Productive nominalizing morphology: object (sing/song)

Category
Nominal Syntax - Derivation
Notes
There is a morpheme which derives a patient or object from a verb

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua yes? The suffix -kuaa can derive an object, although there is no indication that it is confined to this use Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 51 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro yes Allin calls this "concrete nominalization." The preceding vowel is lengthened and given a high tone. Allin, 1976: 109-110 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare yes Aikhenvald, 1995: 21 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Warekena yes There are also non-productive object nominalizations. Aikhenvald, 1998: 320 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 133 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer (1978) notes that this is a nominalizer. He doesn't note its specific function, but it does create an obligatorily possessed noun. The example is "his heat." Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 48 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes as in tésiasi 'vomit' from tésia 'vomitar' Mosonyi, 1987: p. 47 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no info No mention of nominalizing morphology in the morphological template for nouns. Mansen & Captain 2000: p. 797 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 200 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes This suffix is used as either an instrumental or object nominalizer "thing to V with" or "thing to V". Facundes notes that both nominalizers are not completely productive. Facundes, 2000: 240-241 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Turns it into a noun, which can then be either subject or object. Payne 1981:111 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:27-28 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes The orthographic form is -aret̴/-et̴ Duff-Tripp 1997:40 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes suffix -no (this suffix also marks the verb of a relative clause) Danielsen 2007: p190 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 303-304 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:50 Daniel Valle
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no In some instances, the nominalization is achieved through tone change. Seifart - 2005:58-63 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no info Hall 1988 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Abbott 1991: 96 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:107 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no info Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:49-53 Daniel Valle
Damana yes For all productive nominalizing, the morphemes used are verb roots or verbs or nouns--unsure if this is true nominalizing Daniel Valle
Sikuani yes ex: xáne (to eat), pexáejawa (food, "n" dropped) de Kondo (Vol.1) - 1985:93 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:433 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:6 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:295 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no info Zúñiga 2006, p. 87 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:29 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:404-5 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes suffix - kə̃́ derives various types and classes of nouns, -sé derives instruments; -a derives agents and objs. Landaburu 1979: 141-143, 153 Kelsey Neely possibly comes from verb 'to be'
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p245-6 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no info Shannon Dardis I'm fairly sure that objects derived from verbs also use the suffix ta, that is there is no distinction between subject and object as far as verb nominalizing suffixes go.
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto yes Minor and Minor 1982. p.98-100 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes generic nominalizer doo Weir 1984:63 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes For patient and instrument nominalizations, the nominalizing suffix precedes the appropriate classifiers. Miller 1999, p. 143 Amanda Novak For nominalized verbs in the present, -ri precedes the classifier. For past nominalizations some classifiers take -di and some take -ra.
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 90 Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 104 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.27-28, 47 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.21 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Retuarã allows a variety of object complements, that is, clauses embedded as the object of the verb. Strom 1992, p.158 Chris Clack
Siona yes The suffix "-ye" is for abstract objects. Concrete, inanimate objects can be formed be adding the appropriate nominal classifier to the verb. Wheeler - 1987:114 Amanda Meeks
Tukano yes suffix -se derives N from V West and Welch 2004: 69; Ramirez 1997: 114 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 363-378 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.116-117 Kelsey Neely "nominalization" but none of these kinds
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: 142-144 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes However, this nominalizer may also derive locative, instruments, etc. Everett 2006:296-300 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no info Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:115 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:234 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya no info done x
Bunuba no info done x
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul no info done? x
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no info done x
Warlpiri yes n25 done 1
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta maybe 98 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 104-120 done-Dan 1
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no info Done-Dan x
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu yes 55 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu yes 52 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no 14, 33 done 0
Uradhi No 372 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta No 209 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 199-200 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No info done-Amalia x
Muruwari yes 81-2 Done-Dan 1
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi yes 39 done 1
Martuthunira no 144-148 done 0
Marrgany yes 314 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 426 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no info Done-Jessica x
Kugu-Nganhcara No 411 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No info done-Amalia x
Kalkatungu no 79, 56b Done-Dan 0
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 99 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr yes 367 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay Yes 106 1
Dyirbal yes 81-2 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 43 done 1
Djinang Yes 129 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari no info done-Hannah x
Dharuk
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no info done x
Bularnu no info Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no info Done-Dan x
Alyawarr no info done X
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija No 55 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 86-88 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 98 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 90-91 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 62-65 done 0
Katthang yes 86-90 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima no done 0
Ngarinyeri No info done-Amalia x
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no info Done-Claire x
Githabul yes 26 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 314 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 111 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info FO 121 done x
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang yes 38 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 90 done 1
Arrernte Yes 103 1
Kokatha Yes 47 1
Karajarri No 238 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 149 1
Ritharrngu No 77 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay no info Done-Amalia x
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman Yes 51 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 109 1
Bilinarra no info 6.2.3.1 done x
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala Maybe 50 Y2 1
Narungga No info 70 done x
Tharrkari Yes 19 1
Wajarri No 102 0
Warungu yes 309 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua yes a paradigm exists that specifies animate/inanimate Payne and Payne 1990:357 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps