Sape

Family
Isolate (SAM)
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
spc
Location
4.94°, -63.24°
Notes
Extinct? Has been grouped with Arutani (Arutani-Sapé family) but a relationship is dubious.
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Data Sources
Migliazza, Ernesto C. 1978. Maku, Sapé and Uruak languages. Current status and basic lexicon. AL 20/3:133-140.


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location See Language page John Blaha
and y e grammar See Language page John Blaha
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment See Language page John Blaha
at en, a em, a location See Language page John Blaha
back espalda costas body See Language page John Blaha
bad mal mal quality See Language page John Blaha
belly barriga barriga body tukuy tukuy See Language page John Blaha
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page John Blaha
big grande grande quality konən konən See Language page John Blaha
black negro preto colour tsaiña tsaiɲa See Language page John Blaha
blood sangre sangue body tsom tsom See Language page John Blaha
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page John Blaha
bone hueso osso body wina (also used for horn) wina (also used for horn) See Language page John Blaha
breast pecho, seno peito body wi wi See Language page John Blaha
child niño, niña criança human See Language page John Blaha
cloud nube nuvem environment usǝyna See Language page John Blaha
cold frío frio quality unkoya unkoya See Language page John Blaha
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page John Blaha
day día dia time See Language page John Blaha
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page John Blaha
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page John Blaha
dry seco seco quality patokwa patokwa See Language page John Blaha
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page John Blaha
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page John Blaha
ear oreja orelha body awi awi See Language page John Blaha
earth/soil tierra terra environment inokučin (morphologically complex?) inokutʃin (morphologically complex?) See Language page John Blaha
egg huevo ovo fauna kupi kupi See Language page John Blaha
eye ojo olho body amku amku See Language page John Blaha
far lejos longe quality See Language page John Blaha
fat/grease grasa gordura body kun kun See Language page John Blaha
father padre, papá pai kinship See Language page John Blaha
feather pluma pena fauna ičam upa (possibly morphologically complex?) itʃam upa (possibly morphologically complex?) See Language page John Blaha
fire fuego fogo environment šoko ʃoko See Language page John Blaha
flower flor flor environment See Language page John Blaha
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment See Language page John Blaha
fruit fruta fruta flora See Language page John Blaha
good bueno bom quality amayñakoa amayɲakoa See Language page John Blaha
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body pa (also used for to stand) pa (also used for to stand) See Language page John Blaha
hand mano mão body piča apa pitʃa apa See Language page John Blaha
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar See Language page John Blaha
head cabeza cabeça body moynakuawi moynaku See Language page John Blaha
heavy pesado pesado quality See Language page John Blaha
how? como como grammar See Language page John Blaha
1sg yo eu grammar See Language page John Blaha
if si se grammar See Language page John Blaha
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page John Blaha
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page John Blaha
lake lago lago environment See Language page John Blaha
leaf hoja folha environment muyra muyra See Language page John Blaha
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page John Blaha
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page John Blaha
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page John Blaha
liver hígado figado body mapi mapi See Language page John Blaha
long largo comprido, longo quality See Language page John Blaha
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna See Language page John Blaha
man/male hombre homem human kwa kwa See Language page John Blaha
meat/flesh carne carne fauna mɨan mɨan See Language page John Blaha
moon luna lua environment tapo tapo See Language page John Blaha
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship See Language page John Blaha
mouth boca boca body itu itu See Language page John Blaha
name nombre nome human marua maɾua See Language page John Blaha
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page John Blaha
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page John Blaha
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page John Blaha
new nuevo novo quality yenkoña yenkoɲa See Language page John Blaha
night noche noite time useyna useyna See Language page John Blaha
no/not no não grammar See Language page John Blaha
nose nariz nariz body ayku ayku See Language page John Blaha
old viejo velho quality See Language page John Blaha
one uno um number koka koka See Language page John Blaha
other otro outro grammar See Language page John Blaha
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page John Blaha
person/human being persona pessoa human kamon kamon See Language page John Blaha
rain lluvia chuva environment nam posoe See Language page John Blaha
red rojo vermelho colour ayña ayɲa See Language page John Blaha
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page John Blaha
road/path camino caminho manufacture mu mu See Language page John Blaha
root raíz raiz flora tu tu See Language page John Blaha
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page John Blaha
sand arena areia environment inoku inoku See Language page John Blaha
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page John Blaha
short corto curto quality See Language page John Blaha
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page John Blaha
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page John Blaha
skin piel pele body kuy (also used for bark) kuy (also used for bark) See Language page John Blaha
sky cielo céu environment See Language page John Blaha
small pequeño pequeno quality to to See Language page John Blaha
smoke humo fumaça environment yui yui See Language page John Blaha
star estrella estrela environment ñayino ɲayino See Language page John Blaha
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page John Blaha
stone piedra pedra environment takuypa takuypa See Language page John Blaha
tail cola, rabo rabo body upi upi See Language page John Blaha
that ese/esa esse grammar tɨisami tɨisami See Language page John Blaha
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page John Blaha
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page John Blaha
thin delgado fino quality See Language page John Blaha
this este/esta este grammar tɨsa tɨsa See Language page John Blaha
2sg xx xx grammar kapɨ kapɨ See Language page John Blaha
throat garganta garganta body See Language page John Blaha
three tres tres number See Language page John Blaha
thunder truenos trovão environment See Language page John Blaha
bite morder morder body pu See Language page John Blaha
blow soplar soprar body See Language page John Blaha
breathe respirar respirar body See Language page John Blaha
burn quemar queimar environment See Language page John Blaha
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body See Language page John Blaha
climb subir subir motion See Language page John Blaha
come venir vir motion ma See Language page John Blaha
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page John Blaha
count contar contar mental See Language page John Blaha
cry llorar chorar mental See Language page John Blaha
cut/hack cortar cortar impact See Language page John Blaha
die/be dead morir morrer state siya siya See Language page John Blaha
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page John Blaha
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page John Blaha
drink beber, tomar beber body pe pe See Language page John Blaha
eat comer comer body ko, ku ko, ku See Language page John Blaha
fall caer cair motion See Language page John Blaha
fear miedo medo mental See Language page John Blaha
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page John Blaha
fly volar voar motion karu kaɾu See Language page John Blaha
grow crecer crescer state See Language page John Blaha
hear oír ouvir mental man man See Language page John Blaha
hide esconder esconder motion See Language page John Blaha
hit golpear, pegar bater impact See Language page John Blaha
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page John Blaha
kill matar matar impact kaya kaya See Language page John Blaha
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental mow (also used for to see) mow (also used for to see) See Language page John Blaha
laugh reír rir mental See Language page John Blaha
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion See Language page John Blaha
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page John Blaha
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page John Blaha
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact See Language page John Blaha
say decir dizer mental See Language page John Blaha
scratch rascar rasgar impact See Language page John Blaha
see ver ver mental mow (also used for to know) mow (also used for to know) See Language page John Blaha
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page John Blaha
sit sentar(se) sentar state See Language page John Blaha
sleep dormir dormir body paku, ku paku, ku See Language page John Blaha
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body See Language page John Blaha
spit escupir cuspir body See Language page John Blaha
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page John Blaha
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page John Blaha
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page John Blaha
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state See Language page John Blaha
steal robar roubar other See Language page John Blaha
suck chupar chupar body See Language page John Blaha
swell hincharse inchar body See Language page John Blaha
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page John Blaha
think pensar pensar mental See Language page John Blaha
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact See Language page John Blaha
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page John Blaha
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page John Blaha
vomit vomitar vomitar body See Language page John Blaha
walk caminar, andar andar motion paru paɾu See Language page John Blaha
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page John Blaha
yawn bostezar bocejar body See Language page John Blaha
tongue lengua lingua body matu matu See Language page John Blaha
tooth diente dente body pɨika pɨika See Language page John Blaha
two dos dois number kɨrya kɨɾya See Language page John Blaha
water agua agua environment nam nam See Language page John Blaha
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar mɨyono mɨyono See Language page John Blaha
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page John Blaha
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page John Blaha
what? que, qué que grammar pemente pemente See Language page John Blaha
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page John Blaha
where? donde onde grammar See Language page John Blaha
white blanco branco colour sae sae See Language page John Blaha
who? quien, quién quem grammar pante pante See Language page John Blaha
wife esposa esposa kinship See Language page John Blaha
wind viento vento environment See Language page John Blaha
wing ala asa body See Language page John Blaha
woman/female mujer mulher human kapay kapay See Language page John Blaha
yellow amarillo amarelo colour pusia pusia See Language page John Blaha
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page John Blaha
foot pie body ikora ikoɾa See Language page John Blaha
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page John Blaha
all todo todos other See Language page John Blaha
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page John Blaha
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page John Blaha
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body See Language page John Blaha
lung pulmón pulmão body See Language page John Blaha
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page John Blaha
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body See Language page John Blaha
bark corteza casca environment kui, kuy (also used for skin) kui, kuy (also used for skin) See Language page John Blaha
fingernail uña unha body ičam aypa (claw?; morphologically complex?) itʃam aypa (claw?; morphologically complex?) See Language page John Blaha
heart corazón coração body pokowi (morphologically complex?) pokowi (morphologically complex?) See Language page John Blaha
sun sol sol time ñam ɲam See Language page John Blaha
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment takwa takwa See Language page John Blaha
green verde verde quality šanurua ʃanuɾua See Language page John Blaha
hot caliente quente quality ɨrɨa ɨɾɨa See Language page John Blaha


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. See Language page
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna See Language page
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. See Language page Different types have different localized ranges
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae See Language page Widespread
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes See Language page Widespread
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica See Language page Widespread
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae See Language page
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae See Language page
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae See Language page Widespread South America
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris See Language page Not native; widespread
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri See Language page Widespread in Amazonia
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura See Language page
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox See Language page Widespread South America
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes See Language page
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given')
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus See Language page plant
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift.
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum See Language page plant
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna tapa tapa See Language page
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia)
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura See Language page large tree
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata See Language page
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. See Language page
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis See Language page
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria See Language page
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae See Language page
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones See Language page
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea See Language page
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae See Language page
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella See Language page
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons See Language page
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae See Language page
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis See Language page
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari See Language page
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae See Language page
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. See Language page
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) See Language page
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris See Language page
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus See Language page
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material See Language page
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material See Language page
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page
canoe canoa canoa transport See Language page
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page
firewood leña lenha other See Language page
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page
bow arco arco subsistence tool arco See Language page
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool See Language page
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page
wax cera cera other See Language page
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool See Language page
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool See Language page
salt sal sal food See Language page
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool See Language page
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food agriculture See Language page
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food See Language page
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page John Blaha
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page John Blaha
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page John Blaha
house other See Language page John Blaha