jane Hill
spearthrower subsistence tool tup'an “bow” unknown Klar 1999 Jane Hill
spear lanza lança subsistence tool ya7a “arrow” inheritance Klar 1977:65 Jane Hill
house other 7awa unknown Klar 1977:50 Jane Hill


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG dense sedentary no