Productive NN compounding

Morphology - Compounding, auxiliaries, light verbs
Noun compounds created from two noun phrases are common and systematically produced


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992 Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro no No indication that nominals can be compounded productively at any level. Allin, 1976: 98-99, 109-115, 150-176, 223-235 Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes There is no information saying that the compounding process is productive, formed on possessive NPs Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Noun-noun compounds, but also noun-verb, and noun-adjective compounds. These usually refer to natural beings such as plants and animals. Galindo, 2002: 139 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no There are compounds, but these are rare. Shauer, 1978: 49 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi notes that there are compounds, but it is not very productive and the process of productive compounding is in the beginning stages of development. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 45-46 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrnece
Wapishana yes Santos 2006:108 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes There does seem to be compounding, but not clear how productive it is. Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Nominal compounds are not productive Aikhenvald 2003: 201 Ana Paula Brandao
Apurinã yes There are both productive and non-productive compounding processes, classificatory nouns (CN2s) are productive elements. Facundes, 2000: 187, 208 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:29 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:38 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no Souza 2008:82 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007: p96-98 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 293 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no However, there is a very intricate classification system that acts like compounding. Seifart - 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info no mention of N compounding Hall 1988 Daniel Smith
Makushi yes Carson 1982: 60 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no no mention of compounding Payne 2012 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna yes e.g. ur-dup, gas-dup, mor-dup Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quevedo 2008:49-98 Daniel Valle
Damana yes Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes Queixalós 1998:125-129 Daniel Smith
Macaguan yes Buenaventura - 1993:51 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007: 131 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:33-4 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no info more likely not Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b Daniel Valle
Matses no info Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no info Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:45-54, 121-152 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:426 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no Free NN compounds are somewhat idiomatic and unpredictable in meaning. Landaburu calls some similar constructions involving one free N and one bound N (a classifier, essentially?), but not free N + free N compounds Landaburu 1979: 143-147; 176-177 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p180-181 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara yes Huayhua Pari 2001:201 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.32,55 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no info Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004:146 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 35-56 Chris Clack
Cubeo yes Chacón 2012:192-194 Daniel Smith
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 147 Amanda Novak
Makuna no info Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.33-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes Cook & Criswell 1993, p.18 Chris Clack
Barasano yes Compound nouns are rare. In the few that occur, the first noun attributes characteristics or properties and the second provides the reference. Jones & Jones 1991, p.61 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.24 Chris Clack
Siona no However, there is a similar process that happens as a result of the intricate noun classification system. Wheeler - 1987:101-110 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes NN compounding common and productive, but it's not clear if some compounds are free N + free N or free N + bound N/Classifier Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely from various sections
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: p.330 Kelsey Neely somewhat unclear if it's compounding or serialization
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.111 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no info more likely not Daniel Valle
Nheengatu yes Cruz 2011:255-257 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:79-80 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:155 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu no info done x
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes 6.3 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri yes s38, n37 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta maybe 98 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 49-51 done-Dan 1
Yidiny check done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha yes 109 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung maybe 80 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 60-61 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu yes 26-7 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara yes r30 done 1
Uradhi Yes 351 Y 1
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta yes 211 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar yes d44 done 1
Nhanta no 71 Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no info Done-Emily x
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari no info cf 86 Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi Maybe 35 done 1
Martuthunira yes 193 done 1
Marrgany No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 204 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 24, 63 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 444 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 6 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes? 94 Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 235 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 171 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr yes 140 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes 100 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay No info 40-6 x
Dyirbal No 317 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 36-43 done 0
Djinang Yes 128 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 94-95 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu yes 18 Done-Austin 1
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 73 done-Jessica 1
Batyala Yes 4 Done-Amalia 1
Arabana yes 100 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 119-20 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 26 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung maybe 84 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 60, 138 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no info done-Amalia x
Thanggati no 84 done 0
Katthang no info done-Amalia x
Panyjima no info done x
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no? Done-Claire 0
Githabul No info Done-Amalia x
Gunya No 312 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 74 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no 10.1.2 done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 35 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara No 71 done 0
Arrernte Yes 118 1
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri Yes 107 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 97 1
Ritharrngu Yes 85 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay No 62 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 823 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman no info Done-Amalia x
Djapu yes 48 1
Bilinarra no info done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 48 Y2 1
Narungga Yes 81 done 1
Tharrkari No 20-24 0
Wajarri Yes 69 1
Warungu yes 241-5 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes Payne and Payne 1990:445 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no info lots of classifiers and 'dependent nouns', but productivity of N-N compounding unclear Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps