Nadëb/Rio Negro dialect

Family
Nadahupan
Region
South America
ISO 639-3
mbj
Location
-1.24°, -66.31°
Notes
Features
Basic Vocabulary
Flora Fauna Vocabulary
Cultural Vocabulary
Ethnographic Information
Data Sources
Barbosa, Jefferson Fernando. 2005. Descrição fonológica da língua Nadêb. Universidade de Brasília. (MA thesis). Martins, Valteir. 2005. Reconstrução Fonológica do Protomaku Oriental. University of Leiden. LOT Dissertation Series. 104. Utrecht: LOT. (Doctoral disseration). Martins, Valteir & Rudolf Senn. 1999. Nadëb wordlist. Weir, E. M. Helen. 1984. A Negação e outros Tópicos da Gramática Nadëb. Campin-as: IEL-UNICAMP. Universidaje Estadual de Campinas Ph.D. dissertation. (MA thesis).


Basic Vocabulary (191)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Etymology Notes Source Created By
above encima, arriba acima location poŋ jé See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
and y e grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ash ceniza(s) cinzas environment Ɂɔ:j See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
at en, a em, a location See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
back espalda costas body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bad mal mal quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
belly barriga barriga body wog See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
below abajo, debajo abaixo location See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
big grande grande quality bog See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black negro preto colour ʔcãm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blood sangre sangue body mɨ̃jɨːw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boil/pimple espinilla, granos espinha, borbulha body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bone hueso osso body kǝ̰ːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breast pecho, seno peito body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
child niño, niña criança human See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cloud nube nuvem environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cold frío frio quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
correct/true verdad, de veras verdade quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
day día dia time muwaŋ, ʔad ɨb See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dirty sucio sujo quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dingo/wolf fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dry seco seco quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dull/blunt sin filo, mocho, desafilado, embotado, romo maçante, desamolado, não afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dust polvo poeira environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ear oreja orelha body nabuːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
earth/soil tierra terra environment ɟʌk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
egg huevo ovo fauna tɨb See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eye ojo olho body matɨm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
far lejos longe quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fat/grease grasa gordura body ʃɨːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
father padre, papá pai kinship ʔɨb, ʔeːʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather pluma pena fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fire fuego fogo environment tǝːg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flower flor flor environment ɉo̰:h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fog niebla, neblina nevoeira, bruma, neblina environment ɉɨ:g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fruit fruta fruta flora ʔag See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
good bueno bom quality naːw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hair (of head) cabello cabelo body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hand mano mão body ne mɔ̃ːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3sg el/ella ele/ela grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
head cabeza cabeça body nuːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heavy pesado pesado quality jɨwɨk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
how? como como grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1sg yo eu grammar ʔɨ̃h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
if si se grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
in/inside dentro, adentro dentro location See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
intestines intestinos intestinos body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lake lago lago environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf hoja folha environment ga̰ːd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
left/left hand izquierdo esquerdo location/body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leg/foot pierna perna body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lightning rayo, relámpago relampago environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
liver hígado figado body hoːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
long largo comprido, longo quality nɨwɨ:t See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
louse piollo, piojo piolho fauna naːm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
man/male hombre homem human jɨ̰ːh, maɾahud See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
meat/flesh carne carne fauna dab See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moon luna lua environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mother madre, mamá mãe kinship ʔaʔɨ̃ːn See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouth boca boca body nɔːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
name nombre nome human hʌ̰ːd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
near/close cerca de perto quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nape base del cuello, nuca nuca body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neck cuello pescoço body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
new nuevo novo quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
night noche noite time ɟǝm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
no/not no não grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
nose nariz nariz body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
old viejo velho quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
one uno um number See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
other otro outro grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pain/painful/sick dolor, doloroso, enfermo dor, doloroso, doente body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
person/human being persona pessoa human juhub See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rain lluvia chuva environment du:ʃ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
red rojo vermelho colour hiːɟ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
right/right hand derecha direita location/body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
road/path camino caminho manufacture tɨːw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
root raíz raiz flora kɔm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rotten podrido podre quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sand arena areia environment huːd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sharp afilado, filudo, filoso afiado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
short corto curto quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoulder hombro ombro body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shy/ashamed tímido, vergonzoso timido, com vergonha mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skin piel pele body bɨːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sky cielo céu environment poh, wǝ:Ɂ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small pequeño pequeno quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
smoke humo fumaça environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
star estrella estrela environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stick/wood palo pau, vara flora See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone piedra pedra environment pʌʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tail cola, rabo rabo body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
that ese/esa esse grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
3pl ellos/ellas eles/elas grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thick grueso, gordo, espeso grosso quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thin delgado fino quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
this este/esta este grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2sg xx xx grammar ʔɔ̃m See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throat garganta garganta body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
three tres tres number See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thunder truenos trovão environment naruk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bite morder morder body gǝʃ, gǝ:j See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blow soplar soprar body pahu: j See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
breathe respirar respirar body hãg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
burn quemar queimar environment hɔ̃:h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chew masticar, mascar mastigar body ɁawaɁ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
climb subir subir motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
come venir vir motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cook cocinar cozinhar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
count contar contar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cry llorar chorar mental ʔo:t, ʔɔd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cut/hack cortar cortar impact hɔ̃̌k, hɔ̃g, ga kɨd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
die/be dead morir morrer state See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dig cavar cavar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream soñar sonhar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drink beber, tomar beber body ʔɨŋ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
eat comer comer body wɨh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fall caer cair motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fear miedo medo mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flow fluir fluir motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fly volar voar motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grow crecer crescer state ʃǝ̰:g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hear oír ouvir mental wǝʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hide esconder esconder motion jǝn See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hit golpear, pegar bater impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hold correr, asegurar, sostener segurar other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kill matar matar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
know/be knowledgeable saber, conecer saber, conhecer mental paːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
laugh reír rir mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lie down acostarse, echarse deitar motion gʌʔ, gǝ:ʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
live/be alive vivir viver, morar body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
open/uncover abrir abrir other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pound/beat machacar, golpear bater impact dɨ:k, dɨg, daʃ, da:j, wã:ʃ, gǝ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
say decir dizer mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scratch rascar rasgar impact ʃæ̰̃:d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
see ver ver mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoot tirar, disparar, balear atirar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sit sentar(se) sentar state See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sleep dormir dormir body ʔãːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sniff/smell olfatear, oler cheirar body hã:k See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spit escupir cuspir body ɉɔ:ʃ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
split partir, dividir rachar, dividir, partir impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squeeze estrujar, exprimir espremer impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stab/pierce apuñalar, acuchillar apunhalar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stand estar de pié ficar em pé state gǝ̰:d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
steal robar roubar other ɉǝ̰:k See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
suck chupar chupar body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swell hincharse inchar body pu:h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
swim nadar nadar motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
think pensar pensar mental See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
throw tirar, lanzar atirar, jogar impact bo:h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tie up/fasten atar, amarrar amarrar impact See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
turn girar, volter, torcer virar other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vomit vomitar vomitar body hʌ:n See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
walk caminar, andar andar motion See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
work trabajar trabalhar other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yawn bostezar bocejar body ham See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tongue lengua lingua body naga̰ːd See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tooth diente dente body tǝg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
two dos dois number See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
water agua agua environment naʔǝŋ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.incl nosotros (inclusivo) nós (inclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
1pl.excl nosotros (exclusivo) nós (exclusivo) grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wet mojado molhado quality See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
what? que, qué que grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
when? cuando quando grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
where? donde onde grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white blanco branco colour hawak See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
who? quien, quién quem grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wife esposa esposa kinship ʔɨ̃ːm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wind viento vento environment ho:d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wing ala asa body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woman/female mujer mulher human ʔɨ̃ːɲ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yellow amarillo amarelo colour ʔawa̰ːk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
2pl ustedes vocês grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
foot pie body ɟɨːm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
again de nuevo, otra vez de novo grammar See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
all todo todos other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ankle tobillo tornozelo body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armpit axila, sobaco axila body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
faeces heces, mierda, excremento, estiércol fezes body ja̰:h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
lung pulmón pulmão body ʃa pu:w See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sweat sudar suor, suar body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
itch hormiguear, sentir comezón coçar body ɉu:g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bark corteza casca environment bɔ̱g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fingernail uña unha body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
heart corazón coração body See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sun sol sol time papãːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mountain/hill montaña, colina, loma, cerro morro, serra environment See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green verde verde quality maɾuːt See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot caliente quente quality juʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Flora Fauna Vocabulary (133)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Linnean Name Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Range of Term Word Structure Word Structure Notes Classifier Classifier Notes Hypernym Source Association with Social Categories Ritual/Mythologically Significant Ritual Notes Food Source Food Notes Medicinal Medicinal Notes How Collected Who Collects How Prepared Psychotropic Psychotropic Notes Traded Trade Notes Distribution Habitat Dangerous Ethnobiology Notes Species Notes General Notes Created By
bat murciélago morcego flora-fauna Chiroptera spp. wɤm See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bird pajaro, ave passaro flora-fauna tɤwɤ:d See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
curassow mitu, montete (Peru), paujil/panjuil (Peru), paujil de Salvin (Peru for Mitu salvini) mutum flora-fauna Crax sp., Nothocrax sp. See Language page Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toucan tucán, pinsha (Peru) tucano flora-fauna Ramphastos sp. ʃaked See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gray-winged trumpeter Grulla, Trompetero Ala Gris jacamim flora-fauna Psophia crepitans See Language page Northern Amazonia (N of Solimões), not in northern Colombia; Dark-winged trumpeter is found south of Solimões Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
guan pava, pucacunga (Peru), pava de Spix (Peru) jacu flora-fauna Penelope sp. jɤ̰ːj See Language page Different types have different localized ranges Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tinamou tinamu, perdiz, gallineta inambu, inhambu flora-fauna family Tinamidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hummingbird colibrí, picaflor (Peru) beija-flor flora-fauna family Trochilidae ɟiːp See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kingfisher martín pescador, catalan (Peru) martim-pescador flora-fauna family Alcedinidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
owl (large) búho, lechuza corujão flora-fauna order Strigiformes wo̰ːɾ See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
macaw ara, guacamaya Arara flora-fauna family Psittacidae; Ara sp. kawed (arara-vermelha See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
parrot loro real, loro (Sp. form is a loan from Carib) papagaio flora-fauna Amazona amazonica ɟɔj See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dove paloma pomba flora-fauna family Columbidae wawɛ̃hɛ̃h See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hawk halcón, gavilán gavião flora-fauna family Accipitridae wowiːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
vulture buitre, gallinazo, rinahui (Peru) urubu flora-fauna family Cathartidae wʌːh See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
duck pato pato, marreco flora-fauna Anatidae family See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
great egret Garza Blanca, Guyratî Garça-Branca-Grande flora-fauna Ardea alba See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woodpecker pájaro carpintero, carpintero pica-pau flora-fauna family Picidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (camp, domestic) perro cachorro flora-fauna Canis famililaris See Language page Not native; widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dog (wild; bush dog) sachaperro, Perro de Monte, Zorro Vinagre, Guanfando; Zorro Ojizarco, Zorro Negro, Perro de Orejas Corta cachorro-do-mato flora-fauna Speothos venaticus; Atelocynus microtis See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anteater oso hormiguero; tapia pelejo or pelejo chico for Cyclopes didactylus tamanduá flora-fauna Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater); Cyclopes didactylus (silky anteater) ʔihuːn See Language page Widespread Amazonian lowlands Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
armadillo armadillo, carachupa (Peru), yangunturi (Peru for Giant armadillo) tatu flora-fauna family Dasypodidae; e.g. Priodontes maximus (Giant armadillo), Dasypus novemcinctus, Dasypus kappleri wḛːɟ (tatu-galinha) See Language page Widespread in Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sloth pereza, pelejo (Peru), perezoso (Peru) macaco preguica flora-fauna Choloepus sp., Bradypus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
alligator, black caiman babilla; cachirre jacaré flora-fauna Melanosuchus niger, Caiman schlerops; Paleosuchus sp. See Language page Throughout Amazonia Port term reportedly borrowed from Tupi Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
electric eel anguila eléctrica poraquê flora-fauna Electrophorus electricus See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (generic) pez peixe flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pacu fish palometa, garopita, garopa, curhuara (Peru) pacu flora-fauna Mylossoma sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pirana piraña, caribe piranha flora-fauna subfamily Serrasalmidae See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tigerfish taraira, guabina, huasaco (Peru) traíra flora-fauna Hoplias sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mandi catfish maparate (used in Peru for some types of catfish, including Auchenipterus sp.), cunchi (used in Peru for some types of catfish), bagre (catfish) mandi flora-fauna Auchenipterus sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
speckled catfish surubí, pintadillo surubim, sorubim flora-fauna Pseudoplatystoma sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
toad sapo sapo flora-fauna order Anura ɟapɤːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
iguana iguana, garipiares (Colombia) camaleão flora-fauna Iguana sp. See Language page iguana' is reportedly from Arawak iwana Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
small lizard lagartija calango flora-fauna order Squamata See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stingray (generic) rayas látigo, raya arraia flora-fauna Potamotrygon sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
crab cangrejo caranguejo flora-fauna infraorder Brachyura See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
anaconda anaconda, boa, boa acuática grande sucuri flora-fauna genus Eunectes See Language page Widespread Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boa boa; mantona (red-tailed boa); boa de altura jiboia flora-fauna family Boidae, subf. Boinae See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (generic) culebra, serpiente cobra flora-fauna See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snake (poisonous generic) or rattlesnake víbora (Peru), jergón (Peru), yarara jararaca flora-fauna Bothrops jararaca/atrox bʌːw See Language page Widespread South America Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tortoise (red foot, yellow foot/giant) tortuga, morrocoy, motelo jabutí, tartaruga flora-fauna Yellow-footed: Geochelone denticulata; Red-footed: Geochelone carbonaria See Language page Widespread Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon dolphin bufeo, delfín, tonina (del Orinoco) boto cor-de-rosa flora-fauna Inia geoffrensis See Language page Downstream of major rapids and waterfalls Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mushroom champiñón, hongo cogumelo flora-fauna (any edible generic) pǝm See Language page prioritize generic term that includes any edible species Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
black palm bacaba, mapora, pusui, patabá bacaba flora-fauna Oenocarpus bacaba ʃɯwɯːm See Language page Mature forests of Rio Negro and Upper Amazon may be confused in some entries with O. bataua Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
açai palm huasí (Peru), asahi, manaca (Ven), asaí, palmiche (Colombia) açaí flora-fauna Euterpe sp. manag See Language page floodplains, swamp; esp. northern Amazonia Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
miriti palm moriche (Col, Ven), aguaje (Col, Peru), achual, miriti buriti flora-fauna Mauritia flexuosa ɟʌ̰ːk̚ See Language page Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Venezuela; in and near swamps trunks contain sago-like starch Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
palm for roof thatch pui, irapay, hoja de irapay, caraná caraná flora-fauna Mauritiella armata OR Lepidocaryum tenue (irapay), Mauritius carana tapɔːɲ See Language page Mauritia carana is limited principally to the Rio Negro and Upper Orinoco regions; dry catinga forests palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paxiuba palm pona, huacrapona, cashapona, macanilla, pachiuba paxiuba flora-fauna Iriartea exorrhiza OR Iriartea deltoidea See Language page Widespread Amazonia palm Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peach palm, pejibaye palm chontaduro (Col, Ecuador); pipire (Col); pijuayo (Peru), pijiguao (Ven); tembe (Bol) pupunha flora-fauna Bactris gasipaes jɯːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
seje palm ungurahui (Peru), palma de seje, milpesos, patabá patoá, patuá flora-fauna Jessenia bataua, aka Oenocarpus bataua wʌk See Language page mostly north of Equator; common in Amazonia may be confused with O. bacaba - compare entries Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
coca coca coca flora-fauna Erythroxylum coca See Language page secondary scrub vegetation. lower alt. of eastern Andes plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotton algodón algodão flora-fauna Gossypium (barbadense: long fibers; hirsutum: short fibers) kawad, ʃɯwɯk See Language page secondary scrub vegetation plant; some sources may confound with kapok Ceiba pentandra (esp. if a single gloss for 'cotton' is given') Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
kapok ceiba, huimba, lupuna (Peru for Ceiba sp.) sumaumeira flora-fauna Ceiba pentandra See Language page northern South America and central America; common in disturbed areas tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hot pepper ají, pimentón/pimiento rojo, pucunucho (Peru), charapilla (Peru) pimenta flora-fauna Capsicum sp., principally chinensis and frutescens pɔ̰ːh See Language page secondary scrub vegetation, indigenous garden plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
peanut maní (may be loan from Taino Arawak), cacahuete amendoim flora-fauna Arachis hypogaea See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pineapple piña abacaxi flora-fauna Ananas comosus mawãːd See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow cane, wildcane caña flecha, caña brava, caña isana cana para flechas, frecheira, Cana-do-rio flora-fauna Gynerium sagittatum See Language page tropical regions, especially river banks plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
banana, plantain banano, banana, cambur, bellaco, variedad de plátano banana flora-fauna Musa sp. maseːɾ, pãnãːɾ See Language page Names for banana/plantain may be derived from bastard plantain by semantic shift. Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
beans frijoles, frejol, caraotas (negras, rojas, blancas) feijão flora-fauna Phaseolus spp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grass hierba, pasto capim, grama flora-fauna (generic) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
maize, corn mazorca, maiz milho flora-fauna Zea mays See Language page widespread, esp. in river floodplains plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tobacco tabaco tabaco flora-fauna Nicotiana tabacum hũːt See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tree árbol arvore flora-fauna tǝ:g See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
achiote, anatto achiote urucum flora-fauna Bixa orellana hɤːw See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
inga guaba, guamo, guama, shimbillo (Peru) inga flora-fauna Inga spp. gupiʔixuna See Language page Secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens. North and South America (Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Suriname, Colombia) Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
avocado palta, aguacate abacate flora-fauna Persea americana See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bitterwood tortuga caspi, pretina (Peru for tree and tumpline); carahuasca (Peru) envira flora-fauna Duguetia sp. OR Fusaea longifolia OR Guatteria chrysopetala See Language page secondary forests, native to Brazil tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brazil nut castaña castanha do para (B. excelsa); castanha de cutia (C. edulis) flora-fauna Bertholletia excelsa [cf. Couepia edulis 'castanha do cutia'] See Language page 1) Couepia: restricted area within Brazil, Rio Purus basin and middle Solimões. 2) Bertholletia: elev: consistently about 200m; mature forests. Widely distributed from Peru, E. Colombia, Brazil to Nicaragua. tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cashew anarcado, castaña de cajú, nuez de la India, marañon, cajú, merey (Venezuela) caju flora-fauna Anacardium occidentale / giganteum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation and indigenous gardens tree; most sources will not distinguish between occidentale and other varieties Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
genipap jagua, majagua - Colombia, caruto, xagua - Venezuela, bigrande - Bolivia, huito, yaguayagua - Peru, ygualti - Nicaragua, maluco - Mexico genipapo, jenipapo flora-fauna Genipapa americana See Language page widespread lowland SA shrub Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
japurá oreja de murcielago japurá flora-fauna Erisma japura wak See Language page large tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rubber tree (sorva) caucho, siringa, shiringa seringa, borracha flora-fauna Hevea sp. See Language page Widespread Amazonia tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ucuqui yugo, caimitillo del monte (Peru) ucuqui flora-fauna Pouteria ucuqui mʌ̃ʔ See Language page native to NW Amazonia, found primarily in Vaupes and Caqueta regions other species of Pouteria exist and have much-used edible fruit; these can be subsituted where relevant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Amazon tree-grape uva de monte, uvilla (Peru), puruma, caime, caimarona (and variants; Col.) cucura flora-fauna Pourouma cecropiifolia ʃaɾapuːʔ See Language page grows wild in Western Amazon basin; cultivated in Colombia since pre-Colombian times a tree; not a true grape Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (bitter or generic) yuca brava mandioca flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page not generally cultivated in western (subAndean) Amazon. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) argues for a correlation with distribution of dark earths, mostly formed after 1AD, and the modeled-incised pottery tradition. Provides more starch and is more pest-resistant than the sweet variety, but requires much processing. Arroyo-Kalin (2010) proposes that bitter type was developed from sweet through post-ceremic agricultural intensification (motivated by high starch yield Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manioc (sweet) yuca, caribe macaxeira flora-fauna Manihot esculenta See Language page Primary staple in western/subAndean Amazonia, less important elsewhere No processing required, but lower starch yield and pest resistance than bitter variety Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato papa batata flora-fauna Solanum tuberosum See Language page secondary scrub vegetation compare entries for sweet potato Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
potato, sweet potato camote, batata dulce, batata, cumara batata-doce flora-fauna Ipomoea batatas See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cará tuber, purple or white camote, sachapapa cará roxo, branco flora-fauna Dioscorea sp. ʔɯːn See Language page secondary scrub vegetation; forest clearings plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tannia, yautia huitina (Peru), ñame taioba branca flora-fauna Xanthosoma spp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle-gourd (vine) or calabash (tree) calabazo, calabaza; auyama (Dominican Republic and Venezuela), ayote (parts of Central America), zapallo (parts of South America), tutumo/totumo/totuma (Cresc tree), huingo (Peru for Crescentia cujete), tapara cabaça flora-fauna Crescentia cujete (round variety - tree); (Cucurbita) Lagenaria siceraria (bottle variety - vine) See Language page indigenous gardens plant; tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squash calabaza, calabacines, auyamas, zapallos, huingo (Peru) abóbora flora-fauna Cucurbita sp. See Language page plant Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cipó vine tamishi, bejuco, yare cipó flora-fauna Heteropsis spp. See Language page secondary forest, floodplain vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish poison, barbasco barbasco, matapez (Colombia) timbó flora-fauna Lonchocarpus spp. dṵːj See Language page secondary forests and secondary srcrub vegetation shrub/tree Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic vine, banisterium, ayahuasca ayahuasca, yage ayahuasca, caapi flora-fauna Banisteriopsis caapi See Language page semi-domesticated, native to Amazonian basin, esp. NW vine Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hallucinogenic snuff vilca, cebil, yopo paricá, yopo flora-fauna Anadenanthera sp. or virola See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
insect (generic) insecto insecto flora-fauna generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ant (generic) hormiga formiga flora-fauna Formicidae See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bullet ant, lesser giant hunter ant conga, hormiga yanabe (Colombia), isula (Peru), Hormiga Veinticuatro tocandira flora-fauna Paraponera clavata wɯːw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
leaf-cutter ant Colombia: zampopo, hormiga arriera; Venezuela: bachaco; Peru: curuhuinse saúva flora-fauna Atta sp. wɤk̚ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honeybee abeja abelha flora-fauna Apis mellifera; Tetragonisca angustula; Trigona amazonensis hiːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cockroach cucaracha barata-do-mato flora-fauna order Blattaria kamataɾ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firefly, lightning bug lampírido, luciérnaga (Peru), añañahui (Peru), cocuyo (attributed Taino origin) vagalume flora-fauna fam: Elateridae, Fengodidae, Lampyridae huːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
butterfly, moth mariposa borboleta flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
moth mariposa nocturna, polilla mariposa flora-fauna order Lepidoptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
angleworm lombriz minhoca flora-fauna order Opisthopora See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
centipede ciempiés centopéia flora-fauna class Chilopoda See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
scorpion escorpión; alacran escorpião flora-fauna order Scorpiones ʃaj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cicada cigarra, chicharra cigarra flora-fauna super fam. Cicadoidea See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flea pulga pulga flora-fauna order Siphonaptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowfly/housefly mosca mosca flora-fauna Diptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cricket saltón, grillo grilo flora-fauna family Gryllidae See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
edible palm-dwelling larva (palm weevil) suri, mojojoy larva, broca-do-coqueiro, aramandaiá flora-fauna Rhynchophorus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
praying mantis, stick insects mantis religiosa louva-a-deus flora-fauna order Mantodea, family Mantidae See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mosquito mosquito, zancudo mosquito, carapana flora-fauna Anopheles sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
termites, white-ants comején (Peru), termitas cupim flora-fauna order Isoptera See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tick garrapata carrapato flora-fauna superfam Ixodoidea gɯɾɯ̰ːb See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wasp avispa; specific type: ronzapa/ronsapa caba flora-fauna order Hymenoptera, sub: Apocrita See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
snail caracol, churo (Peru) caracol flora-fauna class Gastropoda See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spider araña aranha flora-fauna Arachnidae, Araneae ʃanejoːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
jaguar yaguar, yaguareté, jaguar, otorongo (Peru), tigre (Peru) onca flora-fauna Panthera onca See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
manatee vaca marina, manatí peixe-boi flora-fauna Trichechus sp. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
brown woolly monkey Mono Lanudo Común, Choro, Churucu, mono choro (Peru), mono lanudo cafe, barrigudo de Humboldt macaco barrigudo flora-fauna Lagothrix lagothricha See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
howler monkey (red-handed) mono aullador, mono coto (Peru) guariba flora-fauna Alouatta belzebul [or other Alouatta sp.] See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tufted capuchin monkey mono negro (Peru), Machín Negro, Maicero Cachón, mono maicero macaco prego flora-fauna Cebus apella jawʌ̰ːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted capuchin Machín Blanco, mono blanco, Maicero Cariblanco, mono blanco (Peru) Caiarara flora-fauna Cebus albifrons ʃamãːj, hɤːw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-fronted spider monkey Machin Blanco, Mono Araña de Vientre Amarillo, maquisapa (Peru), braceadora (Colombia) macaco aranha, coatá, quatá flora-fauna Ateles belzebuth/paniscus See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
opossum zarigüeya, rabipelado, zorro, zorrillo mucura flora-fauna family Didelphidae ɟawaːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
giant otter Lobo Grande de Río, nutria gigante, lutria ariranha flora-fauna Pteronura brasiliensis See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
neotropical otter (small) Nutria, Lobo de Agua, lobito de rio, perro de agua (Colombia) lontra flora-fauna Lontra longicaudis ʔajɔ̰ːg See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
collared peccary sajino, pecarí de collar, jabalf, Javelina, Saíno, Pecarí de Collar caititu, caetitu flora-fauna Pecari tajacu, Tayassu tajacu See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
white-lipped peccary Chancho de Monte, Cariblanco, Huangana queixada flora-fauna Tayassu pecari toːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
porcupine puerco espín, erizo (Peru), casha cushillo (Peru) cuandu, porco-espinho flora-fauna family Erethizontidae kakuːʃ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cotamundi, coatimundi Coatí, Tejón, Achuni, zorro guache quati flora-fauna genus Nasua See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
agouti (black agouti, black-rumped agouti) Guatusa Negra, Añuje, Agutí (black-rumped), picure, jochi colorado cutia flora-fauna Dasyprocta spp. mijãːw See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
capybara Capibara, Carpincho, Ronsoco capivara flora-fauna Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
green acouchi Guatín, Punchana, curi, picurito rabudo, picurito rabilargo cutiara flora-fauna Myoprocta pratti See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paca (lowland) Guanta, Paca, Majaz, majás (Peru), labba (Guyana) paca flora-fauna Cuniculus paca (Agouti paca is sometimes used as well although cuniculus is the correct term.) nepaːʔ See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mouse, rat ratón camundongo, rata flora-fauna Mus musculus See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
squirrel ardilla, danta (Ven) serelepe, quatipuru, esquilo flora-fauna family Sciuridae See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapir sachavaca, danta anta flora-fauna Tapirus terrestris tʌ̰ːk See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deer venado veado, cariacu flora-fauna family Cervidae, esp. Odocoileus virginianus See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
horse caballo cavalho flora-fauna Equus caballus See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Cultural Vocabulary (97)
English Spanish Portuguese Semantic Field Part of Speech Orthographic Form Phonemicized Form Gloss as in Source Etymology Code Proto-Form Proto-Language Loan Source Etymology Notes Wanderwort Status Etyma Set Word Structure Word Structure Notes General Notes Source Created By
basket (general) canasta, canasto, cesta cesto culture-material bɯːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basket, small canasta, canasto, cesta cesto pequeno, tampado culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bead abalorio, mostacilla, cuenta, gota, puca; necklace=collar miçanga culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bed cama cama culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hammock hamaca, chinchorro rede culture-material jag See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bench, seat banco, silla, asiento banco culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
canoe canoa canoa transport ho̰ːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum (large signal) tambor, manguaré, maguaré (Colombia) tambor culture Used to be used by Tukanoan peoples (and others?), sound carried for long distances See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
drum tambor tambor culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shaman, healer chamán, brujo xaman, pajé, feiticeiro culture-mythology In RN region, there is typically one person per village (if that) who is a full-fledged 'shaman'. He is very much a specialist and has considerable power to cure, as well as power to curse. He is respected and feared. Shamans are thought to turn themselv See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
healer curandero benzador, curandeiro, kumu (Tukano) culture-mythology Refers to a lower-level healer; in RN region, most older men in a village have this capacity, and command a repertoire of healing spells. Power is primarily for good, whereas the true shaman is capable of malignant acts as well. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
broom escoba vassoura culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
clothing ropa roupa culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fence, palisade cerco cerca other may be related to defense/warfare? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
firewood leña lenha other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
Curupira (spirit type) Curupira, Madremonte Curupira culture-mythology malignant forest spirit, covered with long hair, feet turned backward; in Upper Rio Negro region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ghost (of dead person)/evil spirit espíritu malo, espíritu maligno, fantasma, demonio espirito culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
deity/powerful spirit/culture figure dios(es), deidad divinidade, figura mítica culture-mythology In RN region, frequently translates as 'Bone-Son', 'One on the bone', etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flute flauta, quena (Peru) flauta culture-mythology multiple types? japurutu, deer-bone, etc. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
panpipe carrizo, zampoñas, flautas de pan, rondadora caniço, flauta de pã culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hollow log/trough for beer-making canoa para chicha cocho de caxiri narcotics See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
ritual song cycle (kapiwaya) kapiwaya capiwaya culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
knife cuchillo faca culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
machete machete facão culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
axe/stone axe hacha (de piedra) machado (de pedra) subsistence tool especially for clearing fields See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
arrow flecha flecha subsistence tool hunting, warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spear lanza lança subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bow arco arco subsistence tool kaɾabaʔ arco See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paddle/oar remo remo transport See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
plate plato prato culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pot olla, pote panela, vasilha subsistence tool ʃeɾeːj See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
basin/bowl tazón, plato hondo, taza tijela culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
griddle for cooking flatbread tiesto (Colombia), budare (Venezuela), tortera (Peru) forno para beiju subsistence tool agriculture? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rattle matraca, maraca marico, chocalho culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
resin resina, brea, copal resina, brea, breu subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
wax cera cera other j'a: (Martins 1999) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
honey miel mel food only gathered in wild throughout Amazonia? See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
stone for lighting fires piedra para hacer fuego pedra para acender fogo culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
rope/string mecate, cuerda, soga corda culture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tattoo tatuaje, tatu tatuagem culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
thatch/roof crisneja palha, caraná culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
yurupari, jurupari (or any flutes forbidden to women) yurupari jurupari culture-mythology a ritual complex in various parts of Amazonia involving sacred flutes/trumpets, forbidden to women. See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fetish, charm fetiche, encanto, filtro de amor, pusanga feitiço, puçanga culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
feather headdress plumaje, corona de plumas enfeite/capacete de penas culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paint body, body paint pintura corporal pintura corporal culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
afterworld, land of dead, Heaven tierra do los muertos terra dos mortos culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
school escuela escola acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottle botella garrafa acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
paper papel papel acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dream sueño, soñar sonho, sonhar culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chicken gallina galinha acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grave tumba, sepultura, sepulcro sepultura, sepulcro, cova culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pipe for tobacco pipa cachimbo other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
sugarcane/sugar azúcar, caña de azúcar açucar (de cana) acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
skirt falda, saya, fustan, pollera saia culture-material See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
shoes zapatos sapatos dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
policeman polícia policía acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
soldier soldado soldado acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
cat gato gato acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gun arma, escopeta espingarda, fusil acculturation See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hat sombero chapéu dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
chief/leader jefe, cacique chefe culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
club garrote, cachiporra clava, porrete subsistence tool kawi.daɾo See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
loincloth taparrabos, guayuco, pampanilla tanga, tapa-sexo dress See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fireplace hogar lareira other See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishing line cordel/cuerda p/ pescar, sedal, tanze linha de pesca subsistence tool kɨ:k' (Martins 1999) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
salt sal sal food juki:ɾ (Martins 1999) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
song (generic) canción, canto canção culture-mythology See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
blowgun cerbatana, pucuna (Peru) zarabatana subsistence tool ʃo̰ːw currently limited to certain groups (favoring h-g orientation, e.g. Nadahup) within RN region See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
dart (blowgun) dardo, birote (Peru), bala (Peru) dardo, seta subsistence tool hunting and warfare See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fan abanico abanador, abano subsistence tool esp. for fanning a cooking fire See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with line) anzuelear, pescar con linea pescar (com linha) food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fish (with fish-poison) pescar con barbasco, barbasquear pescar com timbó; tinguijar food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
hunt cazar caçar food See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
game animal caza, animal de caza caça, animal de caça food Interesting correlation to 'fish' in Tukanoan languages See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
gourd (dipper/bowl) cucharón, pate (Peru), totomo, totuma, totumo cuia subsistence tool ʔɤk, ʃawaʃab, wen ('small cuia'), höka See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grater rallador, rallo ralador, ralo subsistence tool hɯ̃b esp. for grating manioc, but can be used for other things as well See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
grid of sticks for smoking meat or placing objects (shelf) barbacoa jirau subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
mortar mortero pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
pestle pilón, mano de mortero, mazo, moledor mão de pilão subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fermented drink masato, chicha caxiri, chicha culture ɾɤkɤʔ̚ prioritizes manioc beer where distinction is made See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flour/meal from manioc fariña, mañoco (Venezuela); harina farinha food mĩʃuːk agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
flat bread, cassava bread pan de yuca, casabe/cazabe beiju food usually manioc; agriculture, but also can be made from certain wild seeds/fruits See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
starch (tapioca, other) almidón goma de tapioca food nuːh See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tapioca drink, mingau cahuana, caguana mingau food agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tipiti (manioc squeezer) tipiti, matafrio, sebucán, exprimador, prensa para yuca tipiti food word of Tupi origin; agriculture: specifically for squeezing poison out of manioc See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
tripod for washing manioc trípode tripé subsistence tool agriculture See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
venom for darts, poison veneno curare subsistence tool hunting, currently is falling out of use in Vaupés region, associated primarily with h-g groups (but this may be recent?) See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
woven strainer/sieve colador tejido, cedazo (Peru), cernedor (Peru) peneira, cumatá subsistence tool nãpiːd̥̚ agriculture? commonly used for sifting dry manioc flour See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bait for fishing cebo, carnada para pescar, empate (Peru) isca subsistence tool can refer to worms; more generic See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
fishtrap trampa de peces, trampa matapi, cacuri subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
bottom grinding stone manufacture if different word from top grinding stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
digging stick subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
top grinding stone metate, mano; piedra de moler metate, mano manufacture use word for top grinding stone if different from bottom stone See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
boomerang/throwing stick (generic) subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
spearthrower subsistence tool See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps
house other mɨ̃ːj, tɔb See Language page Ana Paula B., Pattie Epps


Ethnographic Information
Current population (ethnicity) Current population (speakers) Former population estimate Subsistence preference Subsistence notes Density Sedentism Ecotome (riverine/interfluvial/coastal/desert/savannah/etc.) Social hierarchies Multilingualism (rare/occasional/common) Contact languages Marriage pattern Notes Source Created By
small HG low mobile Interfluvial