Distance contrasts in demonstratives (number)

Category
Nominal Categories - Definiteness and clusivity
Notes
Note the number of distances in the demonstrative system

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla 3 Jane Hill
Cupeño 2 Jane Hill
Luiseño 3 Jane Hill
Serrano 3 Jane Hill
Kitanemuk 3 Jane Hill
Kawaiisu 2 Jane Hill
Timbisha 3 Jane Hill
Western Mono 2 Jane Hill
Chemehuevi 2 Jane Hill
Southern Paiute 2 Jane Hill
Southern Ute 2 Jane Hill
Shoshone 4 Jane Hill
Comanche 3 Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone 4 Jane Hill
Northern Paiute 2 Jane Hill
Gabrielino 2 Jane Hill
Achagua 2 Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 25 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Resígaro 2 Distal and proximate Allin, 1976: 199 Aimee Lawrence
Bare 3 Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Warekena 2 Aikhenvald, 1998: 313 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco 3 -i for things close to the deictic center, -de for things outside of the center, and -ra for things outside of the deictic space. Galindo, 2002: 186 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no info Demonstratives are not discussed among other part of speech. Shauer & Shauer, 2000 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero 3 Mosonyi, 1987: p. 49 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana 2 proximal and distant Santos 2006: 188 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu 4 Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana 2 Aikhenvald, 2003: 206 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã 2 The demonstratives inflect for gender. Facundes, 2000: 355-357 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali 3 Proximal, medial, distal Mihas 2010:174 Daniel Smith
Maipure no info Author claims demonstratives are not common Zamponi 2003:22 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' 3 Duff-Tripp 1997:53 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure 3 can also mean disapproval and absence. When used with an NP, "it generally moves the argument further away from the speaker and hearer" Danielsen 2007: p315 Mitz Perez
Nanti 3 speaker and addressee proximal, speaker proximal, and speaker distal Michael, 2008. p. 304-305 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi 2 Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Palikur 2 Green and Green 1972:63 Daniel Valle
Yine yes 2 distances (male, female, plural; near and distant respectively) Matteson 1965:107 Daniel Smith
Añun 3 proximate, far, farther for masc./non masc. Patte 1989:56 Daniel Smith
Bora yes 2 contrasts: that, this (as well as these, which is perceived through conext). Thiesen also notes a contrast of "some." Seifart - 2005:126; Thiesen - 1996:36 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare 3 proximal, medial, distal for sing. and pl. Hall 1988: 101-3, 282-3 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi 2 near' and 'at a distance' Carson 1982: 92-93 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa 2 Tosantos 1977:20 Daniel Valle
Pemon 3 sere, this (close); muere, that (farther); chinek, that over there (really far) de Armellada 1999: 62 Shannon Dardis
Guna 2 distal, proximal Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso 3 3 distances (near, far, farthest) Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika 2 Frank 1985:35 Daniel Valle
Kogi 3 Celedón 1886:11 Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí 3 Quesada 2008:75 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani 2 proximal, distal Queixalós 1998:74-75 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna 3 Those are the nominative forms of the demosntratives. The demosntratives vary thier form according to the case they have (acc., loc., instr., etc.) Overall 2007:157 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá 2 Aguirre 1999:78 Daniel Valle Chamí
Waorani 3 Peeke 1973:129 Daniel Valle
Ingá 2 it appears that their system is similar to Spanish "aquí, aquel, este, esto, esta, etc.", however the data does not state this directly--this inference is, so far, borne out by the data Levinson 1974:13 Daniel Valle
Matses yes There is a three-term system. Fleck:258-9 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes 4 different distance forms Zúñiga 2006, p, 92 Daniel Valle
Páez 2 Rojas:197-8 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano 3 kay "close", tʃai "medial" and wak "far" Parker 1965:36 Daniel Valle
Tikuna 4 Montes 2004b:74 Daniel Valle
Urarina yes 3-way distinction Olawsky:216 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke 2 also a demonstrative for 'thing being talked about' ˄i Landaburu 1979: 135 Kelsey Neely
Puinave 2 Table 12; Table 13 Giron 2008: p175 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara 4 Huayhua Pari 2001: 205 Shannon Dardis
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang 0 proximal - distal Goncalves 2011:289 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto 3 3; close, distant, outside of view but audible Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Daniel Smith
Hup 3 near, far, intangible Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect 3 3, something like 'near', 'far', 'farther' (limited info) Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw 2 Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano 2 proximate 'this' and distant 'that'; 'the other' Miller 1999, p. 31 Amanda Novak Demonstrative pronouns distinguish between animate and inanimate, and two degrees of distance.They are inflected for number and gender or class.
Cubeo yes proximate and distal for animate referents Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 83 Chris Clack distal and proximate plus ananphoric for inanimate referents
Kotiria 0 Stenzel 2004, p. 184 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes 3 for inaminates (dist., prox., med.) and 2 for animates (dist., prox.) Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35 Amanda Novak; Chris Clack
Koreguaje yes 3, 'this' (near speaker), 'that' (a short distinction), 'that' (present but not visible, or someone mentioned above) Cook & Criswell 1993, p.32 Chris Clack The same demonstration was used to refer to nouns conretos that have already been named in a previous sentence (keep a classifier suffix to these.)
Barasano 3 The pronouns for animate referents distinguish two degrees of distance- proximate and distal; those for inanimate have an additional medial degree of distance. Jones & Jones 1991, p.32 Chris Clack
Tanimuca 2 Strom 1992, p.52 Chris Clack The locative pronouns 'here' and 'there'
Siona 1 Near, distant definite; indefinite. Wheeler - 1987:134 Amanda Meeks
Tukano 2 West and Welch 2004: 98-99 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes, 3 Ramirez 1994: 210 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes, 3 Goodwin-Gomez, p.56-57 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes, 3 Borgman 1990: p.151 Kelsey Neely
Surui 3 Van der Meer (?):12 Daniel Valle
Karitiana 2 Everett 2006:313-15 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu 2 proximal - distal Cruz 2011:146 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní 2 Ayala 1996:29-31 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama 2 proximate/non-proximate Vallejos 2010:214 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta yes done 1
Jingulu yes done 1
Wambaya yes done 1
Bunuba yes done 1
Walmajarri no info Done-Claire x
Nyulnyul yes done? 1
Warrwa yes done 1
Worrorra yes 56 done 1
Garrwa yes fpro15 done 1
Gooniyandi yes done 1
Warlpiri yes n34 done 1
Bardi yes done-Claire 1
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 74 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no info 71-73 done-Dan x
Yidiny yes done-Catherine 1
Yanyuwa yes 7 Done-Austin 1
Yandruwandha yes 94 Done-Dan 1
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga yes 16 Done-Dan 1
Woiwurrung yes 103 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu yes 90 done 1
Wemba-Wemba yes H 39 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu yes 31 done-Amalia 1
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi Yes 357 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 118-121 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta yes 194 Done-Amalia 1
Pintupi yes 105 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 72 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 128, 135 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang yes 11 done-Amalia 1
Muruwari yes 84 Done-Dan 1
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi yes 52 done 1
Martuthunira yes 110 done 1
Marrgany yes 305 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 255 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 83 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 395 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna yes 9 done-Amalia 1
Kalkatungu yes 34, 41b Done-Dan 1
Jaru yes 61, 75 Done-Amalia 1
Guugu-Yimidhirr yes 72 Done-Amalia 1
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr yes 274, 324 done-Amalia 1
Gugu-Badhun yes done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 92 1
Dyirbal yes 46-48 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 56, 58-59 done 1
Djinang Yes 38 Done-Amalia 1
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 60 done-Hannah 1
Dharuk
Dharawal yes 60 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 1
Darkinyung yes 24-25 done 1
Bularnu no 56 Done-Austin 0
Biri yes 28-9 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 84 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 120, 122 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 110 done 1
Nyikina yes done-Claire 1
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija Yes 31 Done-Amalia 1
Wathawurrung yes 144 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 92-95 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 35-37 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati yes 31 done 1
Katthang yes 50 done-Amalia 1
Panyjima yes 161 done 1
Ngarinyeri yes 30 done-Amalia 1
Kurrama yes 92 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul yes 17 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 305 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 49 Done- 1
WesternTorres yes FO 124 done 1
Wakaya yes 155 done 1
Yindjilindji yes 509 done 1
Bandjalang yes 70 Done-Amalia 1
Ngaatjatjara yes 25 done 1
Arrernte Yes 90 1
Kokatha Yes 50, 60 1
Karajarri Yes 252 Done-Amalia 1
Pitjantjatjara Yes G 104 1
Ritharrngu Yes 49 Done-Amalia 1
Warrgamay Yes 44 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra yes 879 Done-Amalia 1
Warnman Yes 40 Done-Amalia 1
Djapu yes 2 1
Bilinarra yes 4.2 done 1
Wiradjuri yes 42 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No info 67 Y2 x
Narungga Yes 56 done 1
Tharrkari Yes 16 1
Wajarri Yes 81 1
Warungu yes 173 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua 2 this' and 'that' Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa 4 Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps