Pre-/post-nasalized stops

Phonology - Segmental
Analysis posits that the stop is the most relevant underlying phoneme. Comment in notes on whether the nasal contour is understood as a phonetic (allophonic) effect, or is phonologically contrastive.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño Jane Hill
Serrano Jane Hill
Kitanemuk Jane Hill
Kawaiisu Jane Hill
Timbisha Jane Hill
Western Mono Jane Hill
Chemehuevi Jane Hill
Southern Paiute Jane Hill
Southern Ute Jane Hill
Shoshone Jane Hill
Comanche Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 14 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976, p. 58 Ana Paula Brandao
Bare no Aikhenvald 1995: 5 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Sudo, Timothy. 1976: 55 Ana Paula Brandao
Yukuna no Shauer and Shauer, 1972 Ana Paula Brandão
Yavitero no Mosonyi (1987), p. 26 Ana Paula Brandão
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 32 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Alvarez, José (1985). Aspects of the Phonology of Guajiro. PhD dissertation: University of Essex: p. 35 Ana Paula Brandão
Tariana no Aikhenvald 2003: 26 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes 2000: 70-78 Aimee Lawrence
Maipure no Zamponi 2003 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Fast 1953:191-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau yes It is an allophonic phenomenon (Souza 2008:58) Souza 2008:58-9 Daniel Valle
Baure yes Phonetic pre-nasalized variants Danielsen 2007:2009 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, Lev. 2008. Nanti Evidential Practice: Language, knowledge and social action in an Amazonian society. Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin dissertation. p. 221 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Brandão 2010:10 Daniel Valle
Bora no Seifart 2005 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 214-260 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi yes Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa yes Prenasalization occurs Price 1984 Daniel Valle
Pemon no Pessoa 2005 Daniel Smith
Guna no Smith Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:10 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Margery 1982:34, 38 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:32 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo 1985 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:20-7 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes It is caused by process of progressive and regressive nasalization Aguirre 1999:20 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani no Saint and Pike 1962:5-15 Daniel Valle There are phonetically prenasalized stops
Ingá no Levinson 1976:23-25 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:73-81 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.73-92 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung 2000:140-3 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:11, 13-4 Daniel Valle
Tikuna yes There is prenasalization. However, the voiced obstruents become nasal before a nasal vowel Montes 2000:292 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:74 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Loewen 1954:7-10 Daniel Valle
Andoke no Landaburu 1979, p.27 Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Girón Higuita 2008: 44 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 68 to 72 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños /g/ doesn't occur onset.
Kaingang yes Texeira 1988:4 Daniel Smith
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect yes Barbosa 2005:44, mentions preoralized nasals (bm) Barbosa 2005 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes Martins 2004:23 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes The voiced stops that occur in syllables that are intrinsically nonnasal are prenasalized when they appear word intitially or follow a nasal morpheme. Miller, Marion. 1999. Desano grammar: Studies in the languages of Colombia 6. Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics, 132. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes pre-nasalized stops Chacon 2012:99 Daniel Smith
Kotiria no info Stenzel 2004 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon p.46 Amanda Novak prenasalization
Koreguaje yes Gralow & Cook 1984 Amanda Novak
Barasano yes Jones & Jones 1991, p.14 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Gaviria p.51 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler 1970 Daniel Valle
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 4 Kelsey Neely pre-nasalized stops (voiced and voiceless) after nasal vowel
Yanomami no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Migliazza 1972: p.38-39 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Pre-nasalized stops. However, the author says than NC sequences can be pre-nasalized consonants or consonant cluster without further discussion on the subject. This is an allophonic phenomenon. Bontkes and Bontkes 2009:5, 18 Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:13 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:47 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:21 Daniel Valle
Aché yes pre-nasalization triggered by nasal vowels Rossler 2008:32-33 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:93-103 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 2-3 done 0
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri no n66 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh no Y? 0
Yorta Yorta no 41 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 10 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa yes 2 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha no 10 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu no not yet 0
Yalarnnga no 6,7 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 59 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 26-35 done 0
Wemba-Wemba no H 4 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 6 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no 7 done 0
Uradhi No 315-6 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 187 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi maybe 38-39 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no d30-1 done 0
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 15 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 10 Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 21 done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany No 283 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 26 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 374 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 1 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 5b Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 23 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 36 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no xix done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 15-7 0
Dyirbal No 270-1 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 18 done 0
Djinang No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no 18 done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 10 done 0
Bularnu no 11 Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala No 3 Done-Amalia 0
Arabana no 26 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr yes 17 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru no Y-Claire 0
Yulparija No 16 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 66 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 58 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 16 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 4-5 done 0
Katthang no 17 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no info 130-135 done x
Ngarinyeri No 9 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 11 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 4 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 283 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 14 Done- 0
WesternTorres no K81 104-5 done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no done 0
Bandjalang No 8 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 13 done 0
Arrernte No 71 0
Kokatha No 5 0
Karajarri No 47 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 36 0
Ritharrngu No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 16 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra yes 816 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman No 10 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 13 0
Bilinarra no 2.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no 10, 11 done 0
Aghu-Tharnggala Yes 25 Y2 1
Narungga No 35 done 0
Tharrkari No 3 0
Wajarri No 17 0
Warungu no 0
Adnyamathanha yes Y2 1
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes allophonic in initial position Ramirez, H. 2001. Uma gramatica do Baniwa do Icana, p.31 Patience Epps phonetic prenasalization in initial position