Evidentiality: verb affix or clitic

Verbal Categories - Evidentiality


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla yes Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano yes Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono yes Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute yes Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche yes Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua n/a Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 91 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes There is one evidential, a reportive, which makes use of a verb affix. Allin, 1976: 336 Aimee Lawrence
Bare n/a Aikhenvald, 1995 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco yes Galindo, 2002: 172-178 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna n/a Shauer & Shauer, 1978: p. 42 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero n/a No evidentials Mosonyi, 1987: p. 63-69 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu n/a Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 800 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 289 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Only one evidential value. Facundes, 2000: 305-327, 379-410 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Apparently, no evidentials Payne 1981; Payne 1982; Payne 1983 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:41 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:120-4 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info Danielsen 2007 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes The reportive and quotative are clitics that take their own person marking. The inferential evidential is a second-position clitic. Michael, 2008. p. 323-326 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no info no information on evidentials Launey 2003 Daniel Smith
Yine no list of affixes does not mention evidentials Matteson 1965:71-80 Daniel Smith
Añun no info no discussion of evidentiality Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:73 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no The semantics of evidentials are conveyed by word choice. Hall 1988; Escoriaza 1959:15-18 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks No description of evidentials given in source
Makushi no Carson 1982; Abbott 1991 Melody Ann Ross, Amanda Meeks
Eñepa yes Payne 2012:349 Daniel Smith
Pemon no info de Armellada 1999 Daniel Smith
Guna yes affixes Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes Frank 1990:77 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no info Daniel Valle
Damana yes verb affix Daniel Valle
Sikuani no no evidence of evidentials Queixalós 1998, 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no info Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:471, 549 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá yes Mortensen 1999:86-7 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:16-17 Daniel Valle
Ingá yes Levinson 1978:25 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:327-426 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun yes Salas 1992, p.155, Zúñiga 2006 p. 155 Daniel Valle
Páez yes Jung:75-87 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes They can also attach to nouns Parker 1965:88-97 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:496 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave yes Giron 2008: p281 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Levin 2004: 7 Shannon Dardis Evidentials are included in the affix for tense and so are not independent affixes themselves.
Kakua yes Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Silva 2011/Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.94 Christopher Clack
Hup yes may be either; 'fluid' morphemes can appear in either inner suffix or enclitic position Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 64 Amanda Novak
Cubeo yes Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 32 Chris Clack
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 345 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.47-52 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.86-87 Chris Clack
Barasano yes The simplest form of the realis tenses is a verb stem with a tense-evidential marker followed by a suffix for gender and number. Jones & Jones 1991, p.83 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Strom 1992, p.90-91 Chris Clack
Siona no info Wheeler 1987 Daniel Smith
Tukano yes West and Welch 2004: 51-52; Ramirez 1997: 120 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 316-317 Kelsey Neely
Ninam yes Goodwin-Gomez, p.97 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 165, 170 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana yes it is a suffix Everett 2006:281-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Krivoshein and Acosta 2001:101 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama yes Vallejos 2010:494 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no info done x
Worrorra yes ms15 done 1
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no info done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no info done x
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi yes 129-136 done-Dan 1
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no info Done-Dan x
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no info done-Amalia x
Wirangu No done 0
Wemba-Wemba no info done-Amalia x
Warumungu no done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no info done X
Uradhi No 363 Y 0
Paakantyi no info Y-Hannah X
Pitta-Pitta N/A Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa yes 275 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no info Done-Dan x
Mayi-Yapi No done 0
Martuthunira no done 0
Marrgany no Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji n/a Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu n/a Done-Dan 0
Jaru n/a Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr N/A Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no info done-Jessica x
Yuwaalaraay No 74 0
Dyirbal No done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no done 0
Djinang No 167 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no done 0
Bularnu no Done-Austin 0
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no info done-Jessica x
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 258 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr n/a done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 35 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no info done x
Mathi-Mathi no 96 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no done-Amalia 0
Thanggati n/a done 0
Katthang no done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 208-209 done 1
Ngarinyeri No done-Amalia 0
Kurrama yes 176-9 done-Dan 1
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul yes 23 Done-Amalia 1
Gunya yes 326 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No Done- 0
WesternTorres n/a done 0
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang no Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 30 done 0
Arrernte No 49 0
Kokatha No 28 0
Karajarri No 165 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 8 0
Ritharrngu No 71 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 52-9 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu n/a 0
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 70 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 31 0
Wajarri No 96 0
Warungu n/a 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa yes Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps