Formal/informal distinction in pronouns

Category
Nominal Categories - Pronominal categories
Notes
Polite pronominal variants or differential avoidance of pronouns

Languages

Language Feature Status Grammatical Notes Source Created By Etymology Notes General Notes Phylogenetic Code
Cahuilla no Jane Hill
Cupeño no Jane Hill
Luiseño no Jane Hill
Serrano no Jane Hill
Kitanemuk no Jane Hill
Kawaiisu no Jane Hill
Timbisha no Jane Hill
Western Mono no Jane Hill
Chemehuevi no Jane Hill
Southern Paiute no Jane Hill
Southern Ute no Jane Hill
Shoshone no Jane Hill
Comanche no Jane Hill
Idaho Shoshone no Jane Hill
Northern Paiute no Jane Hill
Gabrielino no Jane Hill
Achagua no Wilson & Levinsohn 1992: 23 Ana Paula Brandao
Resígaro no Allin, 1976: 176-177 Aimee Lawrence
Bare no Aikhenvald, 1995: 22 Ana Paula Brandao
Warekena no Aikhenvald, 1998: 322 Ana Paula Brandao
Piapoco no Galindo, 2002: 184 Aimee Lawrence
Yukuna no Shauer & Shauer 2000: p. 518 Aimee Lawrence
Yavitero no Mosonyi, 1987: p. 41, 48 Aimee Lawrence
Wapishana no Santos, 2006: 185 Ana Paula Brandao, Amanda Meeks
Wayuu no Mansen & Captain, 2000: p. 798 Aimee Lawrence
Tariana no Aikhenvald, 2003: 177 Aimee Lawrence
Apurinã no Facundes, 2000: 345-346 Aimee Lawrence
Asheninka Apurucayali no Payne 1981:34; Payne 1983:9192 Amanda Meeks
Maipure no Zamponi 2003:21 Amanda Meeks
Yanesha' no Duff-Tripp 1997:61-8 Daniel Valle
Kinikinau no info Daniel Valle
Baure no info more likely not Danielsen 2007 Mitz Perez
Nanti no Michael, 2008. p. 348 Aimee Lawrence
Paresi no Rowan 1978:xiii Daniel Valle
Palikur no Launey 2003:65 Daniel Smith
Yine no Matteson 1965:106 Daniel Smith
Añun no Patte 1989:55 Daniel Smith
Bora no Seifart - 2005: 52-55 Amanda Meeks
Makiritare no Hall 1988: 282 Melody Ann Ross
Makushi no Abbott 1991: 99 Melody Ann Ross
Eñepa no Tosantos 1977:19-20 Daniel Valle
Pemon no de Armellada 1999: 12 Shannon Dardis
Guna no Smith texts Daniel Smith
Naso no Quesada 2000 Daniel Smith
Ika no Frank 1985:34 Daniel Valle
Kogi no info Daniel Valle
Cabecar no Bourland 1976:56 Daniel Valle
Guaymí no Quesada 2008:69 Daniel Valle
Damana no no pronoun that states formality, but honorifics may be present Daniel Valle
Sikuani no de Kondo (Vol.1,2) - 1985; Queixalós - 2000 Amanda Meeks
Macaguan no Buenaventura - 1993 Amanda Meeks
Aguaruna no Overall 2007:154 Daniel Valle
Northern Emberá no Mortensen 1999:42-3 Daniel Valle Catío
Waorani yes Peeke 1973:128 Daniel Valle There is a "honorific" form of pronouns but it seems that they do not distinguish number
Ingá no Levinson 1978:6 Daniel Valle
Matses no Fleck:241 Daniel Valle
Mapudungun no Zúñiga 2006, p. 96-7 Daniel Valle
Páez no info Daniel Valle
Quechua Ayacuchano no Perroud 1972:37-8 Daniel Valle
Tikuna no Montes 2004b:88-89 Daniel Valle
Urarina no Olawsky:213 Daniel Valle
Waunana no info Daniel Valle
Andoke yes kə̃ (2pl) can also be used with females of child-bearing age, not older, not younger - possibly encodes the possibility that the woman in question is pregnant (mother + fetus = plural in some respect?) Landaburu 1979: 150 Kelsey Neely
Puinave no info Mitz Perez, Daniel Valle
Central Aymara no Huayhua Pari 2001: 202 to 204 Shannon Dardis
Kakua no Bolaños fieldnotes Katherine Bolaños
Kaingang no info Goncalves 2011:12 Daniel Smith
Minica Witoto no no distinction between familiar and formal Minor and Minor 1982. p.10 Christopher Clack
Hup no Epps 2008 Pattie Epps
Nadëb/Roçado dialect no Weir 1984 Katherine Bolaños
Dâw no Martins 2004 Katherine Bolaños
Desano no Miller 1999, p. 30 Amanda Novak
Cubeo no Morse & Maxwell 1999, p. 80 Amanda Novak
Kotiria no Stenzel 2004, p. 161 Amanda Novak
Makuna no Smothermon & Smothermon 1993, p.36 Chris Clack
Koreguaje no Cook & Criswell 1993 31-33 Chris Clack
Barasano no Jones & Jones 1991, p.31 Chris Clack
Tanimuca no Strom 1992, p.34 Chris Clack
Siona no There is a way to achieve politeness, however, by using the an indicative mood instead of general imperative. Wheeler - 1970:141-142, 157 Amanda Meeks
Tukano no West and Welch 2004: 19-20 Kelsey Neely
Yanomami no Ramirez 1994: 209-210 Kelsey Neely no mention of polite pronouns
Ninam no Goodwin-Gomez, p.50-51 Kelsey Neely
Sanumá no Borgman 1990: p.150 Kelsey Neely
Surui no info Daniel Valle
Karitiana no Everett 2006:300-4 Daniel Valle
Nheengatu no Cruz 2011:141 - 145 Daniel Smith
Paraguayan Guaraní no Ayala 1996:28 Daniel Valle
Aché no info Daniel Valle
Kokama no Vallejos 2010:201-213 Daniel Smith
Nyangumarta no done 0
Jingulu no done 0
Wambaya no done 0
Bunuba no done 0
Walmajarri no Done-Claire 0
Nyulnyul no done? 0
Warrwa no done 0
Worrorra no ms7.2 done 0
Garrwa no fpro1 done 0
Gooniyandi no done 0
Warlpiri no BS151 done 0
Bardi no done-Claire 0
Yugambeh Y?
Yorta Yorta no 73 done 0
Yir Yoront Done-Dan
Yindjibarndi no 72 done-Dan 0
Yidiny no done-Catherine 0
Yanyuwa no info Done-Austin x
Yandruwandha no Done-Dan 0
Yan-nhangu not yet
Yalarnnga no 16 Done-Dan 0
Woiwurrung no 70 done-Amalia 0
Wirangu yes 79 done 1
Wemba-Wemba no H 37-8 done-Amalia 0
Warumungu No 28-29 done-Amalia 0
Wangkumara no r4-6 done 0
Uradhi No 354 Y 0
Paakantyi no Y-Hannah 0
Pitta-Pitta No 194 Done-Amalia 0
Pintupi no info done-Hannah x
Nyungar no d51 done 0
Nhanta no info Done-Hannah x
Ngiyambaa no 123, 126 Done-Emily 0
Ngayawang No 10 done-Amalia 0
Muruwari no 90 Done-Dan 0
Mpakwithi
Mayi-Yapi No 53-54 done 0
Martuthunira no 279 done 0
Marrgany No 303 Done-Amalia 0
Kuuk Thaayorre No 87 Done-Amalia 0
Kuku Yalanji no 74 Done-Jessica 0
Kugu-Nganhcara No 397 done-Amalia 0
Kaurna No 7-8 done-Amalia 0
Kalkatungu no Done-Dan 0
Jaru no 215 Done-Amalia 0
Guugu-Yimidhirr No 66 Done-Amalia 0
Gureng Gureng no info Done-Amalia x
Gupapuyngu
Gumbaynggirr no 283 done-Amalia 0
Gugu-Badhun no done-Jessica 0
Yuwaalaraay No 47 0
Dyirbal No 50 done-Amalia 0
Duungidjawu no 51 done 0
Djinang No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Djabugay done
Diyari no done-Hannah 0
Dharuk
Dharawal no info 49-52 done-Hannah w Dhurga) x
Darkinyung no 28-29 done 0
Bularnu no info 50 Done-Austin x
Biri no info done-Jessica x
Bidjara-Gungabula no 83 done-Jessica 0
Batyala no info Done-Amalia x
Arabana no 117-8 Done-Dan 0
Alyawarr no 92 done 0
Nyikina no done-Claire 0
Yawuru Y-Claire
Ngarinyin
Yulparija No 29 Done-Amalia 0
Wathawurrung no 75 done 0
Mathi-Mathi no 90 done-Amalia 0
Hunter River and Lake Macquarie no 40 done-Amalia 0
Thanggati no 23 done 0
Katthang no 64 done-Amalia 0
Panyjima no 214-215 done 0
Ngarinyeri No 23 done-Amalia 0
Kurrama no info done-Dan x
Yingkarta no Done-Claire 0
Githabul No 15 Done-Amalia 0
Gunya No 304 Done-Amalia 0
Kunjen No 87 Done- 0
WesternTorres no FO 136 done 0
Wakaya no info done x
Yindjilindji no info done x
Bandjalang No 78 Done-Amalia 0
Ngaatjatjara No 52 done 0
Arrernte Yes 101 1
Kokatha No 48 0
Karajarri No 30 Done-Amalia 0
Pitjantjatjara No Y 18 0
Ritharrngu No 44 Done-Amalia 0
Warrgamay No 41 Done-Amalia 0
Warluwarra no info Done-Amalia x
Warnman No 33 Done-Amalia 0
Djapu no 52 0
Bilinarra no 5.1.1 done 0
Wiradjuri no info done x
Aghu-Tharnggala No 62 Y2 0
Narungga No 58 done 0
Tharrkari No 16 0
Wajarri No 71 0
Warungu no 174-5 0
Adnyamathanha Y2
Yagua no info Payne and Payne 1990 Daniel Smith
Baniwa no Ramirez 2001 Patience Epps