Pronominal subjects: pronouns in non-subject position

Simple Clauses - Pronouns and person marking
Pronominal subjects are free pronouns but do not normally occur in the position expected for full NP subjects


Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu yes Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 176 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 157-159 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no There are "complete pronouns" in addition to verbal prefixes, but no examples or indication of their uses. However, no differences between NP subjects with full pronouns and NP subjects with nouns Shauer & Shauer, 1978: 18 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero yes Free pronouns are used for emphasis. They precede the verb, while full NP subjects follow the verb. Mosonyi, 1987: p. 61-62 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos 2006 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no No distinction between pronominal subjects and subjects that are full NPs in the sentence structure given in Mansen and Captain (2000). Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 803 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana yes Aikhenvald, 2003: 565 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 464 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1982:2324; Payne 1981:34 Amanda Meeks
Maipure yes Zamponi 2003:21-37 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' yes Pronouns usually occur before the verb whereas nouns occur after the verb Duff-Tripp 1997:158 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no Danielsen 2007:92-6 Daniel Valle
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 342-344 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no info Rowan 1978, Rowan and Burgess 1979, Brandão 2010 Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:65 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005:52-54 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 281 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 99 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no info Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999:16-25 Daniel Valle
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso yes Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1990:25 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no info Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:68-72 Daniel Valle
Damana no Daniel Valle
Sikuani no Queixalós 2000 Daniel Smith
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:214 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:43 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani no info Daniel Valle
Ingá no Levinson 1974, 1976, 1976b. Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:240 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Salas 1992, p.116; Zúñiga 2006, p. 96-9 Daniel Valle
Páez no Jung:136-8 Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Parker 1965:23-6 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2005:133-135 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Waunana no Daniel Valle
Andoke no info Kelsey Neely
Puinave no Giron 2008: p169, 206, 228 Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no no person inflection Goncalves 2011 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no Minor and Minor 1982. p.78-80 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 123 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 142 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 217 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.35-36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993, p.31-32 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.108 Chris Clack The subject occurs before the verb when it is in special focus.
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.115 Chris Clack
Siona no Wheeler - 1970:141 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no Ramirez 1997 Kelsey Neely no evidence for this
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994 Kelsey Neely
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.47-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no info Kelsey Neely
Surui no Van der Meer (?):7 Daniel Smith
Karitiana no Everett 2006:343-57 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:133-134 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:28-9, 46-7 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no info done X
Garrwa no info done X
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 104 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no done-Dan 0
Yidiny not done yet done-Catherine X
Yanyuwa no Done-Austin 0
Yandruwandha n/a 47 Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 73=74 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu No 71 done 0
Wemba-Wemba yes H 52 done-Amalia 1
Warumungu No 27 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara yes? r26 done 1
Uradhi No 352 Y 0
Paakantyi no 156, 159-160 Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 214 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi yes 103 done-Hannah 1
Nyungar no info done x
Nhanta no Done-Hannah 0
Ngiyambaa no 120 on Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari n/a Done-Dan 0
Mayi-Yapi No 64 done 0
Martuthunira no 100-109 done 0
Marrgany yes 335 Done-Amalia 1
Kuuk Thaayorre No 216 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 397 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 16 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu yes? cf 43 (3.37 and 8) Done-Dan 1
Jaru no info Done-Amalia x
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 65 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gumbaynggirr no 342 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 51 0
Dyirbal No 291 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 52 done 0
Djinang No 136 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharawal no info 49-50 done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 28 done 0
Bularnu no 87 Done-Austin 0
Biri no 23-7 done-Jessica 0
Bidjara-Gungabula no done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana N/A Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr n/a 129 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Yulparija No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 74 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 45 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 81 done 0
Katthang no 63-65 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima yes 156-159 done 1
Ngarinyeri No 43 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no 73-82 done-Dan 0
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 42 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya yes 335 Done-Amalia 1
Kunjen yes 92 Done- 1
WesternTorres n/a done 0
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 106 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 55 done 0
Arrernte No 101 0
Kokatha No 65 0
Karajarri No 227 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 22 0
Ritharrngu No 43 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 45 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no Done-Amalia 0
Warnman No 13 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no info x
Bilinarra n/a done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 67 Y2 0
Narungga No 74 done 0
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 77 0
Warungu n/a 370-1 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no Payne and Payne 1990:361 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps