Reciprocal: dedicated morpheme

Simple Clauses - Valence and voice - Decreasing
Verb becomes reciprocal through use of reciprocal morpheme associated with the verb (may be attached to the verb root). This morpheme is only used to mean reciprocal.


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute yes Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Not a morphological part of verb Wilson & Levinsohn 1992:115 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro yes Allin, 1976: 127 Ana Paul Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 38 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 259-261 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna yes Shauer 2000: 308, Shauer 1978: Ana Paula Brandao, Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 68-69 Ana Paula Brandão, Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana yes Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu yes Unclear: there is a morpheme -ira which is identified as a “reciprocal.” No discussion of whether this can also be used for reflexives (or what is used for reflexives. Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 263-266 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã yes Facundes, 2000: 327 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali yes Payne 1982:57 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no info Zamponi 2003 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Duff-Tripp 1997:97 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure yes Danielsen 2007:244 Daniel Valle
Nanti yes Requires obligatory plural number marking. Michael, 2008. p. 278 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi yes Brandão 2010:30 Daniel Valle
Palikur yes Green and Green 1972:6 Daniel Valle
Yine no info Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no info Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora yes Seifart - 2005:59 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 173 Daniel Smith
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 37-38 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:40-265-6 Daniel Valle
Guna no there is reflexive/reciprocal particle Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no reciprocal pronoun Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika yes This is the same verbal suffix used for the reciprocal Frank 1990:71 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí yes This seems to be an independent word Quesada 2008:71 Daniel Valle
Damana yes -i Daniel Valle
Sikuani no No apparent reciprocal is used. de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna yes Overall 2007:313 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no info Daniel Valle
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá yes The same suffix is also used to mark reflexives Levinson 1987:12 Daniel Valle
Matses yes Fleck:349 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.129-30 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano yes Parker 1965:75 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no info Daniel Valle
Urarina yes Olawsky:607-9 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes reciprocal/reflexive is a pronominal suffix -hə́ Landaburu 1979: 167 Kelsey Neely may actually be verbal, depends on status of Pn as proclitic or not
Puinave no The reciprocal construction follows the same strategy as the reflexive but it needs to be added an directional suffix Giron 2008: p366-367 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Deza Galindo 1992: 225, 226 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no info Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang yes particle Goncalves 2011:290 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.87, 102-103 Christopher Clack
Hup yes Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw yes reciprocal pronoun. Precedes the verb root, and forms a single phonological word. Reciprocal is a pronoun Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano yes Miller 1999, p. 119 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 105 Amanda Novak
Kotiria yes Stenzel 2004, p. 239 Amanda Novak
Makuna yes Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.64 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.69-80 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991,p.107-111 Chris Clack
Tanimuca yes Reciprocality may be overtly marked by -bua (reciprcal) following the verb root. Strom 1992, p.99 Chris Clack As with reflexives, some verbs are inherently reciprocal.
Siona no Wheeler - 1987:138-158 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no info Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami yes Ramirez 1994: 253 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no no special form for reciprocal Goodwin-Gomez: 47 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá yes Borgman 1990: 45 Kelsey Neely
Surui yes Van der Meer (?):14 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no info Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní yes Ayala 1996:140-1 Daniel Valle
Aché no but there is a particle /pitʃa/ which marks reciprocality Rossler 2008:77 Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:336 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no 105-6 done 0
Garrwa no 25 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no s163 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta yes 88-89 done 1
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 90 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no 123 Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha no 64-5 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 49-50 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung yes 73 done-Amalia 1
Wirangu No 109-110 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 47 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 43 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes 38 done 1
Uradhi Yes 375 Y 1
Paakantyi yes 186 Y-Hannah 1
Pitta-Pitta No 206 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no 120 done-Hannah 0
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta yes 109-110 Done-Hannah 1
Ngiyambaa yes 166 Done-Emily 1
Ngayawang No 14 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari yes 153 Done-Dan 1
Mayi-Yapi No 68 done 0
Martuthunira no 152-154 done 0
Marrgany yes 322 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre Yes 411 Done-Amalia 1
Kuku Yalanji yes 103 Done-Jessica 1
Kugu-Nganhcara yes 411 done-Amalia 1
Kaurna No 10 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no 86 Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 152-9 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 97 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 343 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun yes 142 done-Jessica 1
Yuwaalaraay Yes 82 1
Dyirbal yes 89 done-Amalia 1
Duungidjawu yes 87 done 1
Djinang No 125 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari yes 74 done-Hannah 1
Dharawal no 55 done-Hannah w Dhurga) 0
Darkinyung no 37 done 0
Bularnu no 101 Done-Austin 0
Biri yes 43 done-Jessica 1
Bidjara-Gungabula yes 38 done-Jessica 1
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana yes 152-3 Done-Dan 1
Alyawarr yes 57 done 1
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung yes 80 done 1
Mathi-Mathi yes 99 done-Amalia 1
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie yes 82 done-Amalia 1
Thanggati no 52-3 done 0
Katthang no 83 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 191 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 29 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 144-5 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta yes Done-Claire 1
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 330 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen No 94 Done- 0
WesternTorres no info done x
Wakaya no done 0
Yindjilindji no 503 done 0
Bandjalang No 91 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 61 done 0
Arrernte Yes 191 1
Kokatha no info x
Karajarri No 233 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No G 127 0
Ritharrngu No 61 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay Yes 74 Done-Amalia 1
Warluwarra no 867 Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 37 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 76 0
Bilinarra no 5.2.4 done 0
Wiradjuri yes 17 done 1
Aghu-Tharnggala No 90 Y2 0
Narungga No info done x
Tharrkari Yes 36 1
Wajarri No 108 0
Warungu yes 537 1
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no reflexive/reciprocal coreferential marker Payne and Payne 1990:271 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps